Sugawara, Takanori; Komatsu, Atsushi
JAEA-Research 2020-016, 44 Pages, 2021/01
It is required to control the oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) to prevent the corrosion of structures in LBE-cooled nuclear system. This study estimated the oxygen consumption amount in the LBE-cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS). We used the evaluation formula for the oxide layer thickness, which were derived by various experiments, to estimate the oxygen consumption amount. It was found that the maximum oxide layer thicknesses for the fuel assembly and the beam window were about 35 [m] and 20 [m], respectively. Based on these results, the oxygen consumption amount for the ADS plant was estimated as 30 [kg] during one cycle (one year). Through this study, it was indicated that an oxygen supply device which could supply 3-4 [g/h] oxygen in the normal operation, 150 [g/h] in the peak and about 30 [kg] during one cycle was necessary.
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 149, p.107818_1 - 107818_7, 2020/12
Treatment of surplus plutonium has been one of the most important issues in the utilization of nuclear power in Japan. This study investigates a molten salt accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute transuranic (TRU) nuclides to address the issue. MARDS (Molten salt Accelerator Driven System) concept employs lead chloride (PbCl) as a fuel salt to achieve a hard spectrum. Since the fuel salt is used as a spallation target, a dedicated spallation target is not required in this concept. Furthermore, a beam window which is a boundary between an accelerator and subcritical core is designed to avoid touching the fuel salt. It mitigates the difficulties of the beam design for ADS. Neutronics calculation for the MARDS concept was performed for a condition of 400 MW thermal power with 800 MeV proton beam. The calculation results showed that the proton beam current was about 7 mA and about 4400 kg plutonium could be transmuted during 40-year operation.
Saito, Shigeru; Okubo, Nariaki; Obayashi, Hironari; Wan, T.; Sugawara, Takanori; Sasa, Toshinobu; Maekawa, Fujio
JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.071003_1 - 071003_6, 2020/02
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes transmutation of minor actinides (MA) by accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The ADS designed by JAEA is a system composed by LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) spallation target and a subcritical core. In the ADS, a beam window (BW) is exposed in complex field of heavy irradiation by proton/neutron and corrosion by flowing LBE. To develop ADS structural materials, it is of critical importance to investigate materials used in such environment. Thus, JAEA plans to construct a proton irradiation facility at the J-PARC to prepare an irradiation database for candidate ADS structural materials and to investigate irradiation effects in flowing LBE environment. In this paper, giving a whole scope of the JAEA ADS development, some results of experimental measurements and the specific program for planed R&D will be presented.
Yamashita, Susumu; Sugawara, Takanori; Yoshida, Hiroyuki
Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2019/12
In order to simulate detailed flow behavior of LBE around the beam window, a numerical simulation code that can evaluate the complicated flow behavior is required. To simulate complicated and large-scale flow behavior, we apply JUPITER which originally developed in JAEA for melt relocation behavior in SAs and that can treat complicated flow behavior and has a capacity of massively parallel computing. In this paper, by using JUPITER, numerical simulations were performed for unsteady thermal-hydraulics simulation around the beam window to know tendency of LBE flow field. In addition, problems to be solved and important parameters to simulate thermal-hydraulic behavior around the beam window will be discussed.
Watanabe, Nao; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Castelliti, D.*
Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.248 - 261, 2019/08
For the R&D for lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS), installation of experimental facility using LBE spallation target dedicated for ADS materials irradiation under flowing high temperature LBE environment is planned within the J-PARC project. JAEA has recently finalized the construction of "IMMORTAL", a demonstrative test loop representing a 1:1 model of the above LBE spallation target system. Such facility pursues several different objectives such as studies on the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the target, and validation of the LBE physical properties, the pressure drops and the heat transfer correlations. These results will be useful for design of the facility and LBE target/cooled ADS. In the frame of a bi-lateral collaboration between JAEA and SCK-CEN, a benchmark exercise on the experimental results from IMMORTAL has been carried out. The calculations have been performed with RELAP5-3D System Thermal-Hydraulic code. To assess and predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of its primary loop, RELAP5-3D calculation models have been configured. The calculated results from these models represented that a valid contribution towards the validation of the LBE properties and empirical correlations present in RELAP5-3D code.
Sakai, Kenji; Obayashi, Hironari; Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu; Sugawara, Takanori; Watanabe, Akihiko*
JAEA-Technology 2019-009, 18 Pages, 2019/07
Construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is under planning in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) program to promote R&D on the transmutation technology with using accelerator driven systems (ADS). ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in TEF will develop spallation target technology and study on target materials with irradiating high intensity proton beams on a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target. For safe and efficient beam operation, a general control system (GCS) will be constructed in TEF-T. GCS comprises several subsystems, such as a network system (LAN), an integral control system (ICS), an interlock system (ILS), and a timing distribution system (TDS) according to their roles. Especially, the ICS plays the important role that executes integral operations in the entire facility, acquires, stores and distributes operation data. We planned to develop a prototype of the ICS, to evaluate its concrete performances such as data transmission speeds, data storage capability, control functions, long-term stability of the system, and to utilize them for design of the actual ICS. This report mentions to product the prototype of ICS and to apply it to remote operations of instruments for developing LBE target technology.
Sugawara, Takanori; Ban, Yasutoshi; Katano, Ryota; Tateno, Haruka; Nishihara, Kenji
Proceedings of International Conference on the Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors 2019 (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/06
The JAEA has proposed the double-strata strategy which will introduce a dedicated minor actinide (MA) transmutation cycle using an accelerator-driven system (ADS). In the previous study, the ideal fuel condition was supposed in the neutronics design of the ADS. For example, impurities such as rare earth (RE) nuclides which would accompany with MA, were not assumed. However, these nuclides would accompany with the ADS fuel and the capture reaction of these nuclides deteriorates the neutron economy of the ADS core. This study investigates a new fuel composition based on the SELECT (Solvent Extraction from Liquid-waste using Extractants of CHON-type for Transmutation) process proposed by JAEA. By performing the neutronics calculation of the ADS with the new fuel composition, a feasibility of the new fuel composition will be investigated.
Sugawara, Takanori; Takei, Hayanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 125, p.242 - 248, 2019/03
To realize the feasible accelerator-driven system (ADS) concept, the investigations for the reliable accelerator and conceptual plant design considering safety issues were performed. As the reliable accelerator concept, the double-accelerator concept was proposed to reduce the beam-trip frequency. The estimated beam-trip frequency with the double-accelerator concept using the J-PARC LINAC operation data showed that the beam-trip frequency was significantly improved with the comparison of the single accelerator result. The basic investigation of the primary reactor auxiliary coolant system (PRACS) was performed for the safety design of the LBE cooled ADS. The concept which the PRACS heat exchanger was integrated to the steam generator was proposed and the transient analysis in the loss of heat sink accident was carried out. The result presented that the decay heat removal was appropriate when the operation of the PRACS succeeded.
Sugawara, Takanori; Kita, Satoshi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Okubo, Nariaki
JAEA-Technology 2018-008, 26 Pages, 2018/09
The oxygen sensors to measure the oxygen concentration in liquid LBE (lead-bismuth eutectic) were fabricated and tested for future use in LBE-cooled ADS (accelerator-driven system) or LBE test loops. The following tests were performed; estimation of catalyst application range, freeze seal structure and estimation of gamma-ray irradiation effect. For the estimation of the catalyst application range, it was confirmed that the measurement accuracy became worse in low LBE temperature as the application range became small. For the freeze seal structure, we realized the structure to prevent the LBE leakage with 0.5 MPa pressure condition. For the estimation of gamma-ray irradiation effect, the ex-situ test was carried out and it was observed that there was little effect by 4 MGy gamma-ray irradiation.
Sugawara, Takanori; Eguchi, Yuta; Obayashi, Hironari; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Matsuda, Hiroki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2018/07
A new beam window concept for accelerator-driven system (ADS) is investigated by changing the design condition. The most important factor for the beam window design is the proton beam current. The design condition will be mitigated if the proton beam current will be reduced. To reduce the proton beam current, a subcriticality adjustment rod (SAR) which was a BC control rod was employed and neutronics calculations were performed by ADS3D code. The results of the neutronics calculation indicated that the proton beam current was reduced from 20mA to 13.5mA by the installation of SARs. Based on the mitigated calculation condition, the investigation of the beam window was performed by the couple analyses of the particle transport, the thermal hydraulics and the structural analysis. Through these coupled analyses, more feasible beam window concept which was the hemispherical shape, the outer diameter = 470mm, the thickness at the top = 3.5mm and factor of safety =9 was presented.
Eguchi, Yuta; Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2018/07
In order to investigate the basic neutronics characteristics of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS), JAEA has a plan to construct a new critical assembly in the J-PARC project, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P). This study aims to evaluate the natural cooling characteristics of TEF-P core which has large decay heat by minor actinide (MA) fuel, and to achieve a design that does not damage the core and the fuels during the failure of the core cooling system. In the evaluation of the TEF-P core temperature, empty rectangular lattice tube outer of the core has a significant effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The experiments by using the mockup device were performed to validate the heat transfer coefficient and experimental results were obtained. By using the obtained experimental results, the three-dimensional heat transfer analysis of TEF-P core were performed, and the maximum core temperature was obtained, 294C. This result shows TEF-P core temperature would be less than 327C that the design criterion of temperature.
Sugawara, Takanori; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Progress in Nuclear Energy, 106, p.27 - 33, 2018/07
The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. The recent two activities to realize a feasible and reliable ADS concept are introduced in this paper. For the feasibility, the design of a beam window which is a boundary of the accelerator and the subcritical core, is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concept with subcriticality adjustment rods were investigated. For the reliability, the beam-trip is the inherent and serious issue for the ADS design because it induces rapid temperature change to coolant and structures in the subcritical core. To improve the beam-trip frequencies, a double-accelerator concept was proposed and its beam-trip frequency was estimated.
Sugawara, Takanori; Eguchi, Yuta; Obayashi, Hironari; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Nuclear Engineering and Design, 331, p.11 - 23, 2018/05
This study aims to perform the coupled analysis for the feasible beam window concept. To mitigate the design condition, namely to reduce the necessary proton beam current, subcriticality adjustment rod (SAR) was installed to the ADS core. The burnup analysis was performed for the ADS core with SAR and the results indicated that the maximum proton beam current during the burnup cycle was reduced from 20 to 13.5 mA. Based on the burnup analysis result, the coupled analysis; particle transport, thermal hydraulics and structural analyses, was performed. As the final result, the most robust beam window design; the hemisphere shape, the outer radius = 235 mm, the thickness at the top of the beam window = 3.5 mm and the factor of safety for the buckling = 9.0, was presented. The buckling pressure was 2.2 times larger than the previous one and more feasible beam window concept was presented through this study.
Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Wan, T.; Okubo, Nariaki; Sugawara, Takanori; Endo, Shinya; Sasa, Toshinobu
Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators (AccApp '17) (Internet), p.448 - 457, 2018/05
JAEA proposes transmutation of minor actinides by accelerator-driven systems (ADS). To obtain the data for ADS design, JAEA plans to construct the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) within the framework of the J-PARC project. In TEF-T, a 250 kW proton-beam-driven LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) spallation target will be installed to prepare an irradiation database for candidate ADS structural materials. Design activities of the LBE target and target trolley have been progressed. Conceptual design of hot-cells for LBE target loop maintenance and PIE (Post Irradiation Examination) of irradiated samples have been finished. Two LBE loops were manufactured. One is a loop for TEF-T target mock-up and the other is that for collection of material corrosion characteristics in flowing LBE. Oxygen potential control systems for LBE flow have been also developed. Remote handling tests for the target exchange are underway. In this paper, current activities and studies to realize TEF-T will be presented.
Pyeon, C. H.*; Vu, T. M.*; Yamanaka, Masao*; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Kim, S. H.*; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki*; Nakajima, Ken*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(2), p.190 - 198, 2018/02
At the Kyoto University Critical Assembly, a series of reaction rate experiments is conducted on the accelerator-driven system (ADS) with spallation neutrons generated by the combined use of 100 MeV protons and a lead and bismuth target in the subcritical state. The reaction rates are measured by the foil activation method to obtain neutron spectrum information on ADS. Numerical calculations are performed with MCNP6.1 and JENDL/HE-2007 for high-energy protons and spallation process, JENDL-4.0 for transport and JENDL/D-99 for reaction rates. The reaction rates depend on subcriticality is revealed by the accuracy of the C/E (calculation/experiment) values. Nonetheless, the accuracy of the reaction rates at high-energy thresholds remains an important issue in the fixed-source calculations.
Sugawara, Takanori; Katano, Ryota; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Annals of Nuclear Energy, 111, p.449 - 459, 2018/01
This study aims to review the ADS design based on the outcome for the last dozen years and to investigate the impact of impurities in the transmutation cycle on the ADS neutronics design. The impact of impurities in the transmutation cycle is investigated for the reviewed reference design. For the uranium from the partitioning, the accompaniment of 20 wt.% U against the Pu weight is acceptable although the MA transmutation amount will be decreased slightly. For the rare earth (RE) from the partitioning, the accompaniment of 5 wt.% RE against the MA weight is allowable. In the reprocessing, the decontamination factor, DF=10 for RE is enough from the viewpoint of the neutronics design. The impact of the fuel composition accuracy is also investigated. The uncertainty of the ZrN ratio against the MA fuel should be less than 0.2% to minimize a surplus proton beam current due to the uncertainty.
Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
NEA/NSC/R(2017)3, p.149 - 159, 2017/11
In this study, new beam window concept for accelerator-driven system (ADS) is investigated by changing the design condition. The most important factor for the beam window design is the proton beam current, and the design condition will be mitigated if the proton beam current will be reduced. To reduce the proton beam current, a subcriticality adjustment rod which was a BC control rod was employed and neutronics calculations were performed by ADS3D code. The results of the neutronics calculation indicated that the proton beam current was reduced from 20mA to 10mA by the installation of the subcriticality adjustment rods. Based on the mitigated calculation condition, the investigation of the beam window was performed by the particle transport analysis by PHITS code, the thermal hydraulics analysis by STAR-CCM+ code and the structural analysis by ANSYS code. Through these coupled analyses, more feasible beam window concept which was the hemispherical shape, the outer diameter = 470mm, the thickness at the top = 4.0mm and factor of safety =12, was presented.
Sugawara, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
JAEA-Research 2017-011, 35 Pages, 2017/10
The construction of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) is planned in the J-PARC project. TEF-P is a critical assembly and it will treat minor actinide (MA) fuel in the experiment. The temperature when the air cooling for the TEF-P core would stop was estimated but there were no data to evaluate the soundness of the MA fuel pin. To set a tentative limit temperature for the TEF-P core, cladding tube burst experiment was performed. As the result, the cladding tube burst occurred at 660C as the severest case. Through these results and the estimation of creep rupture time, the tentative limit temperature for the TEF-P core was set to 600C.
Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Wan, T.; Yamaguchi, Kazushi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu
NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.111 - 116, 2017/06
Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes to reduce the environmental impact caused from high-level radioactive waste by using Accelerator-driven system (ADS). To realize ADS, JAEA plans to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) within the framework of J-PARC project. For the JAEA-proposed ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is adopted as a coolant for subcritical core and spallation target. By using TEF in J-PARC, we are planning to solve technical difficulties for LBE utilization by completion of the data for the design of ADS. The 250kW LBE spallation target will be located in TEF facility to prepare material irradiation database. Various R&Ds for important technologies required to build the facilities are investigated such as oxygen content control, instruments development, remote handling techniques for target maintenance, and spallation target design. The large scale LBE loops for 250kW target mock up and material corrosion studies are also manufactured and ready for various experiments. The latest status of 250kW LBE spallation target optimization will be described in the presentation.
Oizumi, Akito; Sugawara, Takanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nishihara, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
NEA/NSC/R(2017)2, p.152 - 160, 2017/06