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JAEA Reports

Carrying-out of whole nuclear fuel materials in Plutonium Research Building No.1

Inagawa, Jun; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nakada, Masami; Takano, Masahide; Akie, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Osamu; Komuro, Michiyasu; Oura, Hirofumi*; Nagai, Isao*; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2021-001, 144 Pages, 2021/08


Plutonium Research Building No.1 (Pu1) was qualified as a facility to decommission, and preparatory operations for decommission were worked by the research groups users and the facility managers of Pu1. The operation of transportation of whole nuclear materials in Pu1 to Back-end Cycle Key Element Research Facility (BECKY) completed at Dec. 2020. In the operation included evaluation of criticality safety for changing permission of the license for use nuclear fuel materials in BECKY, cask of the transportation, the registration request of the cask at the institute, the test transportation, formulation of plan for whole nuclear materials transportation, and the main transportation. This report circumstantially shows all of those process to help prospective decommission.

Journal Articles

Radioactivity and radionuclides in deciduous teeth formed before the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Takahashi, Atsushi*; Chiba, Mirei*; Tanahara, Akira*; Aida, Jun*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; Suzuki, Toshihiko*; Murakami, Shinobu*; Koarai, Kazuma; Ono, Takumi*; Oka, Toshitaka; et al.

Scientific Reports (Internet), 11(1), p.10355_1 - 10355_11, 2021/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:69.33(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Development of spin-contrast-variation neutron powder diffractometry for extracting the structure factor of hydrogen atoms

Miura, Daisuke*; Kumada, Takayuki; Sekine, Yurina; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oba, Yojiro; Ohara, Takashi; Takata, Shinichi; Hiroi, Kosuke; Morikawa, Toshiaki*; et al.

Journal of Applied Crystallography, 54(2), p.454 - 460, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We developed a spin-contrast-variation neutron powder diffractometry technique that extracts the structure factor of hydrogen atoms, namely, the contribution of hydrogen atoms to a crystal structure factor. Crystals of L-glutamic acid were dispersed in a dpolystyrene matrix containing 4-methacryloyloxy-2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO methacrylate) to polarize their proton spins dynamically. The intensities of the diffraction peaks of the sample changed according to the proton polarization, and the structure factor of the hydrogen atoms was extracted from the proton-polarization dependent intensities. This technique is expected to enable analyses of the structures of hydrogen-containing materials that are difficult to determine with conventional powder diffractometry.

Journal Articles

Study of the axial $$U(1)$$ anomaly at high temperature with lattice chiral fermions

Aoki, Sinya*; Aoki, Yasumichi*; Cossu, G.*; Fukaya, Hidenori*; Hashimoto, Shoji*; Kaneko, Takashi*; Rohrhofer, C.*; Suzuki, Kei

Physical Review D, 103(7), p.074506_1 - 074506_18, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:84.91(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We investigate the axial $$U(1)$$ anomaly of two-flavor QCD at temperatures 190-330 MeV. In order to preserve precise chiral symmetry on the lattice, we employ the M$"o$bius domain-wall fermion action as well as overlap fermion action implemented with a stochastic reweighting technique. Compared to our previous studies, we reduce the lattice spacing to 0.07 fm, simulate larger multiple volumes to estimate finite size effect, and take more than four quark mass points, including one below physical point to investigate the chiral limit. We measure the topological susceptibility, axial $$U(1)$$ susceptibility, and examine the degeneracy of $$U(1)$$ partners in meson/baryon correlators. All the data above the critical temperature indicate that the axial $$U(1)$$ violation is consistent with zero within statistical errors. The quark mass dependence suggests disappearance of the $$U(1)$$ anomaly at a rate comparable to that of the $$SU(2)_L times SU(2)_R$$ symmetry breaking.

JAEA Reports

Development of fireproof sheet on glove box panels

Kawasaki, Kohei; Shinada, Kenta; Okamoto, Naritoshi; Kageyama, Tomio; Eda, Takashi; Okazaki, Hiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Otabe, Jun

JAEA-Technology 2020-025, 80 Pages, 2021/03


Plutonium Fuel Production Facility was built in 1988 for the purpose of mainly producing MOX fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, and large glove boxes were installed for handling unsealed nuclear fuel material remotely. The panels of these glove boxes are made of acrylic, except for those installed after December 2013. For fires inside the glove box, automatic fire extinguishing systems using halides have been introduced since the beginning of construction, but for fires outside the glove box, there have been issues with direct measures for acrylic. Therefore, we have developed a fireproof sheet that mitigates the effect of fire outside the glove box on the panels as much as possible. As a result, fire-retardant sheets have been selected and attached to the glove box panels. We conducted a flammability test of the acrylic plate attached with these fireproof sheets and a usage environment influence test of fireproof sheets, and obtained good results. In addition, we set up a working group in the Plutonium Fuel Development Center in view of reducing external exposure during the work of attaching fireproof sheets, in which we discussed and examined the work procedure, and summarized it in the basic procedure manual.

Journal Articles

Behavior of radiocesium in sediments in Fukushima coastal waters: Verification of desorption potential through pore water

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*; Kambayashi, Shota*; Fukuda, Miho*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Misono, Toshiharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Aono, Tatsuo*

Environmental Science & Technology, 54(21), p.13778 - 13785, 2020/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:42.4(Engineering, Environmental)

Concentrations of $$^{137}$$Cs in seawater, seabed sediment, and pore water collected from the area around Fukushima were investigated from 2015 to 2018, and the potential of coastal sediments to supply radiocesium to the bottom environment was evaluated. The $$^{137}$$Cs concentration in the pore water ranged from 33 to 1934 mBq L$$^{-1}$$ and was 10-40 times higher than that in the overlying water (seawater overlying within 30 cm on the seabed). At most stations, the $$^{137}$$Cs concentrations in the overlying water and the pore water were approximately proportional to those in the sediment. The conditional partition coefficient between pore water and sediment was 0.9-14$$times$$10$$^{2}$$ L kg$$^{-1}$$, independent of the year of sampling. These results indicated that an equilibrium of $$^{137}$$Cs between pore water and sediment has established in a relatively short period, and $$^{137}$$Cs in the pore water is gradually exported to seawater near the seabed. A simple box model estimation based on these results showed that the $$^{137}$$Cs in the sediment was decreased by about 6% per year by desorption/diffusion of $$^{137}$$Cs from the seabed.

JAEA Reports

Practical guide on soil sampling, treatment, and carbon isotope analysis for carbon cycle studies

Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10


There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived $$^{14}$$C) and stable carbon ($$^{13}$$C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for $$^{13}$$C (and stable nitrogen isotope, $$^{15}$$N) and $$^{14}$$C analyses; and $$^{13}$$C, $$^{15}$$N, and $$^{14}$$C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report $$^{14}$$C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.

Journal Articles

Development and application of a $$^3$$He neutron spin filter at J-PARC

Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Sakai, Kenji; Hiroi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Shingo*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Endo, Hitoshi*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:78.97(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Journal Articles

Vertical distributions of Iodine-129 and iodide in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea

Miwa, Kazuji; Obata, Hajime*; Suzuki, Takashi

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.537 - 545, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.18(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This study investigated the vertical distribution of Iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) which is mainly produced by European nuclear reprocessing plants in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea. $$^{129}$$I was found to be distributed almost uniformly in fallout level, and an increasing in $$^{129}$$I concentration levels caused by high $$^{129}$$I water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean was not observed. Additionally, we revealed the vertical distribution of iodide, one chemical form of iodine, from the Bering Shelf area to the Chukchi Sea for the first time. The increasing tendency of iodide near sea bottom was observed.

Journal Articles

How different is the core of $$^{25}$$F from $$^{24}$$O$$_{g.s.}$$ ?

Tang, T. L.*; Uesaka, Tomohiro*; Kawase, Shoichiro; Beaumel, D.*; Dozono, Masanori*; Fujii, Toshihiko*; Fukuda, Naoki*; Fukunaga, Taku*; Galindo-Uribarri. A.*; Hwang, S. H.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 124(21), p.212502_1 - 212502_6, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:90.12(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The structure of a neutron-rich $$^{25}$$F nucleus is investigated by a quasifree ($$p,2p$$) knockout reaction. The sum of spectroscopic factors of $$pi 0d_{5/2}$$ orbital is found to be 1.0 $$pm$$ 0.3. The result shows that the $$^{24}$$O core of $$^{25}$$F nucleus significantly differs from a free $$^{24}$$O nucleus, and the core consists of $$sim$$35% $$^{24}$$O$$_{rm g.s.}$$, and $$sim$$65% excited $$^{24}$$O. The result shows that the $$^{24}$$O core of $$^{25}$$F nucleus significantly differs from a free $$^{24}$$O nucleus. The result may infer that the addition of the $$0d_{5/2}$$ proton considerably changes the neutron structure in $$^{25}$$F from that in $$^{24}$$O, which could be a possible mechanism responsible for the oxygen dripline anomaly.

Journal Articles

Verification of safety margin of reactor pressure vessel exposed to various thermal transients based on probabilistic approach

Suzuki, Masahide*; Murakami, Kenta*; Suzuki, Takashi*; Okayama, Ryuta*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.

E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 11(4), p.172 - 178, 2020/02

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Reconstruction of residents' thyroid equivalent doses from internal radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

Oba, Takashi*; Ishikawa, Tetsuo*; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tokonami, Shinji*; Hasegawa, Arifumi*; Suzuki, Gen*

Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.3639_1 - 3639_11, 2020/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:74.78(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Internal doses of residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been reconstructed. In total 896 behaviour records in the Fukushima Health Management Survey were analysed to estimate thyroid doses via inhalation, using a spatiotemporal radionuclides concentration database constructed by atmospheric dispersion simulations. After a decontamination factor for sheltering and a modifying factor for the dose coefficient were applied, estimated thyroid doses were close to those estimated on the basis of direct thyroid measurement. The median and 95th percentile of thyroid doses of 1-year-old children ranged from 1.2 to 15 mSv and from 7.5 to 30 mSv, respectively.

Journal Articles

Zr separation from high-level liquid waste with a novel hydroxyacetoamide type extractant

Morita, Keisuke; Suzuki, Hideya; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Yuya*; Omori, Takashi*; Kaneko, Masaaki*; Asano, Kazuhito*

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.464 - 468, 2019/09

High level liquid waste (HLLW) contains several radionuclides with half-lives longer than 10$$^{6}$$ year. For reduce environmental burden of waste disposal, minor actinoids and long-lived fission products will to be partitioned and transmuted. JAEA and Toshiba developed process for recovering Se, Zr, Pd and Cs from HLLW. Solvent extraction for Zr with novel extractant, ${it N,N}$-didodecyl-2-hydroxyacetoamide (HAA) was detailed. The HAA system showed high selectivity for Zr, as indicated by the extraction order of Zr $$>$$ Mo $$>$$ Pd $$>$$ Ag $$approx$$ Sb $$>$$ Sn $$>$$ Lns $$>$$ Fe. The extracted species was determined as Zr(HAA)$$_{3}$$(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{4}$$(HNO$$_{3}$$)$$_{x}$$. A continuous countercurrent extraction with HAA was applied to a simulated, concentrated HLLW after Pd, Se, and Cs removal, where the quantitative extraction of Zr and Mo was effectively demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of element production by incomplete fusion reaction with weakly bound deuteron

Wang, H.*; Otsu, Hideaki*; Chiga, Nobuyuki*; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Takeuchi, Satoshi*; Sumikama, Toshiyuki*; Koyama, Shumpei*; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Nakayama, Shinsuke; et al.

Communications Physics (Internet), 2(1), p.78_1 - 78_6, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:63.62(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Searching for effective pathways for the production of proton- and neutron-rich isotopes through an optimal combination of reaction mechanism and energy is one of the main driving forces behind experimental and theoretical nuclear reaction studies as well as for practical applications in nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste. We report on a study on incomplete fusion induced by deuteron, which contains one proton and one neutron with a weak binding energy and is easily broken up. This reaction study was achieved by measuring directly the cross sections for both proton and deuteron for $$^{107}$$Pd at 50 MeV/u via inverse kinematics technique. The results provide direct experimental evidence for the onset of a cross-section enhancement at high energy, indicating the potential of incomplete fusion induced by loosely-bound nuclei for creating proton-rich isotopes and nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste.

Journal Articles

Quantitative risk assessment of accident managements against volcano ash hazard in a sodium-cooled fast reactor

Suzuki, Minoru*; Sakai, Takaaki*; Takata, Takashi; Doda, Norihiro

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2019/05

With an aim to establish a quantitative risk assessment of accident managements (AMs) for various external hazards, the plant dynamics analyses with Continuous Markov Chain Monte Carlo (CMMC) method were carried out to assess repeatedly occurred multi-failures by volcano ash in volcanic eruption event. AM repetition of the filter exchange to recover the cooling function of the air coolers were considered. The results showed that this method can evaluate the effectiveness of AM measures against volcanic ash fall events with respect to time progress.

Journal Articles

Penetration of $$^{129}$$I released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in the western North Pacific Ocean

Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya

JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.103 - 106, 2019/02

To investigate the dynamics of radionuclides in the ocean released by the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), vertical distributions of $$^{129}$$ I at three stations in the western North Pacific was revealed. The 1F accident-derived $$^{129}$$ I existed within the mixed layer at 3 stations. The maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived $$^{129}$$ I existed at the depth of 370 m - 470 m at the most southern station. Considering the dissolved oxygen concentration and the current velocity arround the station, the maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived $$^{129}$$ I would be fromed that $$^{129}$$I which existed in the surface seawater at other area of observation point was carried to the depth of 370 m - 470 m by the fast downward flow.

Journal Articles

Distribution and fate of $$^{129}$$I in the seabed sediment off Fukushima

Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuwabara, Jun; Nakanishi, Takahiro

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.208 - 218, 2018/12


 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:53.04(Environmental Sciences)

From August 2011 to October 2013, the concentration of iodine-129 ($$^{129}$$I) in the seabed sediment collected from 26 stations located within 160 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was estimated. The concentrations of $$^{129}$$I in seabed sediment off Fukushima in 2011 ranged between 0.02 and 0.45 mBq/kg. Although iodine is a biophilic element, the accident-derived radioiodine negligibly affects the benthic ecosystem. Until October 2013, a slightly increased activity of $$^{129}$$I in the surface sediment in the shelf-edge region (bottom depth: 200-400 m) was observed. The increase of the $$^{129}$$I concentrations in the shelf-edge sediments was affected by the (1) transport of $$^{129}$$I-bound particles from the land through rivers and (2) re-deposition of $$^{129}$$I desorbed from the contaminated coastal sediment to the shelf-edge sediments, which were considered to be dominant processes.

Journal Articles

Vertical distribution of $$^{129}$$I released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in the Kuroshio and Oyashio current areas

Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya

Marine Chemistry, 204, p.163 - 171, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:10.28(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

To investigate the penetration of radionuclides released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), depth profiles were revealed at Kuroshio current, transition, and Oyashio current areas. The FDNPP-derived $$^{129}$$I was found in surface layer at Oyashio current and transition areas and in sub-surface layer at Kuroshio current area. Moreover, it was found that the FDNPP-derived $$^{129}$$I/$$^{134}$$Cs ratios in the Oyashio current and transition areas were higher than that in the FDNPP reactor. The higher FDNPP-derived $$^{129}$$I/$$^{134}$$Cs ratios suggest three potential mechanisms for the migration of radionuclides in the environment: (1) radioiodine was released more easily than radiocesium by the FDNPP accident, (2) $$^{129}$$I was supplied from the atmosphere by re-emitted $$^{129}$$I from contaminated areas around Fukushima, (3) leaked water that removed radiocesium reached the sampling stations. The FDNPP-derived $$^{129}$$I in sub-surface layer would be transported by the meander of the Kuroshio Extension current.

Journal Articles

Impacts of anthropogenic source from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants on global atmospheric iodine-129 cycle; A Model analysis

Kadowaki, Masanao; Katata, Genki*; Terada, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hidenao*; Akata, Naofumi*; Kakiuchi, Hideki*

Atmospheric Environment, 184, p.278 - 291, 2018/07

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:50.81(Environmental Sciences)

The long-lived radioactive iodine ($$^{129}$$I) is a useful geochemical tracer in the atmospheric environment. We recently observed clear seasonal trends in air concentration and deposition of $$^{129}$$I in Japan. Using these data, we developed a global atmospheric $$^{129}$$I transport model to reveal key processes for the global atmospheric $$^{129}$$I cycle. The model generally reproduced the observed seasonal change in air concentration and deposition of $$^{129}$$I in Japan, and the global distribution of $$^{129}$$I concentration in rain as presented in past literature. Numerical experiments changing the intensity of anthropogenic and natural sources were conducted to quantify the impact of anthropogenic sources on the global $$^{129}$$I cycle. The results indicated that the atmospheric $$^{129}$$I from the anthropogenic sources was deposited in winter and can be accumulated mainly in the northern part of Eurasia. In contrast, the atmospheric $$^{129}$$I from the natural sources dominated the deposition in summer. These results suggested that the re-emission process of $$^{129}$$I from the Earth's surface may be important as a secondary impact of $$^{129}$$I in the global-scaled environment. Furthermore, although wet deposition dominated the total deposition in the Northern hemisphere, dry deposition regionally and seasonally contributed to the total deposition over arctic and northern part of Eurasia in winter, suggesting that the dry deposition may play a key role in the seasonal change of $$^{129}$$I deposition in the Northern hemisphere high latitudes.

Journal Articles

Development of a crack opening displacement assessment procedure considering change of compliance at a crack part in thin wall pipes made of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

Wakai, Takashi; Machida, Hideo*; Arakawa, Manabu*; Yanagihara, Seiji*; Suzuki, Ryosuke*; Matsubara, Masaaki*

Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07

This paper studies crack opening displacement (COD) evaluation methods used in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) pipe. For SFR pipe, the continuous leak monitoring will be adopted as an alternative to a volumetric test of the weld joints under conditions that satisfy LBB. The sodium pipes are made of ASME Gr.91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel). Thickness of the pipes is small, because the internal pressure is very small. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has a relatively large yield stress and small work hardening coefficient comparing to the austenitic stainless steels which are currently used in the conventional plants. In order to assess the LBB behavior of the sodium pipes made of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, the coolant leak rate from a through wall crack must be estimated properly. Since the leak rate is strongly related to the crack opening displacement (COD), an appropriate COD assessment method must be established to perform LBB assessment. However, COD assessment method applicable for SFR pipes - having thin wall thickness and made of small work hardening material - has not been proposed yet. Thus, a COD assessment method applicable to such a pipe was proposed in this study. In this method, COD was calculated by classifying the components of COD; elastic, local plastic and fully plastic. In addition, the verification of this method was performed by comparing with the results of a series of four-point bending tests using modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe having a circumferential through wall notch. As a result, in some cases, COD were over-estimated especially for large cracks. Although the elastic component of COD is still over-estimated for large cracks, leak evaluation from small cracks is much more important in LBB assessment. Therefore, this study recommends that only the elastic component of COD should be adopted in LBB assessment of SFR pipes.

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