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Eustatic change modulates exhumation in the Japanese Alps

King, G. E.*; Ahadi, F.*; 末岡 茂; Herman, F.*; Anderson, L.*; Gautheron, C.*; 塚本 すみ子*; Stalder, N.*; Biswas, R.*; Fox, M.*; et al.

Geology, 51(2), p.131 - 135, 2023/02

The exhumation of bedrock is controlled by the interplay between tectonics, surface processes, and climate. The highest exhumation rates of centimeters per year are recorded in zones of highly active tectonic convergence such as the Southern Alps of New Zealand or the Himalayan syntaxes, where high rock uplift rates combine with very active surface processes. Using a combination of different thermochronometric systems including trapped-charge thermochronometry, we show that such rates also occur in the Hida Mountain Range, Japanese Alps. Our results imply that centimeter per year rates of exhumation are more common than previously thought. Our thermochronometry data allow the development of time series of exhumation rate changes at the time scale of glacial-interglacial cycles, which show a fourfold increase in baseline rates to rates of $$sim$$10 mm/yr within the past $$sim$$65 k.y. This increase in exhumation rate is likely explained by knickpoint propagation due to a combination of very high precipitation rates, climatic change, sea-level fall, range-front faulting, and moderate rock uplift. Our data resolve centimeter-scale sub-Quaternary exhumation rate changes, which show that in regions with horizontal convergence, coupling between climate, surface processes, and tectonics can exert a significant and rapid effect on rates of exhumation.


Third international challenge to model the medium- to long-range transport of radioxenon to four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring stations

Maurer, C.*; Galmarini, S.*; Solazzo, E.*; Ku$'s$mierczyk-Michulec, J.*; Bar$'e$, J.*; Kalinowski, M.*; Schoeppner, M.*; Bourgouin, P.*; Crawford, A.*; Stein, A.*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 255, p.106968_1 - 106968_27, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Environmental Sciences)

2015, 2016年のモデル比較演習を経て、2019年に包括的なXe-133大気輸送モデル比較試験を企画した。欧米の医療用RI製造施設であるIREやCNLからの排出の影響が大きいヨーロッパと北米にある4つのCTBT国際モニタリングシステム局を対象とし、約30の参加モデルの結果の比較とアンサンブルを実施した。第2回ATMチャレンジの教訓により、参加者は事務局の指定する条件に基づいて計算を実施した。その結果、IREとCNLからの正確な日別スタック排出量を使用しても、拡散過程における誤差、残存排出源の適切な特性化、長いIMSサンプリング時間(12$$sim$$24時間)のデメリットと相殺され、平均すればスコアの改善が見られないことが確認された。一方、任意のモデル計算結果を用いたアンサンブルを実施したところ、今回対象とした4つの観測所でのXe-133バックグラウンドを十分に予測できることが確認できた。有効なアンサンブルのサイズは5以下であった。


On the adsorption and reactivity of element 114, flerovium

Yakushev, A.*; Lens, L.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Khuyagbaatar, J.*; J$"a$ger, E.*; Krier, J.*; Runke, J.*; Albers, H. M.*; 浅井 雅人; Block, M.*; et al.

Frontiers in Chemistry (Internet), 10, p.976635_1 - 976635_11, 2022/08

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:89.68(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)



Improved measurement of the $$0_2^+rightarrow0_1^+$$ $$E$$0 transition strength for $$^{72}$$Se using the SPICE spectrometer

Smallcombe, J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.*; Korten, W.*; Singh, P.*; Ali, F. A.*; Andreoiu, C.*; Ansari, S.*; Ball, G. C.*; Barton, C. J.*; Bhattacharjee, S. S.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(1), p.014312_1 - 014312_9, 2022/07

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:56.18(Physics, Nuclear)

The selenium isotopes lie at the heart of a tumultuous region of the nuclear chart where shape coexistence effects grapple with neutron-proton pairing correlations, triaxiality, and the impending proton dripline. In this work a study of $$^{72}$$Se by internal conversion electron and $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy was undertaken with the SPICE and TIGRESS arrays. New measurements of the branching ratio and lifetime of the $$0_2^+$$ state were performed yielding a determination of $$rho^2(E0; 0_2^+{rightarrow}0_1^+)=29(3)$$ milliunits. Two state mixing calculations were performed that highlighted the importance of interpretation of such $$E0$$ strength values in the context of shape-coexistence.


Damped Dirac magnon in the metallic kagome antiferromagnet FeSn

Do, S.-H.*; 金子 耕士; 梶本 亮一; 蒲沢 和也*; Stone, M. B.*; Lin, J. Y. Y.*; 伊藤 晋一*; 益田 隆嗣*; Samolyuk, G. D.*; Dagotto, E.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 105(18), p.L180403_1 - L180403_6, 2022/05

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:93.63(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We report inelastic neutron scattering studies of the prototypical kagome magnetic metal FeSn. The spectra display well defined spin waves extending up to 120 meV. Above this energy, the spin waves become progressively broadened, reflecting interactions with the Stoner continuum. Using linear spin wave theory, we determine an effective spin Hamiltonian that explains the measured dispersion. This analysis indicates that the Dirac magnon at the K point occurs on the brink of a region where well defined spin waves become unobservable. Our results emphasize the influential role of itinerant carriers on the topological spin excitations of metallic kagome magnets.


French-Japanese experimental collaboration on fuel-coolant interactions in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Johnson, M.*; Delacroix, J.*; Journeau, C.*; Brayer, C.*; Clavier, R.*; Montazel, A.*; Pluyette, E.*; 松場 賢一; 江村 優軌; 神山 健司

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2022/04



Patterns of gene content and co-occurrence constrain the evolutionary path toward animal association in Candidate Phyla Radiation bacteria

Jaffe, A. L.*; Thomas, A. D.*; He, C.*; Keren, R.*; Valentin-Alvarado, L. E.*; Munk, P.*; Bouma-Gregson, K.*; Farag, I. F.*; 天野 由記; Sachdeva, R.*; et al.

mBio, 12(4), p.e00521-21_1 - e00521-21_21, 2021/08

 被引用回数:15 パーセンタイル:92.24(Microbiology)

Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria are small, likely episymbiotic organisms found across Earth's ecosystems. Despite their prevalence, the distribution of CPR lineages across habitats and the genomic signatures of transitions amongst these habitats remain unclear. Hear, we expand the genome inventory for Absconditabacteria (SR1), Gracilibacteria, and Saccharibacteria (TM7), CPR bacteria known to occur in both animal-associated and environmental microbiomes, and investigate variation in gene content with habitat of origin. By overlaying phylogeny with habitat information, we show that bacteria from these three lineages have undergone multiple transitions from environmental habitats into animal microbiomes. Based on co-occurrence analyses of hundreds of metagenomes, we extend the prior suggestion that certain TM7 have broad bacterial host ranges and constrain possible host relationships for SR1 and Gracilibacteria. Full-proteome analyses show that animal-associated TM7 have smaller gene repertoires than their environmental counterparts and are enriched in numerous protein families, including those likely functioning in amino acid metabolism, phage defense, and detoxification of peroxide. In contrast, some freshwater TM7 encodea putative rhodopsin. For protein families exhibiting the clearest patterns of differential habitat distribution, we compared protein and species phylogenies to estimate the incidence of lateral gene transfer and genomic loss occurring over the species tree. These analyses suggest that habitat transitions were likely not accompanied by large transfer or loss events, but rather were associated with continuous proteome remodeling. Thus, we speculate that CPR habitat transitions were driven largely by availability of suitable host taxa, and were reinforced by acquisition and loss of some capacities.


Expansion of agriculture in northern cold-climate regions; A Cross-sectoral perspective on opportunities and challenges

Unc, A.*; Altdorff, D.*; Abakumov, E.*; Adl, S.*; Baldursson, S.*; Bechtold, M.*; Cattani, D. J.*; Firbank, L. G.*; Grand, S.*; Gudjonsdottir, M.*; et al.

Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems (Internet), 5, p.663448_1 - 663448_11, 2021/07

 被引用回数:19 パーセンタイル:90.64(Food Science & Technology)



Competition between allowed and first-forbidden $$beta$$ decays of $$^{208}$$At and expansion of the $$^{208}$$Po level scheme

Brunet, M.*; Podoly$'a$k, Zs.*; Berry, T. A.*; Brown, B. A.*; Carroll, R. J.*; Lica, R.*; Sotty, Ch.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Borge, M. J. G.*; Cubiss, J. G.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 103(5), p.054327_1 - 054327_13, 2021/05

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:47.5(Physics, Nuclear)

The structure of $$^{208}$$Po populated through the EC/$$beta^{+}$$ decay of $$^{208}$$At is investigated using $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy at the ISOLDE Decay Station. The presented level scheme contains 27 new excited states and 43 new transitions, as well as a further 50 previously observed $$gamma$$ rays which have been (re)assigned a position. Through the analysis using the shell model calculations approximately half of the $$beta$$-decay strength of $$^{208}$$At is found to proceed via allowed decay and half via first-forbidden decay. The first-forbidden transitions predominantly populate core excited states at high excitation energies, which is qualitatively understood using shell model considerations.


Experimental evidence for common driving effects in low-energy fission from sublead to actinides

Schmitt, C.*; Lemasson, A.*; Schmidt, K.-H.*; Jhingan, A.*; Biswas, S.*; Kim, Y. H.*; Ramos, D.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Curien, D.*; Ciemala, M.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(13), p.132502_1 - 132502_6, 2021/04

 被引用回数:9 パーセンタイル:82.18(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Isotopic distributions of fragments from fission of the neutron-deficient $$^{178}$$Hg nuclide are reported. This experimental observable is obtained for the first time in the region around lead using an innovative approach based on inverse kinematics and the coincidence between the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ and a new detection arm close to the target. The average fragment $$N/Z$$ ratio and prompt neutron $$Mn$$ multiplicity are derived and compared with current knowledge from actinide fission. A striking consistency emerges, revealing the unexpected dominant role of the proton subsystem with atomic number between the $$Z$$ = 28 and 50 magic numbers. The origin of nuclear charge polarization in fission and fragment deformation at scission are discussed.


Pressure dependence of ferromagnetic phase boundary in BaVSe$$_3$$ studied with high-pressure $$mu^+$$SR

杉山 純; 髭本 亘; Andreica, D.*; Forslund, O. K.*; Nocerino, E.*; M${aa}$nsson, M.*; Sassa, Y.*; Gupta, R.*; Khasanov, R.*; 太田 寛人*; et al.

Physical Review B, 103(10), p.104418_1 - 104418_10, 2021/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:28.94(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)



Search for elements 119 and 120

Khuyagbaatar, J.*; Yakushev, A.*; D$"u$llmann, Ch. E.*; Ackermann, D.*; Andersson, L.-L.*; 浅井 雅人; Block, M.*; Boll, R. A.*; Brand, H.*; Cox, D. M.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 102(6), p.064602_1 - 064602_9, 2020/12

 被引用回数:26 パーセンタイル:96.79(Physics, Nuclear)

原子番号119及び120を持つ超重元素の合成を目指した探索実験を、それぞれ$$^{50}$$Ti+$$^{249}$$Bk及び$$^{50}$$Ti+$$^{249}$$Cf核融合-粒子蒸発反応を用いて、ガス充填型反跳分離装置TASCAにて実施した。4ヶ月間におよぶビーム照射実験を行ったが、どちらの元素も検出されず、その生成断面積の上限値は65fb及び200fbであった。119, 120番元素が観測されなかった理由について、安定の島領域の超重元素の核分裂障壁の高さを予測する様々な理論計算値を用いて、核融合-粒子蒸発反応の概念を用いて議論した。


HPRL; International cooperation to identify and monitor priority nuclear data needs for nuclear applications

Dupont, E.*; Bossant, M.*; Capote, R.*; Carlson, A. D.*; Danon, Y.*; Fleming, M.*; Ge, Z.*; 原田 秀郎; 岩本 修; 岩本 信之; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.15005_1 - 15005_4, 2020/09

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:97.35

The OECD-NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL) is a point of reference to guide and stimulate the improvement of nuclear data for nuclear energy and other nuclear applications. The HPRL is application-driven and the requests are submitted by nuclear data users or representatives of the user's communities. A panel of international experts reviews and monitors the requests in the framework of an Expert Group mandated by the NEA Nuclear Science Committee Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). After approval, individual requests are divided in two priority categories only, whereas a third category now includes groups of generic requests in a well-defined area (e.g., dosimetry, standard). The HPRL is hosted by the NEA in the form of a relational database publicly available on the web. This contribution provides an overview of HPRL entries, status and outlook. Examples of requests successfully completed will be given and new requests will be described with emphasis on updated nuclear data needs in the fields of nuclear energy, neutron standards, dosimetry, and medical applications.


The Joint evaluated fission and fusion nuclear data library, JEFF-3.3

Plompen, A. J. M.*; Cabellos, O.*; De Saint Jean, C.*; Fleming, M.*; Algora, A.*; Angelone, M.*; Archier, P.*; Bauge, E.*; Bersillon, O.*; Blokhin, A.*; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 56(7), p.181_1 - 181_108, 2020/07

 被引用回数:203 パーセンタイル:99.41(Physics, Nuclear)

本論文では、核分裂と核融合のための統合評価済み核データファイルのバージョン3.3(JEFF-3.3)について説明する。中性子との反応が重要な核種の$$^{235}$$U, $$^{238}$$U, $$^{239}$$Pu, $$^{241}$$Am, $$^{23}$$Na, $$^{59}$$Ni, Cr, Cu, Zr, Cd, Hf, Au, Pb, Biについて、新しい核データ評価結果を示す。JEFF-3.3には、核分裂収率, 即発核分裂スペクトル, 核分裂平均中性子発生数の新しいデータが含まれる。更に、放射崩壊, 熱中性子散乱, ガンマ線放出, 中性子による放射化, 遅発中性子, 照射損傷に関する新しいデータも含まれている。JEFF-3.3は、TENDLプロジェクトのファイルで補完しており、光子, 陽子, 重陽子, 三重陽子, $$^{3}$$He核, アルファ粒子による反応ライブラリについては、TENDL-2017から採用した。また、不確かさの定量化に対する要求の高まりから、多くの共分散データが新しく追加された。JEFF-3.3を用いた解析の結果と臨界性, 遅発中性子割合, 遮蔽, 崩壊熱に対するベンチマーク実験の結果を比較することにより、JEFF-3.3は幅広い原子核技術の応用分野、特に原子力エネルギーの分野において優れた性能を持っていることが分かった。


Synthesis and characterization of iodovanadinite using PdI$$_{2}$$, an iodine source for the immobilisation of radioiodine

Johnstone, E. V.*; Bailey, D. J.*; Lawson, S.*; Stennett, M. C.*; Corkhill, C. L.*; Kim, M.*; Heo, J.*; 松村 大樹; Hyatt, N. C.*

RSC Advances (Internet), 10(42), p.25116 - 25124, 2020/07

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:13.53(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

The synthesis of a palladium-containing iodovanadinite derivative, hypothetically "PdPb$$_{9}$$(VO$$_{4}$$)$$_{6}$$I$$_{2}$$", was attempted using PdI$$_{2}$$ as a source of iodine in searching for a novel waste form for radioiodine. The resulting products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and Pd K XANES. Results showed that PdI$$_{2}$$ can function as a sacrificial iodine source for the formation of iodovanadinite, prototypically Pb$$_{10}$$(VO$$_{4}$$)$$_{6}$$I$$_{2}$$, however, the incorporation of Pd into this phase was not definitively observed. Overall, the key novelty and importance of this work is in demonstrating a method for direct immobilisation of undissolved PdI$$_{2}$$ from nuclear fuel reprocessing, in a composite wasteform in which I-129 is immobilised within a durable iodovandinite ceramic, encapsulating Pd metal.


${it In-situ}$ observation and analysis of solid-state diffusion and liquid migration in a crystal growth system; A Segregation-driven diffusion couple

Tremsin, A. S.*; Perrodin, D.*; Losko, A. S.*; Vogel, S. C.*; 篠原 武尚; 及川 健一; Bizarri, G. A.*; Bourret, E. D.*; Peterson, J. H.*; Wang, K. P.*; et al.

Acta Materialia, 186, p.434 - 442, 2020/03

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:33.39(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Energy-resolved neutron imaging is employed for ${it in situ}$ measurements of dopant transport in a simple experiment performed before the crystal growth of the scintillator BaBrCl:5%Eu via a vertical gradient freeze technique. During a stabilization period preceding growth, we observed the diffusion of Eu from the solid phase into the melt over a period of approximately 4 h. Comparing the measured centerline concentration profile with a mathematical model for the system, we estimate the solid-state diffusivity of Eu in BaBrCl as $$D$$$$_{1}$$ = 1.9 $$times$$ 10$$^{-10}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s and an upper limit for the liquid-phase diffusivity of Eu in the melt as $$D$$$$_2^{*}$$ = 2.5 $$times$$ 10$$^{-10}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s, at temperatures near the melting point. We compare this experiment, where diffusion is driven by a concentration discontinuity arising from segregation, to the classical diffusion couple technique.


$$^{33}$$S nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of uranium disulfide $$beta$$-US$$_2$$

酒井 宏典; 徳永 陽; 芳賀 芳範; 神戸 振作; Ramakrishna, S. K.*; Reyes, A. P.*; Rosa, P. F. S.*; Ronning, F.*; Thompson, J. D.*; Fisk, Z.*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 30, p.011169_1 - 011169_6, 2020/03



Clades of huge phages from across Earth's ecosystems

Al-Shayeb, B.*; Sachdeva, R.*; Chen, L.-X.*; Ward, F.*; Munk, P.*; Devoto, A.*; Castelle, C. J.*; Olm, M. R.*; Bouma-Gregson, K.*; 天野 由記; et al.

Nature, 578(7795), p.425 - 431, 2020/02

 被引用回数:175 パーセンタイル:99.54(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Phage typically have small genomes and depend on their bacterial hosts for replication. We generated metagenomic datasets from many diverse ecosystems and reconstructed hundreds of huge phage genomes, between 200 kbp and 716 kbp in length. Thirty four genomes were manually curated to completion, including the largest phage genomes yet reported. Expanded genetic repertoires include diverse and new CRISPR-Cas systems, tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, tRNA modification enzymes, initiation and elongation factors and ribosomal proteins. Phage CRISPR have the capacity to silence host transcription factors and translational genes, potentially as part of a larger interaction network that intercepts translation to redirect biosynthesis to phage-encoded functions. Some phage repurpose bacterial systems for phage-defense to eliminate competing phage. We phylogenetically define seven major clades of huge phage from human and other animal microbiomes, oceans, lakes, sediments, soils and the built environment. We conclude that large gene inventories reflect a conserved biological strategy, observed across a broad bacterial host range and resulting in the distribution of huge phage across Earth's ecosystems.


In-source laser spectroscopy of dysprosium isotopes at the ISOLDE-RILIS

Chrysalidis, K.*; Barzakh, A. E.*; Ahmed, R.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ballof, J.*; Cubiss, J. G.*; Fedorov, D. V.*; Fedosseev, V. N.*; Fraile, L. M.*; Harding, R. D.*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 463, p.472 - 475, 2020/01

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:44.39(Instruments & Instrumentation)

放射壊変によって生成された多数のジスプロシウム同位体について、ISOLDEのレーザー共鳴イオン源(RILIS)を用いてイオン源内レーザー分光法によって研究した。$$^{152}$$Dyに対する相対的な同位体シフトを$$4f^{10}6s^{2}~^{5}I_{8}$$ (gs) $$rightarrow$$ $$4f^{10}6s6p~(8,1)^{o}_{8}$$共鳴遷移を用いて測定した。電子的因子Fとマスシフト因子Mを導出し、それらを使って$$^{rm 145m}$$Dyと$$^{rm 147m}$$Dyの平均自乗荷電半径の変化を初めて決定した。


Electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in neutron-deficient Hg isotopes; Coulomb excitation of $$^{182}$$Hg, $$^{184}$$Hg, $$^{186}$$Hg and $$^{188}$$Hg

Wrzosek-Lipska, K.*; Rezynkina, K.*; Bree, N.*; Zieli$'n$ska, M.*; Gaffney, L. P.*; Petts, A.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Bastin, B.*; Bender, M.*; Blazhev, A.*; et al.

European Physical Journal A, 55(8), p.130_1 - 130_23, 2019/08

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:77.08(Physics, Nuclear)

The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes serve as a classical example of shape coexistence, whereby at low energy near-degenerate nuclear states characterized by different shapes appear. The electromagnetic structure of even-mass $$^{182-188}$$Hg isotopes was studied using safe-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient mercury beams delivered by the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN. The population of 0$$^{+}_{1,2}$$, 2$$^{+}_{1,2}$$, and 4$$^{+}_{1}$$ states was observed in all nuclei under study. Reduced $$E2$$ matrix elements coupling populated yrast and non-yrast states were extracted, including their relative signs. These are a sensitive probe of shape coexistence and may be used to validate nuclear models. The experimental results are discussed in terms of mixing of two different configurations and are compared with three different model calculations: the Beyond Mean Field model, the Interacting Boson Model with configuration mixing and the General Bohr Hamiltonian. Partial agreement with experiment was observed, hinting to missing ingredients in the theoretical descriptions.

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