Li, W.*; Yamada, Shinya*; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Okumura, Takuma*; Hayakawa, Ryota*; Nitta, Kiyofumi*; Sekizawa, Oki*; Suga, Hiroki*; Uruga, Tomoya*; Ichinohe, Yuto*; et al.
Analytica Chimica Acta, 1240, p.340755_1 - 340755_9, 2023/02
no abstracts in English
Yomogida, Takumi; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Ouchi, Kazuki; Kumagai, Yuta; Higashi, Kotaro*; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Kirishima, Akira*; Kawamura, Naomi*; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Inorganic Chemistry, 61(50), p.20206 - 20210, 2022/12
FeUO was studied to clarify the electronic structure of U(V) in a metal monouranate compound. We obtained the peak splitting of HERFD-XANES spectra utilizing high-energy-resolution fluorescence detection-X-ray absorption near edge structure (HERFD-XANES) spectroscopy at the U L-edge, which is a novel technique in the U(V) compounds. Theoretical calculations revealed that the peak splitting was caused by splitting the 6d orbital of U(V). Such distinctive electronic states are of major interest to researchers and engineers working in various fields, from fundamental physics to the nuclear industry and environmental sciences for actinide elements.
Endo, Shunsuke; Okudaira, Takuya*; Abe, Ryota*; Fujioka, Hiroyuki*; Hirota, Katsuya*; Kimura, Atsushi; Kitaguchi, Masaaki*; Oku, Takayuki; Sakai, Kenji; Shima, Tatsushi*; et al.
Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064601_1 - 064601_7, 2022/12
no abstracts in English
Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 59(9), p.1174 - 1205, 2022/09
In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.
Yamaguchi, Akiko; Nagata, Kojiro*; Kobayashi, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Toru; Tanida, Hajime; Shimojo, Kojiro; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Kaneta, Yui; Matsuda, Shohei; et al.
iScience (Internet), 25(8), p.104763_1 - 104763_12, 2022/08
no abstracts in English
Shiraishi, Fumito*; Chihara, Ryoji*; Tanimoto, Risa*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Island Arc, 31(1), p.e12448_1 - e12448_9, 2022/05
At Yunotaki Fall in north Japan, manganese-oxidizing bacteria were previously assumed to have oxidized manganese to precipitate birnessite, which relied on oxygen released from algae. However, it remained unclear whether larger-scale manganese oxide precipitation was actually occurring under light conditions. This study evaluated the contribution of indirect oxidation using microelectrodes to analyze local water chemistry, in addition to bulk water chemistry and DNA analyses. The results of this study demonstrate that low bulk pH values in the hot spring water hindered indirect oxidation despite the occurrence of active oxygenic photosynthesis and that direct oxidation by manganese-oxidizing bacteria is considered to dominate in the investigated sample.
Ishii, Yumiko*; Miura, Hikaru*; Jo, J.*; Tsuji, Hideki*; Saito, Rie; Koarai, Kazuma; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Urushidate, Tadayuki*; Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro*; Wada, Toshihiro*; et al.
PLOS ONE (Internet), 17(5), p.e0268629_1 - e0268629_17, 2022/05
We investigated the variability in Cs activity concentration in individual aquatic insects in detritivorous caddisfly () and carnivorous dobsonfly () larvae from the Ota River, Fukushima. Caddisfly larvae showed sporadically higher radioactivity, whereas no such outliers were observed in dobsonfly larvae. Autoradiography and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that these caddisfly larvae samples contained radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), which are insoluble Cs-bearing silicate glass particles. CsMPs were also found in potential food sources of caddisfly larvae, such as periphyton and drifting particulate organic matter, indicating that larvae may ingest CsMPs along with food particles of similar size. Although CsMPs distribution and uptake by organisms in freshwater ecosystems is relatively unknown, our study demonstrates that CsMPs can be taken up by aquatic insects.
Yamaguchi, Akiko; Nagata, Kojiro*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Keita; Kobayashi, Toru; Shimojo, Kojiro; Tanida, Hajime; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Kaneta, Yui; Matsuda, Shohei; et al.
Hosha Kagaku, (45), p.28 - 30, 2022/03
no abstracts in English
Miura, Hikaru*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Chikyu Kagaku, 55(4), p.122 - 131, 2021/12
Radiocesium-bearing microparticles (CsMPs), glassy water-resistant particles with highly concentrated radiocesium, were emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Since first discovery of CsMPs, a number of studies have analyzed the particles isolated from environmental samples and revealed their physical and chemical properties, distribution, and migration. This paper is intended to provide an overview focusing on the environmental transport and impact of CsMPs. First, we begin by reviewing the relationship between deposition areas and atmospheric plumes of CsMPs found on land. Next, search and separation methods for CsMPs will be described. Then, secondary transport via rivers and effect of CsMPs on Kd values of Cs in rivers will be discussed. Finally, CsMPs found in the ocean and their difference from terrestrial ones will be summarized.
Yamaguchi, Akiko; Kobayashi, Keita; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Machida, Masahiko; Okumura, Masahiko
Chemical Physics Letters, 780, p.138945_1 - 138945_5, 2021/10
no abstracts in English
Konagaya, Rimi*; Kawamura, Naomi*; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Chemistry Letters, 50(8), p.1570 - 1572, 2021/08
no abstracts in English
Tokunaga, Kohei; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Kozai, Naofumi
Chemosphere, 266, p.129104_1 - 129104_10, 2021/03
Radioactive iodine (I) is of great concern owing to its high mobility in the environment and long-term radiotoxicity, but there is a lack of effective techniques for removing iodate (IO) from aqueous solution. The aim of this study is to develop a new technique for removing radioactive iodate from contaminated solution by using barite (BaSO). In the present study, we examined the coprecipitation mechanism of iodate by barite at the molecular level for determining optimum conditions for iodate removal. The results showed that iodate was effectively removed from aqueous solution by coprecipitation, even in the presence of competitive anions in solution. Comparing our method with previous studies, iodate removal efficiency by barite was determined to be about two orders of magnitude greater than that by hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxide at Cl concentration of 10 mmol L. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis indicated that incorporated iodate was strongly bound in the crystal lattice of barite by substituting the sulfate site in the structure when the iodine concentration was low. The charge compensation problem from the IO substitution in SO site is achieved by the substitution of Na-IO pairs at the nearest Ba site. Therefore, considering high removal efficiency and strong binding of iodate in barite, coprecipitation with barite is a promising material for removing radioactive iodate from various aqueous solutions contaminated with iodate.
Miyajima, Yusuke*; Saito, Ayaka*; Kagi, Hiroyuki*; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Hirata, Takafumi*
Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 45(1), p.189 - 205, 2021/03
Uncertainty for elemental and isotopic analyses of calcite by LA-ICP-MS is largely controlled by the homogeneity of the reference materials (RMs) used for normalization and validation. In order to produce calcite RMs with homogeneous elemental and isotopic compositions, we incorporated elements including U, Pb, and rare earth elements into calcite through heat- and pressure-induced crystallization from amorphous calcium carbonate that was precipitated from element-doped reagent solution. X-ray absorption spectra showed that U was present as U(VI) in the synthesized calcite, probably with a different local structure from that of aqueous uranyl ions. The uptake rate of U by our calcite was higher in comparison to synthetic calcite of previous studies. Variations of element mass fractions in the calcite were better than 12% 2RSD, mostly within 7%. The Pb/Pb ratio in the calcite showed 1% variations, while the U/Pb ratio showed 3-24% variations depending on element mass fractions. Using the synthetic calcite as primary RMs, we could date a natural calcite RM, WC-1, with analytical uncertainty as low as 3%. The method presented can be useful to produce calcite with controlled and homogeneous element mass fractions, and is a promising alternative to natural calcite RMs for U-Pb geochronology.
Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.
Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03
Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.
Miura, Hikaru*; Ishimaru, Takashi*; Ito, Yukari*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi*; Sakaguchi, Aya*; Misumi, Kazuhiro*; Tsumune, Daisuke*; Kubo, Atsushi*; Higaki, Shogo*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 11, p.5664_1 - 5664_11, 2021/03
For the first time, we isolated and investigated seven CsMPs (radioactive caesium-bearing microparticles) from marine particulate matter and sediment. From the elemental composition, the Cs/Cs activity ratio, and the Cs activity per unit volume results, we inferred that the five CsMPs collected from particulate matter were emitted from Unit 2 of the FDNPP, whereas the two CsMPs collected from marine sediment were possibly emitted from Unit 3. The presence of CsMPs can cause overestimation of the solid-water distribution coefficient of Cs in marine sediments and particulate matter and a high apparent radiocaesium concentration factor for marine biota. CsMPs emitted from Unit 2, which were collected from the estuary of a river that flowed through a highly contaminated area, may have been deposited on land and then transported by the river. By contrast, CsMPs emitted from Unit 3 were possibly transported eastward by the wind and deposited directly onto the ocean surface.
Tanaka, Kazuya; Kanasashi, Tsutomu*; Takenaka, Chisato*; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Science of the Total Environment, 755(Part 2), p.142598_1 - 142598_8, 2021/02
In this study, we investigated coordination structures of Cs in Cs-doped bark, sapwood, heartwood, needle, and branch samples of trees collected in Fukushima by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We examined four representative tree species in Fukushima, , , , and . EXAFS spectra suggested that Cs was adsorbed as an outer-sphere complex on all parts of the four species, with electrostatic binding to negatively charged functional groups in components of tree tissues. These results were supported by extraction experiments where most of the sorbed Cs was desorbed from all parts of each tree species using 1 M CHCOONH.
Nagasawa, Makoto*; Qin, H.-B.*; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Takahashi, Yoshio*
Chemistry Letters, 49(8), p.909 - 911, 2020/08
Miura, Hikaru*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi*; Sakaguchi, Aya*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*; Sekizawa, Oki*; Nitta, Kiyofumi*; Higaki, Shogo*; Tsumune, Daisuke*; Itai, Takaaki*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.11421_1 - 11421_9, 2020/07
Sugiura, Yuki; Tomura, Tsutomu*; Ishidera, Takamitsu; Doi, Reisuke; Francisco, P. C. M.; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toru; Matsumura, Daiju; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Tachi, Yukio
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 324(2), p.615 - 622, 2020/05
Igarashi, Yasuhito*; Kogure, Toshihiro*; Kuribara, Yuichi; Miura, Hikaru*; Okumura, Taiga*; Satou, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Yoshio*; Yamaguchi, Noriko*
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 205-206, p.101 - 118, 2019/09
Scientists face challenge in identifying the radioactive materials which are found as dotted images on various imaging plate (IP) autoradiographic photos of radioactively contaminated materials by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP, or FDNPP) accident, such as air filter, fugitive dust, surface soil, agricultural materials, and water-shed samples. It has been revealed that they are minute particles with distinct morphology and elemental composition with high specific radioactivity, and different from those of the so-called Chernobyl hot particles. Basically, they are glassy particles once molten, composed of Si, O, Fe, Zn etc. with highly concentrated radiocaesium, which can be called as radiocaesium-bearing microparticles (CsMP). At present, CsMP can be classified into two types, Types-A and -B, which are characterized by different specific radioactivity, Cs/Cs ratio, size and morphology, and geographic distribution around F1NPP. Such studies on the CsMP from various aspects have provided valuable information about what happened in the nuclear reactors during the F1NPP accident and fates of the CsMP in the environment. This review first provides a retrospective view on the research history of the CsMP, which is helpful to understand the unique character of the CsMP. Subsequently, more details about the current understanding of the natures of these hot particles, such as origin, morphology, chemical compositions, thermal properties, water-solubility, and secondary migration of CsMP in river and ocean systems are described with future prospects.