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Journal Articles

Development of a function calculating internal dose coefficients based on ICRP 2007 Recommendations

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

BIO Web of Conferences (Internet), 14, p.03011_1 - 03011_2, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100

Dose coefficients, which are committed effective dose per unit intake of radionuclides, are fundamental amounts for dose estimation and protection standards against internal exposures. In this study, we built a calculation function of dose coefficients using the latest dosimetric models and data as a part of development of internal dosimetry code in accordance with 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). Quality of the function was assured by comparing the results generated by the function to values recorded in a database of dose coefficients for workers provided by ICRP. In the presentation, we will report the results of quality assurance and the future plans of code development.

Journal Articles

Estimating internal dose coefficients of short-lived radionuclides in accordance with ICRP 2007 Recommendations

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 56(5), p.385 - 393, 2019/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

At high energy accelerator facilities, various radionuclides are produced by nuclear reactions of high energy particles with structure and/or ambient air of the facilities. Consequently, the radionuclides are potential sources of internal exposure for works of the facilities. However, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) do not provide dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per intake, for the short-lived radionuclides whose half-lives are shorter than 10 minutes in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. Then, we estimated the dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of these short-lived radionuclides in accordance with the ICRP 2007 Recommendations. In addition, we compared the dose coefficients with those in accordance with the ICRP 1990 Recommendations. As a result, a decreasing tendency was shown in the dose coefficients for inhalation cases; an increasing tendency was observed in those for ingestion cases. It was found that these changes in dose coefficients were mainly caused by the revision of the dose calculation procedures, alimentary tract models. The result of this study will be useful for planning of radiation protection at the high energy facilities.

Journal Articles

Units of radiation (radioactivity)

Takahashi, Fumiaki

Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.109 - 111, 2019/03

The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has planned to publish a document for public, entitled "Current and tomorrow of atomic energy, -Experiences from the accident at the Tokyo Electronic Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs-". The documents give us basics and usages of radiations, in addition to nuclear power plants and the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. This manuscript explains physical quantities (e.g., absorbed dose), protection quantities and operational quantities that are used for radiation measurement and protection. The unit of radioactivity is also explained, because radioactivity is measured for work places in a radiation facility for internal exposure protection. In addition, radiation dose constants that relate radiation dose to the activity are also introduced, as useful radiation units for radiation protection.

Journal Articles

5.1.2 Properties and characteristics of radiations

Takahashi, Fumiaki

Genshiryoku No Ima To Ashita, p.106 - 109, 2019/03

The Atomic Energy Society of Japan has planned to publish a document for public, entitled "Current and tomorrow of atomic energy, -Experiences from the accident at the Tokyo Electronic Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs-". The documents give us basics and usages of radiations, in addition to nuclear power plants and the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. This manuscript explains interactions and penetrations in material for $$alpha$$-rays, $$beta$$-rays, $$gamma$$-rays and neutrons. In addition, exposure characteristics that is determined by properties of radiations are expressed here. This manuscript also explains characteristics in internal exposure and countermeasures of radiation protection following the TEPCO accident for Iodine-131 and Cesium-137.

Journal Articles

Dataset of TLD badge response and hair activation for criticality accident neutron dosimetry

Tsujimura, Norio; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Takada, Chie

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 6, p.148 - 151, 2019/01

Journal Articles

Construction of adult Japanese voxel phantoms with various body sizes and their applications to evaluation of organ doses due to external photon irradiation

Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Hoken Butsuri, 52(4), p.247 - 258, 2017/12

Organ doses for dose assessment in radiation protection are derived from ICRP reference phantoms (Male:RCP-AM, Female:RCP-AF) with standard Caucasian physiques. In adult, Japanese are smaller than Caucasian. To study impact of differences in physiques between Caucasian and Japanese on organ doses, we previously constructed Japanese phantoms (Male:JM-103, Female:JF-103) with average adult Japanese physiques. In addition, adult Japanese physiques have also wide distribution. Thus, we newly modeled DJM (Male) and DJF (Female) with 8 physiques by changing the perimeters of JM-103 and JF-103. Organ doses due to external photon irradiation of DJM and DJF were calculated, and were compared with those of RCP-AM and RCP-AF. In ISO geometry at 0.3 MeV, it was found that doses of breast, colon, lung, stomach, gonad, urinary bladder, esophagus, liver and thyroid in DJM and DJF with physiques, which are applicable to most adult Japanese, agreed with those of RCP-AM and RCP-AF within 10%.

Journal Articles

Simulation study of personal dose equivalent for external exposure to radioactive cesium distributed in soil

Satoh, Daiki; Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Lee, C.*; Bolch, W. E.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(9), p.1018 - 1027, 2017/09

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The personal dose equivalent was calculated for the public (newborns; 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old children; and adults) in an environment contaminated with radioactive cesium ($$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs) distributed in a soil at specific depths of 0.0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 50.0 g/cm$$^2$$. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using pediatric and adult computational phantoms incorporated into a particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS). Compared with the effective dose and ambient dose equivalent at a height of 100 cm above the ground, the personal dose equivalent was found to provide an acceptable assessment for the effective dose and did not exceed the ambient dose equivalent in the environmental radiation field, while the personal dose equivalent values increased for younger subjects. The weighted-integral method to obtain the personal dose equivalent for a volumetric source was applied to the analysis of exponential radioactive cesium distributions in the soil observed in Fukushima, and the calculation results successfully reproduced the measured data.

Journal Articles

Generation method of underwater landmarks for ocean observation

Takahashi, Satoru*; Nota, Yoshiki*; Matsuda, Asahi*; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi*; Takemura, Fumiaki*; Ogasawara, Kei*; Kaneko, Shunichi*

Journal of Signal Processing, 21(1), p.15 - 24, 2017/01

In recent years, many researchers try to observe the state of the global environment from marine information for the understanding of the global environment change. First, we introduce the recording system of underwater environment which is made by the authors. By using this system, we want to observe the change of global environment from the coral bleaching. In this paper, especially, we propose the generation method of underwater landmark which is used to measure the position of robot of oceanographic observation based on the dynamic image processing. In here, underwater landmark means the feature point in underwater image.

JAEA Reports

Assessment of specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons using average adult Japanese female phantom

Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki

JAEA-Data/Code 2016-013, 48 Pages, 2016/12


In the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an effective dose is defined as a sum of equivalent doses which are calculated by using male and female reference phantoms based on Caucasian physiological data and averaged over the sexes by tissue weighting factors. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs), which are essential for internal dosimetry, depend on the body weight and organ masses of phantoms. Then, the dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per unit intake of radionuclides, developed by ICRP on the basis of the 2007 Recommendations reflect the physical characteristics of Caucasians and are averaged over the sexes. Meanwhile, the physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasians, and organ masses are also different from each other. Knowledge of the influence of race differences on dose coefficients is important to apply the sex averaged dose coefficients of ICRP to the Japanese system of radiation protection. In this study, SAFs for 25 kinds of mono-energetic electrons and photons ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV were calculated about the combinations of 67 source regions and 42 target organs using the average adult Japanese female phantom, JF-103, incorporated with a general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0. The data of this report and the previously published data of JM-103 are applicable to evaluate sex-specific and sex-averaged dose coefficients reflecting the physical characteristics of the average adult Japanese for intakes of all radionuclides not to emit other than photons and electrons.

Journal Articles

Age-dependent dose conversion coefficients for external exposure to radioactive cesium in soil

Satoh, Daiki; Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Lee, C.*; Bolch, W. E.*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(1), p.69 - 81, 2016/01

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:10.96(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To estimate effective doses for the public exposed to external radiation from radioactive cesium ($$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs) deposited on the ground by the Fukushima nuclear accident, we calculate the conversion coefficients for converting activity concentration to effective dose rate by using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The data were produced from different age groups within the public (newborns; 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old children; and adults) for the situations in which radioactive cesium is distributed uniformly in the soil over a planar area and at specific depths of 0.0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 50.0 g/cm$$^{2}$$. On the basis of the results, we also derive the conversion coefficients for exponentially distributed volumetric sources. In addition, we obtain the conversion coefficients that give the effective dose accumulated over the first and second months, the first year, and over a lifetime (50 years) because of the contamination remaining on the ground. These calculations indicate that the conversion coefficients to obtain the effective dose rate are higher for the younger ages compared with adults but do not exceed the ambient dose equivalent rate. Furthermore, we find that the difference between the calculated effective dose rates according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 and 2007 Recommendations is small (7% maximum) for a ground contamination of radioactive cesium.

Journal Articles

A Computational approach using reflection boundaries for dose calculation in infinitely expanded radiation field

Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 167(4), p.392 - 398, 2015/12

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.47(Environmental Sciences)

A new approach was proposed to compute radiation dose to objects of interest in infinitely expanded radiation fields with Monte Carlo transport codes. The particles, which were emitted from the location far from the interested object, could be effectively taken into account by setting reflection boundaries at the borders of the computational area in the newly developed method. Here, the positions and momenta of the particles at each reflection were recorded and used as the sources to simulate particles from the exterior region of the computational area. The validity of new method was checked by radiation transport calculations of objects on the infinitely expanded contaminated ground surface. The results in our new approach agreed within statistical errors of the simulation with those in the conventional approach considering a very large computational area. In addition, an efficiency in computational time was compared between the new and conventional approaches.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of organ doses delivered during computed tomography examinations using Japanese adult phantoms with the WAZA-ARI dosimetry system

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Kai, Michiaki*

Health Physics, 109(2), p.104 - 112, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.6(Environmental Sciences)

A dosimetry system, named WAZA-ARI, is developed to assess accurately radiation doses to persons from Computed Tomography (CT) examination patients in Japan. Organ doses were prepared to application to dose calculations in WAZA-ARI by numerical analyses using average adult Japanese human models with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Experimental studies clarified the radiation configuration on the table for some multi-detector row CT (MDCT) devices. Then, a source model in PHITS could specifically take into account for emissions of X-ray in each MDCT device based on the experiment results. Numerical analyses with PHITS revealed a concordance of organ doses with human body size. The organ doses by the JM phantoms were compared with data obtained using previously developed systems. In addition, the dose calculation in WAZA-ARI were verified with previously reported results by realistic NUBAS phantoms and radiation dose measurement using a physical Japanese model. The results implied that analyses using the Japanese phantoms and PHITS including source models can appropriately give organ dose data with consideration of the MDCT device and physiques of typical Japanese adults.

Journal Articles

Non-destructive examination of jacket sections for ITER central solenoid conductors

Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Suwa, Tomone; Nabara, Yoshihiro; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Isono, Takaaki; Matsui, Kunihiro; Kawano, Katsumi; Oshikiri, Masayuki; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 25(3), p.4200904_1 - 4200904_4, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is responsible for procuring all amounts of Central Solenoid (CS) Conductors for ITER, including CS jacket sections. The conductor is cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) with a central spiral. A total of 576 Nb$$_{3}$$Sn strands and 288 copper strands are cabled around the central spiral. The maximum operating current is 40 kA at magnetic field of 13 T. CS jacket section is circular in square type tube made of JK2LB, which is high manganese stainless steel with boron added. Unit length of jacket sections is 7 m and 6,300 sections will be manufactured and inspected. Outer/inner dimension and weight are 51.3/35.3 mm and around 90 kg, respectively. Eddy Current Test (ECT) and Phased Array Ultrasonic Test (PAUT) were developed for non-destructive examination. The defects on inner and outer surfaces can be detected by ECT. The defects inside jacket section can be detected by PAUT. These technology and the inspected results are reported in this paper.

Journal Articles

Behavior of Nb$$_{3}$$Sn cable assembled with conduit for ITER central solenoid

Nabara, Yoshihiro; Suwa, Tomone; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Kajitani, Hideki; Ozeki, Hidemasa; Sakurai, Takeru; Iguchi, Masahide; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Isono, Takaaki; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 25(3), p.4200305_1 - 4200305_5, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

Journal Articles

Study of radiation dose reduction of buildings of different sizes and materials

Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(6), p.897 - 904, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:8.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Dependence of the radiation dose reduction on sizes and materials of buildings was studied by numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. Three building models were developed: the wooden house, open space concrete building, and thin-wall building, to study the effect of building size and construction material on dose reduction inside these structures. Here the floor area size of the building models were varied to clarify the influence of building configuration on dose reduction. The results demonstrated that the dose rates inside the buildings linearly decreased with increasing floor area on a logarithmic scale for all types of buildings. The calculation of dose distribution inside a building clarified that the distance from outer walls were a determinant factor for the dose rate at each position in the building. The obtained tendency was ensured by comparing to data for the dose reduction of typical buildings in Japan.

Journal Articles

Measurement of the displacement cross-section of copper irradiated with 125 MeV protons at 12 K

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Yoshida, Makoto*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Sakamoto, Masaaki*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Xu, Q.*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 458, p.369 - 375, 2015/03

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:51.6(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To validate Monte Carlo codes for the prediction of radiation damage in metals irradiated by $$>$$100 MeV protons, defect-induced electrical resistivity changes of copper related to the displacement cross-section were measured with 125 MeV proton irradiation at 12 K. The cryogenic irradiation system was developed with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to cool the sample via an oxygen-free high-conductivity copper plate by conduction cooling. The sample was a copper wire with a 250$$mu$$m diameter and 99.999% purity sandwiched between two aluminum nitride ceramic sheets. The resistivity increase did not change during annealing after irradiation below 15 K. The experimental displacement cross-section for 125 MeV irradiation shows similar results to the experimental data for 1.1 and 1.94 GeV. Comparison with the calculated results indicated that the defect production efficiency in Monte Carlo codes gives a good quantitative description of the displacement cross-section in the energy region $$>$$ 100 MeV.

Journal Articles

Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for $$gamma$$-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao*; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi*; Shimoura, Susumu*; Otsuka, Takaharu*; Onda, Yuichi*; Hoshi, Masaharu*; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro*; Takahashi, Fumiaki; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 139, p.308 - 319, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:155 Percentile:0.54(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Measurement of air dose rates over a wide area around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant through a series of car-borne surveys

Ando, Masaki; Nakahara, Yukio; Tsuda, Shuichi; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Mikami, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Sato, Tetsuro*; Tanigaki, Minoru*; et al.

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 139, p.266 - 280, 2015/01

 Times Cited Count:33 Percentile:12.37(Environmental Sciences)

A series of car-borne surveys using the KURAMA and KURAMA-II systems was conducted in a wide area in eastern Japan from June 2011 to December 2012 to evaluate the distribution of air dose rates around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, and to determine the time-dependent trend of decrease in air dose rates. An automated data processing system was established, which enables analyses of large amounts of data obtained with the use of about 100 units of the measurement system in a short time. The initial data for studying the migration status of radioactive cesium was obtained in the first survey, followed by the other car-borne surveys having wider measurement ranges. Comparing the measured air dose rates obtained in each survey, it was found that the decreasing trend of air dose rates measured through car-borne surveys was larger than that expected from the physical decay of radioactive cesium and that measured using NaI (Tl) survey meters around the road.

Journal Articles

WAZA-ARI; A Dose assessment system for patients in CT scan

Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Endo, Akira; Ono, Koji*; Hasegawa, Takayuki*; Katsunuma, Yasushi*; Yoshitake, Takayasu*; Ban, Nobuhiko*; Kai, Michiaki*

RIST News, (58), p.25 - 32, 2015/01

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are now developing WAZA-ARI for improvement of management of exposure doses due to CT examination under the joint research with the Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences. The trial version of WAZA-ARI has been released on 21 December 2012. In trial version, users can perform dose assessment by using organ dose database based on the average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel phantoms and a 4 years old female voxel phantom (UFF4). The homepage of WAZA-ARI has been accessed over 1000 times per month and 28421 times by the end of September 2014. We are developing WAZA-ARI version 2 as the extension version of dose calculation functions of WAZA-ARI. WAZA-ARI version 2 will be released by the end of March 2015. In WAZA-ARI version 2. Users can upload dose calculation results to WAZA-ARI version 2 server, and utilize improvement of the dose management of patients and the optimization of CT scan conditions.

Journal Articles

Remediation after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident

Takahashi, Fumiaki

Genshiryoku, Ryoshi, Kakuyugo Jiten, 5, p.200 - 203, 2014/12

Large amount of radioactive material were released and deposited in the environment due to the accident at TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), in March, 2011. Japanese government, including local government, has been engaged in environmental remediation at the region affected by the accident. Chernobyl accident in 1986 was estimated at "level 7" in International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP. Thus, countermeasures in Japan have referred to the experience in Chernobyl accident. This manuscript reviews the environmental remediation in Europe after Chernobyl accident by referring to a report by IAEA.

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