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Journal Articles

Multiple mechanisms in proton-induced nucleon removal at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon

Pohl, T.*; Sun, Y. L.*; Obertelli, A.*; Lee, J.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Cai, B. S.*; Yuan, C. X.*; Brown, B. A.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(17), p.172501_1 - 172501_8, 2023/04

We report on the first proton-induced single proton- and neutron-removal reactions from the neutron deficient $$^{14}$$O nucleus with large Fermi-surface asymmetry at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon. Our results provide the first quantitative contributions of multiple reaction mechanisms including the quasifree knockout, inelastic scattering, and nucleon transfer processes. It is shown that the inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer, usually neglected at such energy regime, contribute about 50% and 30% to the loosely bound proton and deeply bound neutron removal, respectively.

Journal Articles

Isotopic signals in fracture-filling calcite showing anaerobic oxidation of methane in a granitic basement

Mizuno, Takashi; Suzuki, Yohei*; Milodowski, A. E.*; Iwatsuki, Teruki

Applied Geochemistry, 150, p.105571_1 - 105571_11, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) affects both the redox conditions and carbon cycle in groundwater. However, examples of studies on crystalline rock deep in terrestrial subsurface as well as the potential host rock for geological disposal are few. Therefore, we conducted a paleohydrogeological study on fracture-filling calcite in the Toki Granite. The $$delta$$$$^{18}$$O$$_{VPDB}$$ value (-32.7 to -0.59 permil) revealed that the groundwater that precipitated the calcite was groundwater derived from hydrothermal fluid, freshwater that came from the surface, and seawater that penetrated during marine transgression. On the other hand, $$delta$$$$^{13}$$C$$_{VPDB}$$ (-56.6 to 6.0 permil) was wider than the isotopic range of DIC that originated from hydrothermal, freshwater, and seawater sources (-25 to 2 permil). Calcite with $$delta$$$$^{13}$$C$$_{VPDB}$$ that was lighter than -25 permil was believed to have precipitated DIC, which was provided by AOM. In contrast to previous studies, the Mizunami AOM calcite was precipitated in a freshwater environment, indicating that various processes could have generated AOM in crystalline rocks deep in the terrestrial subsurface.

Journal Articles

Anaerobic methane-oxidizing activity in a deep underground borehole dominantly colonized by $$Ca.$$ Methanoperedenaceae

Nishimura, Hiroki*; Kozuka, Mariko*; Fukuda, Akari*; Ishimura, Toyoho*; Amano, Yuki; Beppu, Hikari*; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Suzuki, Yohei*

Environmental Microbiology Reports (Internet), 9 Pages, 2023/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The family $$Ca.$$ Methanoperedenaceae archaea mediate anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). We newly developed a high-pressure laboratory incubation system and investigated groundwater from 214- and 249-m deep boreholes at Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan, where the high and low abundances of $$Ca.$$ Methanoperedenaceae archaea have been revealed, respectively. We incubated the samples amended with or without amorphous Fe(III) and $$^{13}$$C-labelled methane at an in-situ pressure of 1.6 MPa. After three to seven-day incubation, AOM activities were not detected from the 249-m sample but from the 214-m sample. The AOM rates were 93.7$$pm$$40.6 and 27.7$$pm$$37.5 nM/day with and without Fe(III) amendment. Suspended particulates were not visible in the 249-m sample on the filter, while they were abundant and contained amorphous Fe(III) and Fe(III)-bearing phyllosilicates in the 214-m sample. This supports the in-situ activity of Fe(III)-dependent AOM in the deep subsurface borehole.

Journal Articles

Variation of crystallinity and secondary ion quantity of uranium particles with heating temperature of Sample preparation

Tomita, Ryohei; Tomita, Jumpei; Yomogida, Takumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka

KEK Proceedings 2022-2, p.108 - 113, 2022/11

Automated Particle Measurement (APM) is the first measurement of environmental sample for safeguard purpose. APM tells us the number of particles in sample, their enrichment and their location. Precision and accuracy of APM is easily affected by particle condition. We have investigated how influential baking temperature in sample preparation are for uranium secondary ion quantity, uranium hydride generation and particle crystallinity. Our experimental results showed that baking temperature of 800$$^{circ}$$C reduced uranium secondary ion quantity to 33% compared with baking at 350$$^{circ}$$C. Uranium hydride generation ratio of the sample baked at 850$$^{circ}$$C was also 4 times higher than the sample baked at 350$$^{circ}$$C. Baking at 850$$^{circ}$$C raised only crystallinity of uranium particles. Baking sample at too high temperature caused less uranium secondary ion generation and much more uranium hydride generation. It made precision and accuracy of APM worse. In our experiment, baking at 350$$^{circ}$$C is suitable for uranium particles in the safeguards sample.

Journal Articles

Preparation of the particles containing isotope reference uranium for the determination of the low abundant U isotope ratios

Tomita, Jumpei; Tomita, Ryohei; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Miyamoto, Yutaka

KEK Proceedings 2022-2, p.154 - 158, 2022/11

Precise determination of minor U isotopes ($$^{233}$$U and $$^{236}$$U) of particles from the safeguard environmental samples is powerful method for detecting the undeclared nuclear activities. In this study, preparation method of U particle was examined to utilize for the minor U isotope determination. The porous silica particles were used as the particle matrix and lutetium was mixed to the impregnation solution as U impregnation indicator for the particle picking. The result of the Scanning Electron Microscope indicated that the contacting the solution with Si particles overnight gently could produce the impregnated particles effectively rather than the mixing them with PFA stick.

Journal Articles

Optimization of SIMS-APM for high enrichment uranium particles including higher uranium hydride

Tomita, Ryohei; Tomita, Jumpei; Yomogida, Takumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Miyamoto, Yutaka

KEK Proceedings 2021-2, p.146 - 150, 2021/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Age determination analysis of a single uranium particle for safeguards

Suzuki, Daisuke; Tomita, Ryohei; Tomita, Jumpei; Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Miyamoto, Yutaka

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 328(1), p.103 - 111, 2021/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:46.88(Chemistry, Analytical)

An analytical technique was developed to determine the age of uranium particles for safeguards. After the chemical separation of uranium and thorium, the $$^{230}$$Th/$$^{234}$$U ratio was measured using single-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and a $$^{233}$$U-based reference material comprising a certain amount of $$^{229}$$Th as a progeny nuclide of $$^{233}$$U. The results allowed us to determine the purification age of two certified materials, i.e., U-850 and U-100, which was in good agreement with the reference purification age (61 y). Moreover, the age of a single U-850 particle was determined with a difference of -28 to 2 years from the reference date.

Journal Articles

Morphological reproductive characteristics of testes and fertilization capacity of cryopreserved sperm after the Fukushima accident in raccoon (${it Procyon lotor}$)

Komatsu, Kazuki*; Iwasaki, Tsugumi*; Murata, Kosuke*; Yamashiro, Hideaki*; Goh, V. S. T.*; Nakayama, Ryo*; Fujishima, Yohei*; Ono, Takumi*; Kino, Yasushi*; Shimizu, Yoshinaka*; et al.

Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 56(3), p.484 - 497, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:93.1(Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science)

We have established an archive system of livestock and wild animals from the surrounding ex-evacuation zone. Wildlife within the alert zone have been exposed to low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation for a long and continuous time. In this study, we analysed the morphological characteristics of the testes and in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of cryopreserved sperm of raccoons from the ex-evacuation zone of the FDNPP accident. This study revealed that the chronic and LDR radiation exposure associated with the FDNPP accident had no adverse effect on the reproductive characteristics and functions of male raccoons.

Journal Articles

Discriminative measurement of absorbed dose rates in air from natural and artificial radionuclides in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture

Ogura, Koya*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Yamada, Ryohei; Negemi, Ryoju*; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo*; Yamaguchi, Masaru*; Shiroma, Yoshitaka*; Iwaoka, Kazuki*; et al.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), p.978_1 - 978_16, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:55.16(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

A Unique high natural background radiation area; Dose assessment and perspectives

Hosoda, Masahiro*; Nugraha, E. D.*; Akata, Naofumi*; Yamada, Ryohei; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Sasaki, Michiya*; Kelleher, K.*; Yoshinaga, Shinji*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Rattanapongs, C. P.*; et al.

Science of the Total Environment, 750, p.142346_1 - 142346_11, 2021/01

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:89.05(Environmental Sciences)

The biological effects of low dose-rate radiation exposures on humans remains unknown. In fact, the Japanese nation still struggles with this issue after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Recently, we have found a unique area in Indonesia where naturally high radiation levels are present, resulting in chronic low dose-rate radiation exposures. We aimed to estimate the comprehensive dose due to internal and external exposures at the particularly high natural radiation area, and to discuss the enhancement mechanism of radon. A car-borne survey was conducted to estimate the external doses from terrestrial radiation. Indoor radon measurements were made in 47 dwellings over three to five months, covering the two typical seasons, to estimate the internal doses. Atmospheric radon gases were simultaneously collected at several heights to evaluate the vertical distribution. The absorbed dose rates in air in the study area vary widely between 50 nGy h$$^{-1}$$ and 1109 nGy h$$^{-1}$$. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 124 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ to 1015 Bq m$$^{-3}$$. That is, the indoor radon concentrations measured exceed the reference levels of 100 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ recommended by the World Health Organization. Furthermore, the outdoor radon concentrations measured were comparable to the high indoor radon concentrations. The annual effective dose due to external and internal exposures in the study area was estimated to be 27 mSv using the median values. It was found that many residents are receiving radiation exposure from natural radionuclides over the dose limit for occupational exposure to radiation workers. This enhanced outdoor radon concentration might be as a result of the stable atmospheric conditions generated at an exceptionally low altitude. Our findings suggest that this area provides a unique opportunity to conduct an epidemiological study related to health effects due to chronic low dose-rate radiation exposure.

Journal Articles

Suppression of decay widths in singly heavy baryons induced by the $$U_A(1)$$ anomaly

Kawakami, Yohei*; Harada, Masayasu*; Oka, Makoto; Suzuki, Kei

Physical Review D, 102(11), p.114004_1 - 114004_9, 2020/12


 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:37.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We study strong and radiative decays of excited singly heavy baryons using an effective chiral Lagrangian based on the diquark picture. The effective Lagrangian contains a $$U_A(1)$$ anomaly term, which is found to suppress the decay width of $$Lambda_Q(1/2^-) to Lambda_Q(1/2^+)eta$$.

Journal Articles

Microstructural features and ductile-brittle transition behavior in hot-rolled lean duplex stainless steels

Takahashi, Osamu*; Shibui, Yohei*; Xu, P. G.; Harjo, S.; Suzuki, Tetsuya*; Tomota, Yo*

Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 4(1), p.16_1 - 16_15, 2020/03

Journal Articles

Sequestration and oxidation of Cr(III) by fungal Mn oxides with Mn(II) oxidizing activity

Suzuki, Ryohei*; Tani, Yukinori*; Naito, Hirotaka*; Miyata, Naoyuki*; Tanaka, Kazuya

Catalysts, 10(1), p.44_1 - 44_15, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:37.08(Chemistry, Physical)

We prepared biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs) using ${it Acremonium strictum}$ strain KR21-2, and subsequently conducted single or repeated treatment experiments in Cr(NO$$_{3}$$)$$_{3}$$ at pH6.0. Under aerobic conditions, newly formed BMOs exhibited a rapid production of Cr(VI) without a significant release of Mn(II), demonstrating that newly formed BMO mediates a catalytic oxidation of Cr(III) with a self-regeneration step of reduced Mn. In anaerobic solution, newly formed BMOs showed a cessation of Cr(III) oxidation in the early stage of the reaction, and subsequently had a much smaller Cr(VI) production with significant release of reduced Mn(II).

Journal Articles

Cesium concentrations in various environmental media at Namie, Fukushima

Heged$"u$s, M.*; Shiroma, Yoshitaka*; Iwaoka, Kazuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Suzuki, Takahito*; Tamakuma, Yuki*; Yamada, Ryohei; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo*; Yamaguchi, Masaru*; Ogura, Koya*; et al.

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 323(1), p.197 - 204, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:25.74(Chemistry, Analytical)

The radioactivity of cesium in the water and sediments of two major rivers was measured along with airborne radioactivity in Namie Town, after the recent partial lift on the evacuation order in 2017. The observed concentrations were up to 384 $$pm$$ 11 mBq/L for $$^{137}$$Cs in unfiltered water and 1.28 $$pm$$ 0.09 mBq/m$$^{3}$$ for $$^{137}$$Cs in air, while the sediment had a maximum of 44900 $$pm$$ 23.4 Bq/kg for $$^{137}$$Cs. The $$^{134}$$Cs/$$^{137}$$Cs ratios indicate the main origin of the cesium in the sediment to be Unit 1 in good agreement with previous reports on the accident.

Journal Articles

Conceptual study on parasitic low-energy RI beam production with in-flight separator BigRIPS and the first stopping examination for high-energy RI beams in the parasitic gas cell

Sonoda, Tetsu*; Katayama, Ichiro*; Wada, Michiharu*; Iimura, Hideki; Sonnenschein, V.*; Iimura, Shun*; Takamine, Aiko*; Rosenbusch, M.*; Kojima, Takao*; Ahn, D. S.*; et al.

Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Internet), 2019(11), p.113D02_1 - 113D02_12, 2019/11


 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.01(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

An in-flight separator, BigRIPS, at RIBF in RIKEN provides each experiment with specific nuclides separated from many nuclides produced by projectile fragmentation or in-flight fission. In this process, nuclides other than separated ones are discarded on the slits in BigRIPS, although they include many nuclides interested from the view point of nuclear structure. In order to extract these nuclides for parasitic experiments, we are developing a method using laser ion-source (PALIS). A test experiment with $$^{78}$$Se beam from RIBF has been performed by using a gas cell set in BigRIPS. Unstable nuclides around $$^{67}$$Se were stopped in the gas cell in accordance with a calculation using LISE code. The stopping efficiency has been estimated to be about 30%. As a next step, we will establish the technique for extracting reaction products from the gas cell.

Journal Articles

Comparative study on performance of various environmental radiation monitors

Tamakuma, Yuki*; Yamada, Ryohei; Suzuki, Takahito*; Kuroki, Tomohiro*; Saga, Rikiya*; Mizuno, Hiroyuki*; Sasaki, Hiroyuki*; Iwaoka, Kazuki*; Hosoda, Masahiro*; Tokonami, Shinji*

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 184(3-4), p.307 - 310, 2019/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:13.41(Environmental Sciences)

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the radiation dose for first responders was not evaluated accurately due to lack of the monitoring data. It has been important to evaluate a radiation dose for workers in emergency response at a nuclear accident. In this study, a new device which can evaluate both of external and internal exposure doses was developed and the performance of various environmental radiation monitors including commercially available monitors were tested and compared from the viewpoint of an environmental monitoring at emergency situation. Background counts of the monitors and the ambient dose equivalent rate were measured in Fukushima Prefecture. The detection limit for beta particles was evaluated by the method of ISO11929. The sensitivity for gamma-rays of the dust monitor using a ZnS(Ag) and a plastic scintillator was high, but that of the external exposure monitor using a silicon photodiode with CsI(Tl) crystal was relatively low. The detection limit ranged 190-280 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ at 100 $$mu$$Sv h$$^{-1}$$, exceeding the detection limit of 100 Bq m$$^{-3}$$ in the minimum requirement by the National Regulation Authority in Japan. Use of the shielding with lead is necessary to achieve the minimum requirement. These results indicate that the dust monitor using a ZnS(Ag) scintillator and a plastic scintillator is suitable for the external exposure monitor and the developed internal exposure monitor is for the internal exposure monitor at emergency situation among the evaluated monitors. In the future study, the counting efficiency, the relative uncertainty and the performance of the detection for alpha particles will be evaluated, and it will be considered which type of a monitor is suitable after taking the portability into account.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of element production by incomplete fusion reaction with weakly bound deuteron

Wang, H.*; Otsu, Hideaki*; Chiga, Nobuyuki*; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Takeuchi, Satoshi*; Sumikama, Toshiyuki*; Koyama, Shumpei*; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Nakayama, Shinsuke; et al.

Communications Physics (Internet), 2(1), p.78_1 - 78_6, 2019/07

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:57.33(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Searching for effective pathways for the production of proton- and neutron-rich isotopes through an optimal combination of reaction mechanism and energy is one of the main driving forces behind experimental and theoretical nuclear reaction studies as well as for practical applications in nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste. We report on a study on incomplete fusion induced by deuteron, which contains one proton and one neutron with a weak binding energy and is easily broken up. This reaction study was achieved by measuring directly the cross sections for both proton and deuteron for $$^{107}$$Pd at 50 MeV/u via inverse kinematics technique. The results provide direct experimental evidence for the onset of a cross-section enhancement at high energy, indicating the potential of incomplete fusion induced by loosely-bound nuclei for creating proton-rich isotopes and nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste.

Journal Articles

Ecological and genomic profiling of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea in a deep granitic environment

Ino, Kohei*; Hernsdorf, A. W.*; Konno, Yuta*; Kozuka, Mariko*; Yanagawa, Katsunori*; Kato, Shingo*; Sunamura, Michinari*; Hirota, Akinari*; Togo, Yoko*; Ito, Kazumasa*; et al.

ISME Journal, 12(1), p.31 - 47, 2018/01

 Times Cited Count:44 Percentile:91.94(Ecology)

In this study, we found the dominance ofanaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea in groundwater enriched in sulfate and methane from a 300-m deep underground borehole in granitic rock.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of solid-particle sedimentation behavior using a multi-fluid model coupled with DEM

Kawata, Ryo*; Ohara, Yohei*; Sheikh, Md. A. R.*; Liu, X.*; Matsumoto, Tatsuya*; Morita, Koji*; Guo, L.*; Kamiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Toru

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2017/09

Journal Articles

Potential for microbial H$$_{2}$$ and metal transformations associated with novel bacteria and archaea in deep terrestrial subsurface sediments

Hernsdorf, A. W.*; Amano, Yuki; Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ise, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yohei*; Anantharaman, K.*; Probst, A. J.*; Burstein, David*; Thomas, B. C.*; Banfield, J. F.*

ISME Journal, 11, p.1915 - 1929, 2017/03


 Times Cited Count:75 Percentile:95.7(Ecology)

To evaluate the potential for interactions between microbial communities and disposal systems, we explored the structure and metabolic function of a sediment-hosted subsurface ecosystem associated with Horonobe Underground Research Center, Hokkaido, Japan. Overall, the ecosystem is enriched in organisms from diverse lineages and many are from phyla that lack isolated representatives. The majority of organisms can metabolize H$$_{2}$$, often via oxidative [NiFe] hydrogenases or electron-bifurcating [FeFe] hydrogenases that enable ferredoxin-based pathways, including the ion motive Rnf complex. Many organisms implicated in H$$_{2}$$ metabolism are also predicted to catalyze carbon, nitrogen, iron, and sulfur transformations. Notably, iron-based metabolism was predicted in a bacterial lineage where this function has not been predicted previously and in an ANME-2d archaeaon that is implicated in methane oxidation. We infer an ecological model that links microorganisms to sediment-derived resources and predict potential impacts of microbial activity on H$$_{2}$$ accumulation and radionuclide migration.

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