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論文

Flow filtration/adsorption and simultaneous monitoring technologies of radiocesium $$^{137}$$Cs in river water

榎本 一之*; 保科 宏行*; 笠井 昇*; 栗田 圭輔; 植木 悠二*; 長尾 悠人*; 尹 永根*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 河地 有木*; 瀬古 典明*

Chemical Engineering Journal, 460, p.141696_1 - 141696_9, 2023/03

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:58.01(Engineering, Environmental)

本研究では、モリブドリン酸アンモニウム(AMP)を放射線グラフト重合した繊維状のCs吸着フィルターとCe:Gd$$_3$$Al$$_2$$Ga$$_3$$O$$_{12}$$シンチレータを用いた$$gamma$$線検出器を組み合わせて、連続水流中の$$^{137}$$Csの放射能濃度をその場で測定する方法を開発した。

論文

"Live-autoradiography" technique reveals genetic variation in the rate of Fe uptake by barley cultivars

樋口 恭子*; 栗田 圭輔; 酒井 卓郎; 鈴井 伸郎*; 佐々木 実莉*; 香取 摩耶*; 若林 優奈*; 間嶋 勇太*; 齋藤 彰宏*; 大山 卓爾*; et al.

Plants (Internet), 11(6), p.817_1 - 817_11, 2022/03

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:43.33(Plant Sciences)

植物は様々な鉄獲得機構を発達させてきたが、植物による鉄獲得速度の遺伝的多様性については植物種や遺伝子型間で広く調査されていない。我々は、$$^{59}$$Feを用いたライブオートラジオグラフィー技術を用いて、オオムギ品種における極低濃度のFe溶液からのFe吸収速度を直接評価した。この結果、オオムギの品種間において、低濃度Fe溶液からFeを獲得する能力が、必ずしもFe欠乏に対する耐性を決定する唯一の要因ではないことが明らかとなった。

論文

Noninvasive imaging of hollow structures and gas movement revealed the gas partial-pressure-gradient-driven long-distance gas movement in the aerenchyma along the leaf blade to submerged organs in rice

尹 永根*; 森 欣順*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 栗田 圭輔; 山口 充孝*; 三好 悠太*; 長尾 悠人*; 芦苅 基行*; 永井 啓祐*; 河地 有木*

New Phytologist, 232(5), p.1974 - 1984, 2021/12

 被引用回数:7 パーセンタイル:63.39(Plant Sciences)

イネ植物($$Oryza sativa$$)は中空の器官を持ち、これが水上の葉から水没した器官へ空気を供給する経路として機能すると推定される。しかし、イネにおけるガス移動はリアルタイムで可視化されていない。本研究では、部分的に水没したイネの葉に窒素13標識窒素([$$^{13}$$N]N$$_2$$)トレーサーガスを供給し、葉身、葉鞘、節間に沿って下方に移動するガスの動きを経時的に観察した。

論文

Autoradiography system with phosphor powder (ZnS:Ag) for imaging radioisotope dynamics in a living plant

栗田 圭輔; 酒井 卓郎; 鈴井 伸郎*; 尹 永根*; 杉田 亮平*; 小林 奈通子*; 田野井 慶太朗*; 河地 有木*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 60(11), p.116501_1 - 116501_4, 2021/11

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:8.72(Physics, Applied)

本研究では、生きた植物におけるRI動態をイメージングするために、蛍光体粉末(ZnS:Ag)を用いたオートラジオグラフィシステム「Live-autoradiography」を開発した。このシステムは、無傷の植物における元素の移動と蓄積を、光環境下で連続的に可視化する。イメージングテストでは、10-100kBqの$$^{137}$$Cs点線源を測定した。この結果から、画像強度と$$^{137}$$Csの放射能との間に良好な線形性が確認できた。さらに、無傷のダイズ植物中における$$^{137}$$Csの動態イメージングを4日間行った。その結果、植物の節,葉脈,成長点に$$^{137}$$Csが蓄積している様子を観察できた。今回開発したシステムは、植物の生理現象の研究に利用できるだけでなく、放射性核種の定量的な測定にも利用できる。

論文

Non-invasive $$^{11}$$C-imaging revealed the spatiotemporal variability in the translocation of photosynthates into strawberry fruits in response to increasing daylight integrals at leaf surface

三好 悠太*; 日高 功太*; 尹 永根*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 栗田 圭輔; 河地 有木*

Frontiers in Plant Science (Internet), 12, p.688887_1 - 688887_14, 2021/07

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:79.53(Plant Sciences)

本研究では、イチゴ果実への光合成産物の輸送を陽電子放出トレーサーイメージング装置(PETIS)を用いて非侵襲的に繰り返し可視化し、日照時間の増加に伴う輸送動態の時空間的な変動を評価した。本研究は、$$^{11}$$C-放射性同位体を用いて、ソース葉から個々のシンク果実への光合成産物輸送の時空間変動を、高い時空間分解能で明らかにした初めての研究である。

論文

Application of OpenPET as 3-D imaging device of carbon distribution in fruit

栗田 圭輔; 三好 悠太*; 長尾 悠人*; 山口 充孝*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 尹 永根*; 石井 里美*; 河地 有木*; 日高 功太*; 吉田 英治*; et al.

QST-M-29; QST Takasaki Annual Report 2019, P. 106, 2021/03

Research on the distribution and dynamics of photoassimilates in plants, especially those in fruits, is important for improving food production. Positron emission tomography (PET) and carbon-11 ($$^{11}$$C) isotope technique are valuable to obtain 3-D images of photoassimilates. For plant experiments, however, it is important to adjust a system to plant's growth environment. General PET devices, even small-animal PET devices, are not suitable for plant studies. This can be solved by using a small OpenPET prototype which is a compact PET device that has an open space in its field of view (FOV). In this work, we upgraded the OpenPET system for the PET study of fruits and successfully realized the 3-D imaging of a photoassimilate labeled with $$^{11}$$CO$$_2$$ in a fruit of a strawberry plant.

論文

Non-invasive imaging of radiocesium dynamics in a living animal using a positron-emitting $$^{127}$$Cs tracer

鈴井 伸郎*; 柴田 卓弥; 尹 永根*; 船木 善仁*; 栗田 圭輔; 保科 宏行*; 山口 充孝*; 藤巻 秀*; 瀬古 典明*; 渡部 浩司*; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.16155_1 - 16155_9, 2020/10

 被引用回数:2 パーセンタイル:25.41(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Visualizing the dynamics of cesium (Cs) is desirable to understand the impact of radiocesium when accidentally ingested or inhaled by humans. The positron-emitting nuclide $$^{127}$$Cs was produced using the $$^{127}$$I ($$alpha$$, 4n) $$^{127}$$Cs reaction, which was induced by irradiation of sodium iodide with a $$^{4}$$He$$^{2+}$$ beam from a cyclotron. We excluded sodium ions by using a material that specifically adsorbs Cs as a purification column and successfully eluted $$^{127}$$Cs by flowing a solution of ammonium sulfate into the column. We injected the purified $$^{127}$$Cs tracer solution into living rats and the dynamics of Cs were visualized using positron emission tomography; the distributional images showed the same tendency as the results of previous studies using disruptive methods. Thus, this method is useful for the non-invasive investigation of radiocesium in a living animal.

論文

Visualising spatio-temporal distributions of assimilated carbon translocation and release in root systems of leguminous plants

尹 永根*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 栗田 圭輔; 三好 悠太*; 海野 佑介*; 藤巻 秀*; 中村 卓司*; 信濃 卓郎*; 河地 有木*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.8446_1 - 8446_11, 2020/06

 被引用回数:10 パーセンタイル:61.68(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

根系からの放出物は根の位置によって異なり、同化炭素(C)の供給と密接に関係している。したがって、短時間での炭素の動きを定量化することで、根と土壌における炭素の代謝を明らかにできる可能性がある。$$^{11}$$CO$$_{2}$$と陽電子放出トレーサーイメージングシステムを使用し、根箱内における同化炭素の根系への移行を可視化するための非侵襲的な方法を確立した。$$^{11}$$C-光合成産物の移動と根系および土壌への放出の様子を、白ルーピンとダイズについて観察した。本手法により、根と土壌に分布する炭素配分の定量化が可能になった。これは、比較的短期間の環境条件に応じて、根-土壌系の特定の場所での炭素代謝と栄養循環の関係を解明するのに役立つ可能性がある。

論文

On-line rapid purification of [$$^{13}$$N]N$$_2$$ gas for visualization of nitrogen fixation and translocation in nodulated soybean

尹 永根*; 石井 里美*; 鈴井 伸郎*; 井倉 将人*; 栗田 圭輔; 三好 悠太*; 長澤 尚胤*; 田口 光正*; 河地 有木*

Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 151, p.7 - 12, 2019/09

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:57.39(Chemistry, Inorganic & Nuclear)

マメ科作物の窒素固定を正確に解析するためには、無傷の植物体内での窒素利用を測定する必要がある。しかしながら、ほとんどのアプローチでは組織の解体が必要である。我々は、高純度かつ高収率の[$$^{13}$$N]N$$_2$$ガスを簡便かつ迅速に生成する技術を開発し、無傷のダイズ植物体内における窒素固定をリアルタイムで画像化することに成功した。減衰補正後の精製効率は約81.6%であった。

論文

Non-invasive imaging of sodium dynamics in common reed using positron-emitting tracer imaging system

鈴井 伸郎; 丸山 哲平*; 河地 有木; 三輪 睿太郎*; 樋口 恭子*; 藤巻 秀

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 95, 2016/02

Common reed, which is classified to the same family as rice, is a salt-tolerant plant. In this study, we conducted non-invasive imaging of Na$$^{+}$$ dynamics in intact common reed plants by using $$^{22}$$Na tracer and a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) in order to understand the salt-tolerant mechanism in common reed. Common reeds and rice plants were cultivated in a nutrient solution containing 50 mM NaCl. After $$^{22}$$Na was fed into the solution, we observed the $$^{22}$$Na movement from the solution to the shoot for 24 h using PETIS. As a result, $$^{22}$$Na was strongly accumulated in the shoot base but not transported to the upper shoot in common reed, whereas $$^{22}$$Na was continuously transported to the upper shoot in rice plant. Furthermore, we replaced the original solution with a fresh nutrient solution without $$^{22}$$Na and traced the $$^{22}$$Na movement inside the plants for 18 h. Detailed quantitative analysis of the image data revealed that $$^{22}$$Na migrated downward from the shoot base to the root tip in common reed. These results indicate that common reed has constitutive ability of Na$$^{+}$$ exclusion only in the direction of root tips, and consequently keeps low Na$$^{+}$$ concentration in the upper shoot.

論文

Imaging of radiocesium dynamics in soybean by using a high-resolution gamma camera

尹 永根; 河地 有木; 鈴井 伸郎; 石井 里美; 吉原 利一*; 渡部 浩司*; 山本 誠一*; 藤巻 秀

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 112, 2016/02

Large areas of agricultural fields were contaminated with radiocesium ($$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs) in Japan by the accident of The Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011. Many agricultural studies, such as fertilizer management and plant breeding, are undertaken for reducing radiocesium uptake in crops or enhancing of uptake and transportation via phytoremediation. These studies examine the control of radiocesium transport into/within plant bodies from the viewpoint of plant physiology. Radiotracer imaging is one of the few methods that enable the observation of the movement of substances in a living plant, like a video camera, without sampling of the plant tissues. In this study, we performed the imaging of $$^{137}$$Cs uptake and transport from root to aerial part by using a new gamma camera in intact soybean plants because contamination of soybean by radiocesium has currently become a major problem in agriculture in Fukushima.

論文

Development of a gamma camera system for high-energy gamma photon for quantitative observation of $$^{137}$$Cs movement in a plant body

河地 有木; 尹 永根; 鈴井 伸郎; 石井 里美; 吉原 利一*; 渡部 浩司*; 山本 誠一*; 藤巻 秀

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 94, 2016/02

We developed an original gamma camera system to image radiocesium in a plant. The gamma camera was designed for high-energy gamma photons from $$^{137}$$Cs radiocesium (662 keV). We performed tests to evaluate the position resolution and quantitative linearity of the gamma camera. The best spatial resolution of this gamma camera was determined to be 19.1 mm in full width at half maximum at the center of the field-of-view. And a result shows a quantitative linearity of the image data with a correlation of ${it r$^{2}$}$ = 0.9985 between the source activity and the count rate. We conclude the gamma camera system has sufficiently high capability to obtain quantitative and dynamic images of $$^{137}$$Cs movement in intact plants.

論文

Evaluation of the effect of elevated concentrations of CO$$_{2}$$ in a greenhouse for tomato cultivation

石井 里美; 山崎 治明*; 鈴井 伸郎; 尹 永根; 河地 有木; 島田 浩章*; 藤巻 秀

JAEA-Review 2015-022, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2014, P. 93, 2016/02

Tomato is popularly grown in environmentally controlled system such as a greenhouse for improvement of bioproduction. It is important to control the condition in the greenhouse for increasing the translocation of fixed carbon from the leaves to the growing fruits. Elevation of CO$$_{2}$$concentration is widely employed for that purpose; however, it is difficult to estimate its effect quantitatively because tomato plants have too large inter-individual variations with developing fruits. In this study, we employed a PETIS which is a live-imaging system of nutrients in plant body using short-lived radioisotopes including $$^{11}$$C. We also established a closed cultivation system to feed a test plant with CO$$_{2}$$ at set concentrations of 400, 1,500 and 3,000 ppm and a pulse of $$^{11}$$CO$$_{2}$$.

論文

Imaging of radiocesium uptake dynamics in a plant body by using a newly developed high-resolution gamma camera

河地 有木; 尹 永根; 鈴井 伸郎; 石井 里美; 吉原 利一*; 渡部 浩司*; 山本 誠一*; 藤巻 秀

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 151(Part 2), p.461 - 467, 2016/01

 被引用回数:14 パーセンタイル:42.41(Environmental Sciences)

We developed a new gamma camera specifically for plant nutritional research and successfully performed live imaging of the uptake and partitioning of $$^{137}$$Cs in intact plants. The gamma camera was specially designed for high-energy $$gamma$$ photons from $$^{137}$$Cs (662 keV). To obtain reliable images, a pinhole collimator made of tungsten heavy alloy was used to reduce penetration and scattering of $$gamma$$ photons. The array block of the GAGG scintillator was coupled to a high-quantum efficiency position sensitive photomultiplier tube to obtain accurate images. The completed gamma camera had a sensitivity of 0.83 count s$$^{-1}$$ MBq$$^{-1}$$ for $$^{137}$$Cs, and a spatial resolution of 23.5 mm. We used this gamma camera to study soybean plants that were hydroponically grown and fed with 2.0 MBq of $$^{137}$$Cs for 6 days to visualize and investigate the transport dynamics in aerial plant parts. $$^{137}$$Cs gradually appeared in the shoot several hours after feeding, and then accumulated preferentially and intensively in growing pods and seeds; very little accumulation was observed in mature leaves. Our results also suggested that this gamma-camera method may serve as a practical analyzing tool for breeding crops and improving cultivation techniques resulting in low accumulation of radiocesium into the consumable parts of plants.

論文

Base to tip and long-distance transport of sodium in the root of common reed [${it Phragmites australis}$ (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.] at steady state under constant high-salt conditions

藤巻 秀; 丸山 哲平*; 鈴井 伸郎; 河地 有木; 三輪 睿太郎*; 樋口 恭子*

Plant & Cell Physiology, 56(5), p.943 - 950, 2015/05

 被引用回数:22 パーセンタイル:65.33(Plant Sciences)

耐塩性植物であるヨシおよび塩感受性植物であるイネにおけるナトリウムイオンの輸送の方向と割合を、放射性の$$^{22}$$Naトレーサとポジトロンイメージング技術を用いて解析した。まず、供試植物に50mMのNaClと微量の$$^{22}$$Naを含む水耕溶液を投与し、24時間栽培した。その後、$$^{22}$$Naを含まない水耕液に交換し、48時間栽培した。これらの栽培期間における$$^{22}$$Naの分布画像をポジトロンイメージング装置を用いて非破壊的かつ連続的に撮像したところ、ヨシでは根から吸収された$$^{22}$$Naは茎基部よりも上部に輸送されないことが確認された。さらに、$$^{22}$$Naを含まない水耕液に交換した後、$$^{22}$$Naが根元から根端に向けて0.5cm h$$^{-1}$$の速度で移動していることが確認された。一方、イネでは根から吸収された$$^{22}$$Naは連続的に地上部全体へと輸送されていた。これらの結果から、高塩濃度条件に晒されたヨシは、根元と茎基部においてナトリウムイオンを根端方向へと送り返していることが明らかとなった。このナトリウム排除機構により、ヨシは地上部のナトリウムイオン濃度を低く保ち、高い耐塩性を有していることが示唆された。

論文

Live-imaging evaluation of the efficacy of elevated CO$$_{2}$$ concentration in a closed cultivation system for the improvement of bioproduction in tomato fruits

山崎 治明*; 鈴井 伸郎; 尹 永根; 河地 有木; 石井 里美; 島田 浩章*; 藤巻 秀

Plant Biotechnology, 32(1), p.31 - 37, 2015/04

 被引用回数:15 パーセンタイル:54.19(Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology)

To maximize fruit yield of tomatoes cultivated in a controlled, closed system such as a greenhouse or a plant factory at a limited cost, it is important to raise the translocation rate of fixed carbon to fruits by tuning the cultivation conditions. Elevation of atmospheric $$^{11}$$CO$$_{2}$$ concentration is a good candidate. In this study, we employed a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), which is a live-imaging technology for plant studies, and a short-lived radioisotope $$^{11}$$C to quantitatively analyze immediate responses of carbon fixation and translocation in tomatoes in elevated CO$$_{2}$$ conditions. We also developed a closed cultivation system to feed a test plant with CO$$_{2}$$ at concentrations of 400, 1500 and 3000 ppm and a pulse of $$^{11}$$CO$$_{2}$$. As a result, we obtained serial images of $$^{11}$$C fixation by leaves and subsequent translocation into fruits. Carbon fixation was enhanced steadily by increasing the CO$$_{2}$$ concentration, but the amount translocated into fruits saturated at 1500 ppm on average. The translocation rate had larger inter-individual variation and showed less consistent responses to external CO$$_{2}$$ conditions compared with carbon fixation.

論文

Common reed accumulates starch in its stem by metabolic adaptation under Cd stress conditions

樋口 恭子*; 金井 雅武*; 土屋 将久*; 石井 春香*; 渋谷 尚史*; 藤田 直子*; 中村 保典*; 鈴井 伸郎; 藤巻 秀; 三輪 睿太郎*

Frontiers in Plant Science (Internet), 6, p.138_1 - 138_6, 2015/03

 被引用回数:18 パーセンタイル:58.29(Plant Sciences)

In a previous study, we reported that the common reed accumulates water-soluble Cd complexed with an $$alpha$$-glucan-like molecule, and that the synthesis of this molecule is induced in the stem of the common reed under Cd stress. We studied the metabolic background to ensure $$alpha$$-glucan accumulation under the Cd stress conditions that generally inhibit photosynthesis. We found that the common reed maintained an adequate CO$$_{2}$$ assimilation rate, tended to allocate more assimilated $$^{11}$$C to the stem, and accumulated starch granules in its stem under Cd stress conditions. AGPase activity, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for starch synthesis, increased in the stem of common reed grown in the presence of Cd. Starch accumulation in the stem of common reed was not obvious under other excess metal conditions. Common reed may preferentially allocate assimilated carbon as the carbon source for the formation of Cd and $$alpha$$-glucan complexes in its stem followed by prevention of Cd transfer to leaves acting as the photosynthetic organ. These responses may allow the common reed to grow even under severe Cd stress conditions.

論文

Evaluation of velocity of $$^{11}$$C-photoassimilate flow using positron-emitting tracer imaging system

鈴井 伸郎; 河地 有木; 石井 里美; 尹 永根; 岩崎 郁*; 小川 健一*; 藤巻 秀

JAEA-Review 2014-050, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2013, P. 105, 2015/03

In this study, we developed an analytical method to evaluate velocity of photoassimilate flow using $$^{11}$$C-tracer and the positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). $$^{11}$$CO$$_{2}$$ gas tracer was fed to the compound leaves of the soybean plant, and serial images of $$^{11}$$C distribution were obtained by PETIS. Regions of interests (ROIs) were set in the node of the first compound leaf (ROI-1) and the stem base (ROI-2). Time course of $$^{11}$$C-radioactivity (Time-Activity Curve: TAC) in each ROI was generated from the serial images. Initial slope of the rising $$^{11}$$C-radioactivity was estimated by a linear least-square method using the TAC data. The value of the intercept of approximated line to the background line (X-intercept) was defined as "$$^{11}$$C-arrival time" to the ROIs. In order to determine X-intercept with a fair criterion, we developed an analytical program. The velocities of $$^{11}$$C-photoassimilate flows of 18 individual soybean plants were estimated by the values of $$^{11}$$C-arrival time and the distance between ROI-1 and ROI-2. As a result, the average value of the velocity was 113 cm h$$^{-1}$$ and the standard deviation was 20 cm h$$^{-1}$$. This result indicates the newly developed method is a reliable tool for the quantitative analysis of photoassimilate flow through the phloem.

論文

Ultra-high resolution of radiocesium distribution detection based on Cherenkov light imaging

山本 誠一*; 緒方 良至*; 河地 有木; 鈴井 伸郎; 尹 永根; 藤巻 秀

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 777, p.102 - 109, 2015/03

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:26.29(Instruments & Instrumentation)

After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, radiocesium contamination became a serious scientific concern and research of its effects on plants increased. In such plant studies, high resolution images of radiocesium are required without contacting the subjects. Cherenkov light imaging of beta radionuclides has inherently high resolution and is promising for plant research. Since $$^{137}$$Cs and $$^{134}$$Cs emit beta particles, Cherenkov light imaging will be useful for the imaging of radiocesium distribution. Consequently, we developed and tested a Cherenkov light imaging system. We used a high sensitivity cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera for imaging Cherenkov light from $$^{137}$$Cs and $$^{134}$$Cs. A bright lens was mounted on the camera and placed in a black box. With a 100-$$mu$$m $$^{137}$$Cs point source, we obtained 220-$$mu$$m spatial resolution in the Cherenkov light image. With a 1-mm diameter, 320-kBq $$^{137}$$Cs point source, the source was distinguished within 2-s. We successfully obtained Cherenkov light images of a plant whose root was dipped in a $$^{137}$$Cs solution, radiocesium-containing samples as well as line and character phantom images with our imaging system. Cherenkov light imaging is promising for the high resolution imaging of radiocesium distribution without contacting the subject.

論文

Effects of glutathione concentration in the root zone and glutathione treatment period on cadmium partitioning in oilseed rape plants

中村 進一*; 近藤 ひかり*; 鈴井 伸郎; 尹 永根; 石井 里美; 河地 有木; 頼 泰樹*; 服部 浩之*; 藤巻 秀

Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur, p.253 - 259, 2015/00

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:71.51

Glutathione is a sulfur-containing peptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. Glutathione is also known to have effects on heavy metal responses in plants. In our previous work, we have found glutathione, applied to roots site- specifically, inhibited cadmium (Cd) translocation from roots to shoots and Cd accumulation in shoots in oilseed rape plants. In addition, we succeeded in visualizing inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). In this work, the effects of glutathione concentration in the root zone (hydroponic solution) and the glutathione treatment period on Cd partitioning in oilseed rape plants were investigated. Our experimental results demonstrated that glutathione, exceeding a certain concentration in the root zone, is needed to trigger inhibition of Cd translocation, and that treatment time from the start of glutathione application had different effects on Cd partitioning in oilseed rape plants.

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