Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Nagano, Hirohiko*; Sugiharto, U.*; Saengkorakot, C.*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kokubu, Yoko; Fujita, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Naoki; Nagai, Haruyasu; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2020-012, 53 Pages, 2020/10
There is growing concern that recent rapid changes in climate and environment could have a significant influence on carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems (especially forest ecosystems) and could consequently lead to a positive feedback for global warming. The magnitude and timing of this feedback remain highly uncertain largely due to a lack of quantitative understanding of the dynamics of organic carbon stored in soils and its responses to changes in climate and environment. The tracing of radiocarbon (natural and bomb-derived C) and stable carbon (C) isotopes through terrestrial ecosystems can be a powerful tool for studying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. The primary aim of this guide is to promote the use of isotope-based approaches to improve our understanding of the carbon cycling in soils, particularly in the Asian region. The guide covers practical methods of soil sampling; treatment and fractionation of soil samples; preparation of soil samples for C (and stable nitrogen isotope, N) and C analyses; and C, N, and C measurements by the use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The guide briefly introduces ways to report C data, which are frequently used for soil carbon cycling studies. The guide also reports results of a case study conducted in a Japanese forest ecosystem, as a practical application of the use of isotope-based approaches. This guide is mainly intended for researchers who are interested but are not experienced in this research field. The guide will hopefully encourage readers to participate in soil carbon cycling studies, including field works, laboratory experiments, isotope analyses, and discussions with great interest.
Okudaira, Takuya; Oku, Takayuki; Ino, Takashi*; Hayashida, Hirotoshi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Sakai, Kenji; Hiroi, Kosuke; Takahashi, Shingo*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Endo, Hitoshi*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 977, p.164301_1 - 164301_8, 2020/10
Miwa, Kazuji; Obata, Hajime*; Suzuki, Takashi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 57(5), p.537 - 545, 2020/05
This study investigated the vertical distribution of Iodine-129 (I) which is mainly produced by European nuclear reprocessing plants in the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea. I was found to be distributed almost uniformly in fallout level, and an increasing in I concentration levels caused by high I water inflow from the Atlantic Ocean was not observed. Additionally, we revealed the vertical distribution of iodide, one chemical form of iodine, from the Bering Shelf area to the Chukchi Sea for the first time. The increasing tendency of iodide near sea bottom was observed.
Tang, T. L.*; Uesaka, Tomohiro*; Kawase, Shoichiro; Beaumel, D.*; Dozono, Masanori*; Fujii, Toshihiko*; Fukuda, Naoki*; Fukunaga, Taku*; Galindo-Uribarri. A.*; Hwang, S. H.*; et al.
Physical Review Letters, 124(21), p.212502_1 - 212502_6, 2020/05
The structure of a neutron-rich F nucleus is investigated by a quasifree () knockout reaction. The sum of spectroscopic factors of orbital is found to be 1.0 0.3. The result shows that the O core of F nucleus significantly differs from a free O nucleus, and the core consists of 35% O, and 65% excited O. The result shows that the O core of F nucleus significantly differs from a free O nucleus. The result may infer that the addition of the proton considerably changes the neutron structure in F from that in O, which could be a possible mechanism responsible for the oxygen dripline anomaly.
Suzuki, Masahide*; Murakami, Kenta*; Suzuki, Takashi*; Okayama, Ryuta*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Li, Y.
E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 11(4), p.172 - 178, 2020/02
no abstracts in English
Oba, Takashi*; Ishikawa, Tetsuo*; Nagai, Haruyasu; Tokonami, Shinji*; Hasegawa, Arifumi*; Suzuki, Gen*
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10(1), p.3639_1 - 3639_11, 2020/02
Internal doses of residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident have been reconstructed. In total 896 behaviour records in the Fukushima Health Management Survey were analysed to estimate thyroid doses via inhalation, using a spatiotemporal radionuclides concentration database constructed by atmospheric dispersion simulations. After a decontamination factor for sheltering and a modifying factor for the dose coefficient were applied, estimated thyroid doses were close to those estimated on the basis of direct thyroid measurement. The median and 95th percentile of thyroid doses of 1-year-old children ranged from 1.2 to 15 mSv and from 7.5 to 30 mSv, respectively.
Wang, H.*; Otsu, Hideaki*; Chiga, Nobuyuki*; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Takeuchi, Satoshi*; Sumikama, Toshiyuki*; Koyama, Shumpei*; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Nakayama, Shinsuke; et al.
Communications Physics (Internet), 2(1), p.78_1 - 78_6, 2019/07
Searching for effective pathways for the production of proton- and neutron-rich isotopes through an optimal combination of reaction mechanism and energy is one of the main driving forces behind experimental and theoretical nuclear reaction studies as well as for practical applications in nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste. We report on a study on incomplete fusion induced by deuteron, which contains one proton and one neutron with a weak binding energy and is easily broken up. This reaction study was achieved by measuring directly the cross sections for both proton and deuteron for Pd at 50 MeV/u via inverse kinematics technique. The results provide direct experimental evidence for the onset of a cross-section enhancement at high energy, indicating the potential of incomplete fusion induced by loosely-bound nuclei for creating proton-rich isotopes and nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste.
Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
JAEA-Conf 2018-002, p.103 - 106, 2019/02
To investigate the dynamics of radionuclides in the ocean released by the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F), vertical distributions of I at three stations in the western North Pacific was revealed. The 1F accident-derived I existed within the mixed layer at 3 stations. The maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived I existed at the depth of 370 m - 470 m at the most southern station. Considering the dissolved oxygen concentration and the current velocity arround the station, the maximum layer of the 1F accident-derived I would be fromed that I which existed in the surface seawater at other area of observation point was carried to the depth of 370 m - 470 m by the fast downward flow.
Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Sato, Yuhi*; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuwabara, Jun; Nakanishi, Takahiro
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 192, p.208 - 218, 2018/12
From August 2011 to October 2013, the concentration of iodine-129 (I) in the seabed sediment collected from 26 stations located within 160 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was estimated. The concentrations of I in seabed sediment off Fukushima in 2011 ranged between 0.02 and 0.45 mBq/kg. Although iodine is a biophilic element, the accident-derived radioiodine negligibly affects the benthic ecosystem. Until October 2013, a slightly increased activity of I in the surface sediment in the shelf-edge region (bottom depth: 200-400 m) was observed. The increase of the I concentrations in the shelf-edge sediments was affected by the (1) transport of I-bound particles from the land through rivers and (2) re-deposition of I desorbed from the contaminated coastal sediment to the shelf-edge sediments, which were considered to be dominant processes.
Suzuki, Takashi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Kuwabara, Jun; Kawamura, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya
Marine Chemistry, 204, p.163 - 171, 2018/08
To investigate the penetration of radionuclides released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), depth profiles were revealed at Kuroshio current, transition, and Oyashio current areas. The FDNPP-derived I was found in surface layer at Oyashio current and transition areas and in sub-surface layer at Kuroshio current area. Moreover, it was found that the FDNPP-derived I/Cs ratios in the Oyashio current and transition areas were higher than that in the FDNPP reactor. The higher FDNPP-derived I/Cs ratios suggest three potential mechanisms for the migration of radionuclides in the environment: (1) radioiodine was released more easily than radiocesium by the FDNPP accident, (2) I was supplied from the atmosphere by re-emitted I from contaminated areas around Fukushima, (3) leaked water that removed radiocesium reached the sampling stations. The FDNPP-derived I in sub-surface layer would be transported by the meander of the Kuroshio Extension current.
Kadowaki, Masanao; Katata, Genki*; Terada, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hidenao*; Akata, Naofumi*; Kakiuchi, Hideki*
Atmospheric Environment, 184, p.278 - 291, 2018/07
The long-lived radioactive iodine (I) is a useful geochemical tracer in the atmospheric environment. We recently observed clear seasonal trends in air concentration and deposition of I in Japan. Using these data, we developed a global atmospheric I transport model to reveal key processes for the global atmospheric I cycle. The model generally reproduced the observed seasonal change in air concentration and deposition of I in Japan, and the global distribution of I concentration in rain as presented in past literature. Numerical experiments changing the intensity of anthropogenic and natural sources were conducted to quantify the impact of anthropogenic sources on the global I cycle. The results indicated that the atmospheric I from the anthropogenic sources was deposited in winter and can be accumulated mainly in the northern part of Eurasia. In contrast, the atmospheric I from the natural sources dominated the deposition in summer. These results suggested that the re-emission process of I from the Earth's surface may be important as a secondary impact of I in the global-scaled environment. Furthermore, although wet deposition dominated the total deposition in the Northern hemisphere, dry deposition regionally and seasonally contributed to the total deposition over arctic and northern part of Eurasia in winter, suggesting that the dry deposition may play a key role in the seasonal change of I deposition in the Northern hemisphere high latitudes.
Wakai, Takashi; Machida, Hideo*; Arakawa, Manabu*; Yanagihara, Seiji*; Suzuki, Ryosuke*; Matsubara, Masaaki*
Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-26) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/07
This paper studies crack opening displacement (COD) evaluation methods used in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) pipe. For SFR pipe, the continuous leak monitoring will be adopted as an alternative to a volumetric test of the weld joints under conditions that satisfy LBB. The sodium pipes are made of ASME Gr.91 (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel). Thickness of the pipes is small, because the internal pressure is very small. Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has a relatively large yield stress and small work hardening coefficient comparing to the austenitic stainless steels which are currently used in the conventional plants. In order to assess the LBB behavior of the sodium pipes made of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, the coolant leak rate from a through wall crack must be estimated properly. Since the leak rate is strongly related to the crack opening displacement (COD), an appropriate COD assessment method must be established to perform LBB assessment. However, COD assessment method applicable for SFR pipes - having thin wall thickness and made of small work hardening material - has not been proposed yet. Thus, a COD assessment method applicable to such a pipe was proposed in this study. In this method, COD was calculated by classifying the components of COD; elastic, local plastic and fully plastic. In addition, the verification of this method was performed by comparing with the results of a series of four-point bending tests using modified 9Cr-1Mo steel pipe having a circumferential through wall notch. As a result, in some cases, COD were over-estimated especially for large cracks. Although the elastic component of COD is still over-estimated for large cracks, leak evaluation from small cracks is much more important in LBB assessment. Therefore, this study recommends that only the elastic component of COD should be adopted in LBB assessment of SFR pipes.
Ino, Kohei*; Hernsdorf, A. W.*; Konno, Yuta*; Kozuka, Mariko*; Yanagawa, Katsunori*; Kato, Shingo*; Sunamura, Michinari*; Hirota, Akinari*; Togo, Yoko*; Ito, Kazumasa*; et al.
ISME Journal, 12(1), p.31 - 47, 2018/01
In this study, we found the dominance ofanaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea in groundwater enriched in sulfate and methane from a 300-m deep underground borehole in granitic rock.
Nakajima, Kenji; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Ito, Shinichi*; Abe, Jun*; Aizawa, Kazuya; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hitoshi*; Fujita, Masaki*; Funakoshi, Kenichi*; Gong, W.*; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(3), p.9_1 - 9_59, 2017/12
The neutron instruments suite, installed at the spallation neutron source of the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), is reviewed. MLF has 23 neutron beam ports and 21 instruments are in operation for user programs or are under commissioning. A unique and challenging instrumental suite in MLF has been realized via combination of a high-performance neutron source, optimized for neutron scattering, and unique instruments using cutting-edge technologies. All instruments are/will serve in world-leading investigations in a broad range of fields, from fundamental physics to industrial applications. In this review, overviews, characteristic features, and typical applications of the individual instruments are mentioned.
Ikushima, Kazuki*; Shibahara, Masakazu*; Nishikawa, Satoru*; Furukawa, Takashi*; Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Morooka, Satoshi
E-Journal of Advanced Maintenance (Internet), 9(3), p.NT87_1 - NT87_5, 2017/11
Sasaki, Yuji; Morita, Keisuke; Ito, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Takahashi, Yuya*; Kaneko, Masaaki*; Omori, Takashi*; Asano, Kazuhito*
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference (GLOBAL 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2017/09
no abstracts in English
Sakasai, Kaoru; Sato, Setsuo*; Seya, Tomohiro*; Nakamura, Tatsuya; To, Kentaro; Yamagishi, Hideshi*; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Maruyama, Ryuji; Oku, Takayuki; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.10_1 - 10_35, 2017/09
Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.
Kikkawa, Takashi*; Suzuki, Motohiro*; Okabayashi, Jun*; Uchida, Kenichi*; Kikuchi, Daisuke*; Qiu, Z.*; Saito, Eiji
Physical Review B, 95(21), p.214416_1 - 214416_7, 2017/06
Akita, Koichi; Shibahara, Masakazu*; Ikushima, Kazuki*; Nishikawa, Satoru*; Furukawa, Takashi*; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Harjo, S.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Vladimir, L.*
Yosetsu Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 35(2), p.112s - 116s, 2017/06
Ikushima, Kazuki*; Kitani, Yuji*; Shibahara, Masakazu*; Nishikawa, Satoru*; Furukawa, Takashi*; Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Morooka, Satoshi
Yosetsu Gakkai Rombunshu (Internet), 35(2), p.75s - 79s, 2017/06