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Journal Articles

Features of particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) version 3.02

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Tsai, P.-E.; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(6), p.684 - 690, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:153 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have upgraded many features of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and released the new version as PHITS3.02. The accuracy and the applicable energy ranges of the code were greatly improved and extended, respectively, owing to the revisions to the nuclear reaction models and the incorporation of new atomic interaction models. In addition, several user-supportive functions were developed, such as new tallies to efficiently obtain statistically better results, radioisotope source-generation function, and software tools useful for applying PHITS to medical physics. In this paper, we summarize the basic features of PHITS3.02, especially those of the physics models and the functions implemented after the release of PHITS2.52 in 2013.

Journal Articles

Recent improvements of particle and heavy ion transport code system: PHITS

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Okumura, Keisuke; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences (Internet), 153, p.06008_1 - 06008_6, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:8.34

Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, has been developed under the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. It can deal with the transport of nearly all particles up to 1 TeV (per nucleon for ion) using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. More than 2,500 researchers and technicians have used the code for a variety of applications such as accelerator design, radiation shielding and protection, medical physics, and space and geosciences. This paper briefly summarizes physics models and functions newly implemented in PHITS between versions 2.52 and 2.82.

Journal Articles

Overview of the PHITS code and application to nuclear data; Radiation damage calculation for materials

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Furuta, Takuya; Abe, Shinichiro; Kai, Takeshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2016-004, p.63 - 69, 2016/09

A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. PHITS users apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This presentation briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some new models such as muon-induced nuclear reaction model and a $$gamma$$ de-excitation model EBITEM. We will also present the radiation damage cross sections for materials, PKA spectra and kerma factors calculated by PHITS under the IAEA-CRP activity titled "Primary radiation damage cross section."

Journal Articles

Overview of particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; et al.

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 82, p.110 - 115, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:12.63(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through a collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for particular purposes, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

Journal Articles

Improvements and developments of physics models in PHITS for space applications

Sihver, L.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*

Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference 2015, 8 Pages, 2015/06

Precise predictions of the radiation environment inside space vehicles, and inside the human body, are essential when planning for long term deep space missions. Upgrading of nuclear reaction models in Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was essential for application to radiological protection in space. In this paper, we present some physics models which have been recently improved and developed in PHITS. The items introduced in this paper are improvements of Kurotama Hybrid model, adopting of the Intra-Nuclear Cascade of Liege (INCL) model, development of statistical multi-fragmentation model (SMM) and combining the INCL and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculation. The results of verification studies for these models are also presented.

Journal Articles

Overview of particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2014-002, p.69 - 74, 2015/02

A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries. More than 1,000 researchers apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This presentation briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and a radiation damage calculation function.

Journal Articles

Current status of the "Hybrid Kurotama model" for total reaction cross sections

Sihver, L.*; Kohama, Akihisa*; Iida, Kei*; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro*; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Niita, Koji*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 334, p.34 - 39, 2014/09

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:25.29(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Accurate calculations of the nucleon + nucleus and nucleus + nucleus total reaction cross sections are of great importance for designing accelerator facilities and estimating dose in particle therapy with particle and heavy ion transport calculations, because the probability of nuclear reactions in the calculations depends on the cross sections. The Kurotama model assumes a target nucleus to be Black Sphere (BS), and gives the total reaction cross sections systematically using its radius determined from proton-nucleus elastic scattering data. However, the BS model breaks down below around 100 MeV/u. In this study, we developed the "hybrid Kurotama" model by connecting the BS model to the semi-empirical model of Tripathi et al. at low energies. The model has been tested against available p + He, p + nucleus, and nucleus + nucleus data and an overall better agreement has been found than for earlier published models. This model is suitable to be used in particle transport calculations.

Journal Articles

Overview of the PHITS code and its application to medical physics

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Noda, Shusaku; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Chiba, Satoshi; et al.

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.879 - 882, 2014/04

PHITS is a general purpose 3-dimensional Monte-Carlo particle transport simulation code developed under collaboration of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and a couple of other institutes in Japan and Sweden. General features of the PHITS code together with details of the established model will be presented at the meeting.

Journal Articles

Method for the prediction of the effective dose equivalent to the crew of the International Space Station

El-Jaby, S.*; Tomi, L.*; Sihver, L.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Richardson, R. B.*; Lewis, B. J.*

Advances in Space Research, 53(5), p.810 - 817, 2014/03

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:73.79(Engineering, Aerospace)

This paper describes a methodology for assessing the pre-mission exposure of space crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in terms of an effective dose equivalent. In this approach, the PHITS Monte Carlo code was used to assess the particle transport of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and trapped radiation for solar maximum and minimum conditions through an aluminum shield thickness. From these predicted spectra, and using fluence-to-doseconversion factors, a scaling ratio of the effective dose equivalent rate to the ICRU ambient doseequivalent rate at a 10 mm depth was determined. Only contributions from secondary neutrons, protons, and alpha particles were considered in this analysis.

Journal Articles

Particle and heavy ion transport code system, PHITS, version 2.52

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 50(9), p.913 - 923, 2013/09

 Times Cited Count:443 Percentile:0.02(Nuclear Science & Technology)

An upgraded version of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS 2.52, was developed and released to public. The new version has been greatly improved from the previous released version, PHITS 2.24, in terms of not only the code itself but also the contents of its package such as attached data libraries. Owing to these improvements, PHITS became a more powerful tool for particle transport simulation applicable to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research.

Journal Articles

ISSCREM: International Space Station Cosmic Radiation Exposure Model

El-Jaby, S.*; Lewis, B. J.*; Tomi, L.*; Sihver, L.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Lee, K. T.*; Johnson, A. S.*

Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference 2013 (Internet), 18 Pages, 2013/03

A semi-empirical model is derived from operational data collected aboard the International Space Station (ISS) with the U.S. tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The model provides daily and cumulative mission predictions of the operational dose equivalent that space-crew may receive from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and trapped radiation (TR) sources as a function of the ISS orbit.

Journal Articles

Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments outside the ISS using PHITS

Puchalska, M.*; Sihver, L.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Berger, T.*; Reitz, G.*

Advances in Space Research, 50(4), p.489 - 495, 2012/08

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:31.28(Engineering, Aerospace)

We will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported experiment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors, mimicking a human head and torso. The results confirm previous calculations and measurements which indicate that PHITS is a suitable tool for estimations of dose received from cosmic radiation and when performing shielding design studies of spacecraft.

Journal Articles

Simulations of absorbed dose on the phantom surface of MATROSHKA-R experiments at the ISS

Kol$'i$skov$'a$(Mr$'a$zov$'a$), Z.*; Sihver, L.*; Ambro$v{z}$ov$'a$, I.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Spurn$'y$, F.*; Shurshakov, V. A.*

Advances in Space Research, 49(2), p.230 - 236, 2012/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:27.99(Engineering, Aerospace)

In this paper we will present results of simulations of long term dose measurement inside the spherical phantom MATROSHKA-R located inside the crew cabin of ISS. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) has been used for this purpose. The simulation will be also compared with the experimental data measured with thermoluminescence and plastic nuclear track detectors inside and on the surface of the phantom in year 2006; both, absorbed dose and measured LET spectra will be presented.

Journal Articles

Applications of the microdosimetric function implemented in the macroscopic particle transport simulation code PHITS

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Watanabe, Ritsuko; Sihver, L.*; Niita, Koji*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 88(1-2), p.143 - 150, 2012/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:27.12(Biology)

The microdosimetric function of PHITS has been applied to the biological dose estimation for charged-particle therapy and the risk estimation for astronauts. The former application was performed in combination with the microdosimetric kinetic model, while the latter was done with the radiation quality factor expressed as a function of lineal energy. Owing to the unique features of the microdosimetric function, the improved PHITS has a potential to establish more sophisticated systems for the radiological protection in space as well as the treatment planning of charged-particle therapy.

Journal Articles

Production of a fluorescence probe in ion-beam radiolysis of aqueous coumarin-3-carboxylic acid solution, 2; Effects of nuclear fragmentation and its simulation with PHITS

Maeyama, Takuya*; Yamashita, Shinichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Baldacchino, G.*; Sihver, L.*; Murakami, Takeshi*; Katsumura, Yosuke

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 80(12), p.1352 - 1357, 2011/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:30.73(Chemistry, Physical)

Coumari-3-carboxylic acid scavenges OH radical produced in water radiolysis, leading to production of a fluorescence probe at almost constant ratio relative to the amount of the scavenged OH radicals. This was applied in estimation of OH radical yield in water radiolysis especially with therapeutic heavy ions of GeV-class energies, i.e. $$^{12}$$C$$^{6+}$$ beams of 135, 290 and 400 MeV/u. OH yields upstream of the Bragg peaks decreased with increasing penetration depth of the projectile ions while that downstream suddenly jumped up to near the value for low-LET radiations such as $$gamma$$-rays. This is due to low-LET secondary fragmentation ions produced during long trajectory of the primary projectile C ion. Quantitative explanation by nuclear fragmentation simulations with PHITS code was attempted and resulted in 15-45% underestimation in the region behind the Bragg peaks, which would be due to the difference in geometries between irradiations of the sample solutions and dosimetry with a small ionization chamber.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of dose rate reduction in a spacecraft compartment due to additional water shield

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji*; Shurshakov, V. A.*; Yarmanova, E. N.*; Nikolaev, I. V.*; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Sihver, L.*; Mancusi, D.*; Endo, Akira; Matsuda, Norihiro; et al.

Cosmic Research, 49(4), p.319 - 324, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:36.85(Engineering, Aerospace)

HZE particle transport codes are the indispensable tool in the shielding design of spacecrafts. We are therefore developing a general-purpose Monte Carlo code PHITS, which can deal with the transports of all kinds of hadrons and heavy ions with energies up to 200 GeV/n in 3-dimensional phase spaces. The applicability of PHITS to space researches has been well verified by comparing the neutron spectra in spacecrafts calculated by the code with the corresponding experimental data. Recently, PHITS was employed in the estimation of radiation fields in the Russian Service Module in ISS. The results of the estimation indicate that PHITS can reproduce experimental data of the dose reduction rates due to water shielding attached on the wall of the Russian crew cabin fairly well. The details of the calculation procedures will be given in the presentation, together with the results of other applications of PHITS to the space exploration.

Journal Articles

Dose estimation for astronauts using dose conversion coefficients calculated with the PHITS code and the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms

Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Sihver, L.*; Niita, Koji*

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, 50(1), p.115 - 123, 2011/03

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:48.76(Biology)

Absorbed-dose and dose-equivalent rates for astronauts were estimated by multiplying fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients and cosmic-ray fluxes around spacecrafts. The accuracies of the obtained absorbed-dose and dose-equivalent rates were clearly verified by various experimental data measured both inside and outside spacecrafts. The calculation quantitatively shows that the effective doses for astronauts are significantly greater than their corresponding effective dose equivalents because of the numerical incompatibility between the radiation quality factors and the radiation weighting factors.

Journal Articles

Recent developments of the PHITS code

Niita, Koji*; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Matsuda, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Mancusi, D.*; Sihver, L.*

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 1, p.1 - 6, 2011/02

PHITS, the general-purpose Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, has been used for various research fields such as radiation science, accelerator and its shielding design, space research, medical application, material research, and so on. Further developments and improvements for general-purpose, multi-particles, wide-energy range, reliable and easy-use Monte-Carlo calculations, are actively performed by the collaboration between RIST, JAEA, KEK, and Chalmers University. PHITS provides also accurate biological-dose and DPA value just by switching the build-in function, and it is an advance to other codes. Recent developments of the PHITS code will be presented, especially integrating EGS5 and high energy physics extension.

Journal Articles

PHITS simulations of the Matroshka experiment

Gustafsson, K.*; Sihver, L.*; Mancusi, D.*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Reitz, G.*; Berger, T.*

Advances in Space Research, 46(10), p.1266 - 1272, 2010/11

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:36.42(Engineering, Aerospace)

A method for benchmarking and developing the code is to simulate experiments performed in space or on Earth. We have carried out the PHITS simulations of the Matroshka experiment which focus on determining the radiation load on astronauts inside and outside the International Space Station by using a torso of a tissue equivalent human phantom, filled with active and passive detectors located in the positions of critical tissues and organs. We will present status and results of our simulations.

JAEA Reports

PHITS: Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, Version 2.23

Niita, Koji*; Matsuda, Norihiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Iwase, Hiroshi*; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Sihver, L.*

JAEA-Data/Code 2010-022, 189 Pages, 2010/10

JAEA-Data-Code-2010-022.pdf:1.89MB

The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System PHITS has been developed under the collaboration of JAEA, RIST and KEK, as an upgraded version of the NMTC/JAM code developed. PHITS can deal with the transport of all particles and heavy ions over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries. The geometrical configuration of the simulation can be setup by GG (General Geometry) or CG (Combinatorial Geometry). Various quantities such as heat, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally". The code also has a function to draw 2D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using ANGEL. Owing to these features, PHITS has been widely used for various purposes such as designs of accelerator shielding, radiation therapy and space exploration. This document provides the manual of PHITS.

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