竹田 幸治; 大矢 忍*; Pham, N. H.*; 小林 正起*; 斎藤 祐児; 山上 浩志; 田中 雅明*; 藤森 淳*
Journal of Applied Physics, 128(21), p.213902_1 - 213902_11, 2020/12
In order to understand the mechanism of the ferromagnetism in GaMnAs ((Ga,Mn)As), we have investigated the magnetic behavior on a microscopic level through systematic temperature () and magnetic-field () dependent soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments at the Mn absorption edges. The and dependences of XMCD intensities have been analyzed using a model consisting of the ferromagnetic (FM), paramagnetic, and superparamagnetic (SPM) components. Intriguingly, we have found a common behavior for the ferromagnetic ordering process in (Ga,Mn)As samples with different Mn concentrations and different Curie temperature () values. In particular, the SPM component develops well above , indicating that local FM regions are formed well above . The present findings indicate that the onset of ferromagnetic ordering is triggered by local electronic states around the substitutional Mn ions. Insight into the most representative ferromagnetic semiconductor, (Ga,Mn)As, will be an important step in understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetic ordering in various ferromagnetic semiconductor families.
平原 徹*; Otrokov, M. M.*; 佐々木 泰佑*; 角田 一樹*; 友弘 雄太*; 日下 翔太郎*; 奥山 裕磨*; 一ノ倉 聖*; 小林 正起*; 竹田 幸治; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 11, p.4821_1 - 4821_8, 2020/09
We fabricate a novel magnetic topological heterostructure MnBiTe/BiTe where multiple magnetic layers are inserted into the topmost quintuple layer of the original topological insulator BiTe. A massive Dirac cone (DC) with a gap of 40-75 meV at 16 K is observed. By tracing the temperature evolution, this gap is shown to gradually decrease with increasing temperature and a blunt transition from a massive to a massless DC occurs around 200-250 K. Magnetic measurements show that there are two distinct Mn components in the system that corresponds to the two heterostructures; MnBiTe/BiTe is paramagnetic at 6 K while MnBiTe/BiTe is ferromagnetic with a negative hysteresis (critical temperature 20 K). This novel heterostructure is potentially important for future device applications.
吉川 智己*; Antonov, V. N.*; 河野 嵩*; 鹿子木 将明*; 角田 一樹; 宮本 幸治*; 竹田 幸治; 斎藤 祐児; 後藤 一希*; 桜庭 裕弥*; et al.
Physical Review B, 102(6), p.064428_1 - 064428_7, 2020/08
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy were applied at the Ge (Ga) edge to unravel the spin-resolved unoccupied electronic states of CoMnGe (Ga). Complicated spectral features were observed in both XAS and XMCD spectra. For their interpretation, we compared the experimental XAS and XMCD spectra with the calculated Ge (Ga) 4 and 4 orbital partial density of states. The comparison enabled a qualitative explanation of the XMCD spectra as the difference between the majority and minority-spin unoccupied density of states summed over the 4 and 4 orbitals. Our finding provides a new approach to uncover the spin-split partial density of states above the Fermi level.
Shikin, A. M.*; Estyunin, D. A.*; Klimovskikh, I. I.*; Filnov, S. O.*; Kumar, S.*; Schwier, E. F.*; 宮本 幸治*; 奥田 太一*; 木村 昭夫*; 黒田 健太*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 10, p.13226_1 - 13226_13, 2020/08
Modification of the gap at the Dirac point (DP) in axion antiferromagnetic topological insulator MnBiTe and its electronic and spin structure have been studied by angle- and spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) under laser excitation at various temperatures, light polarizations and photon energies. We have distinguished both large and reduced gaps at the DP in the ARPES dispersions, which remain open above the Nel temperature of = 24.5 K. We propose that the gap above remains open due to a short-range magnetic field generated by chiral spin fluctuations. Spin-resolved ARPES, XMCD and circular dichroism ARPES measurements show a surface ferromagnetic ordering for the large gap sample and apparently significantly reduced effective magnetic moment for the reduced gap sample.
川崎 郁斗; 小畠 雅明; 藤森 伸一; 竹田 幸治; 山上 浩志; 仲村 愛*; 伊覇 航*; 辺土 正人*; 仲間 隆男*; 大貫 惇睦*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(4), p.044704_1 - 044704_6, 2020/04
EuPd is a rare Eu-based compound, whose Eu ions are in a trivalent state. The electronic structure of EuPd was investigated by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) using soft X rays. Eu components arising from the 4f final state multiplet were clearly observed in the valence spectra, and no Eu components were observed within an experimental accuracy, confirming a robust Eu state. The band structure and Fermi surfaces revealed by ARPES measurements were compared to the band structure calculations based on the density-functional theory for LaPd andYPd. We found that the calculation for LaPd provides a better description for our ARPES results. The effective electron masses estimated from the ARPES spectra near the Fermi level are in good agreement with the corresponding cyclotron effective masses in previous de Haas-van Alphen experiments.
伊藤 啓太*; 安富 陽子*; Zhu, S.*; Nurmamat, M.*; 田原 昌樹*; 都甲 薫*; 秋山 了太*; 竹田 幸治; 斎藤 祐児; 小口 多美夫*; et al.
Physical Review B, 101(10), p.104401_1 - 104401_8, 2020/03
Spintronics devices utilizing a magnetic domain wall motion have attracted increasing attention, and ferrimagentic materials with almost compensated magnetic moments are highly required to realize the fast magnetic domain wall motion. Here, we report a key function for this purpose in anti-perovskite CoMnN films. Perpendicular magnetization emerges for , and the saturation magnetization reaches a minimum value at .
中野 匡規*; Wang, Y.*; 吉田 訓*; 松岡 秀樹*; 真島 裕貴*; 池田 啓祐*; 平田 靖透*; 竹田 幸治; 和達 大樹*; 小濱 芳允*; et al.
Nano Letters, 19(12), p.8806 - 8810, 2019/12
The discoveries of intrinsic ferromagnetism in atomically thin van der Waals crystals have opened a new research field enabling fundamental studies on magnetism at two-dimensional (2D) limit as well as development of magnetic van der Waals heterostructures. Here we demonstrate that VSe epitaxial thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy exhibit emergent 2D ferromagnetism with intrinsic spin polarization of the V 3d electrons although the bulk counterpart is originally antiferromagnetic. Moreover, thickness-dependence measurements reveal that this newly developed 2D ferromagnet could be classified as an itinerant 2D Heisenberg ferromagnet with weak magnetic anisotropy.
藤森 伸一; 川崎 郁斗; 竹田 幸治; 山上 浩志; 仲村 愛*; 本間 佳哉*; 青木 大*
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 88(10), p.103701_1 - 103701_5, 2019/10
The electronic structure of the unconventional superconductor was studied by resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) with soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. The partial density of states of were imaged by the - RPES and it was found that the state has an itinerant character, but there exists an incoherent peak due to the strong electron correlation effects. Furthermore, an anomalous admixture of the states into the bands was observed at a higher binding energy, which cannot be explained by band structure calculations. On the other hand, the band structure of was obtained by ARPES and its overall band structure were mostly explained by band structure calculations. These results suggest that the states of have itinerant but strongly-correlated nature with enhanced hybridization with the states.
河野 嵩*; 鹿子木 将明*; 吉川 智己*; Wang, X.*; 角田 一樹*; 宮本 幸治*; 室 隆桂之*; 竹田 幸治; 斎藤 祐児; 後藤 一希*; et al.
Physical Review B, 100(16), p.165120_1 - 165120_6, 2019/10
Resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Co and Mn 2 core absorption edges of half-metallic CoMnGe has been performed to determine the element-specific density of states (DOS). A significant contribution of the Mn 3 partial DOS near the Fermi level () was clarified by measurement at the Mn 2 absorption edge. Further analysis by first-principles calculation revealed that it has symmetry, which must be responsible for the electrical conductivity along the line perpendicular to the film plane. The dominant normal Auger contribution observed at the Co 2 absorption edge indicates delocalization of photoexcited Co 3 electrons. The difference in the degrees of localization of the Mn 3 and Co 3 electrons in CoMnGe is explained by the first-principles calculation.
角田 一樹*; 鹿子木 将明*; Reimann, J.*; Nurmamat, M.*; 後藤 伸一*; 竹田 幸治; 斎藤 祐児; Kokh, K. A.*; Tereshchenko, O. E.*; Gdde, J.*; et al.
New Journal of Physics (Internet), 21(9), p.093006_1 - 093006_8, 2019/09
We systematically investigate the magnetic, structural and electronic properties and the ultrafast carrier dynamics in a series of V-doped SbTe samples of composition SbVTe with x = 0, 0.015 and 0.03. Element specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism signifies that the ferromagnetism of V-doped SbTe is governed by the p-d hybridization between the host carrier and the magnetic dopant. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has revealed that the V impurity induced states underlying the topological surface state (TSS) add scattering channels that significantly shorten the duration of transient surface electrons down to 100 fs scale. This is in a sharp contrast to the prolonged duration reported for pristine samples though the TSS is located inside the bulk energy gap of the host in either magnetic or non-magnetic cases. It implies the presence of a mobility gap in the bulk energy gap region of the host material.
川崎 郁斗; 藤森 伸一; 竹田 幸治; 山上 浩志; 伊覇 航*; 辺土 正人*; 仲間 隆男*; 大貫 惇睦*
Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035111_1 - 035111_8, 2019/07
We have carried out angle-integrated photoemission spectroscopy (AIPES) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments using soft X-rays on single crystals of EuCuGe and EuCuSi grown by the Bridgman method to investigate their electronic structures. The AIPES results showed that the Eu ions in EuCuGe and EuCuSi are in a divalent state and a nearly trivalent state, respectively, in accord with the previously reported magnetic properties. The three-dimensional band structures and shapes of the Fermi surfaces of EuCuGe and EuCuSi were studied by ARPES measurements. We found that the band structures near the Fermi level and Fermi surfaces of EuCuGe and EuCuSi are very different from each other and are well reproduced by the band structure calculations based on density-functional theory for SrCuGe and YCuSi. This suggests that a charge transfer from the localized 4 states into the valence bands is responsible for the difference in the electronic states between EuCuGe and EuCuSi.
坂本 祥哉*; Tu, N. T.*; 竹田 幸治; 藤森 伸一; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; 若林 勇希*; 芝田 悟朗*; 堀尾 眞史*; 池田 啓祐*; et al.
Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07
The electronic structure and the magnetism of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb, whose Curie temperature can exceed room temperature, were investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and resonance photoemission spectroscopy (RPES). The line-shape analyses of the XAS and XMCD spectra suggest that the ferromagnetism is of intrinsic origin. The orbital magnetic moments deduced using XMCD sum rules were found to be large, indicating that there is a considerable 3 contribution to the ground state of Fe. From RPES, we observed a strong dispersive Auger peak and nondispersive resonantly enhanced peaks in the valence-band spectra. The latter is a fingerprint of the correlated nature of Fe 3 electrons, whereas the former indicates their itinerant nature. It was also found that the Fe 3 states have a finite contribution to the density of states at the Fermi energy. These states, presumably consisting of majority-spin - hybridized states or minority-spin e states, would be responsible for the ferromagnetic order in this material.
坂本 祥哉*; Tu, N. T.*; 竹田 幸治; 藤森 伸一; Hai, P. N.*; Anh, L. D.*; 若林 勇希*; 芝田 悟朗*; 堀尾 眞史*; 池田 啓祐*; et al.
Physical Review B, 100(3), p.035204_1 - 035204_8, 2019/07
The electronic structure and the magnetism of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb, whose Curie temperature can exceed room temperature, were investigated by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and resonance photoemission spectroscopy (RPES). The line-shape analyses of the XAS and XMCD spectra suggest that the ferromagnetism is of intrinsic origin. The orbital magnetic moments deduced using XMCD sum rules were found to be large, indicating that there is a considerable 3 contribution to the ground state of Fe. From RPES, we observed a strong dispersive Auger peak and nondispersive resonantly enhanced peaks in the valence-band spectra. The latter is a fingerprint of the correlated nature of Fe 3 electrons, whereas the former indicates their itinerant nature. It was also found that the Fe 3 states have a finite contribution to the density of states at the Fermi energy. These states would be responsible for the ferromagnetic order in this material.
吉松 公平*; 石丸 純也*; 渡会 啓介*; 山本 航平*; 平田 靖透*; 和達 大樹*; 竹田 幸治; 堀場 弘司*; 組頭 広志*; 坂田 修身*; et al.
Physical Review B, 99(23), p.235129_1 - 235129_8, 2019/06
We report on magnetic and electronic properties of the B-site-ordered double-perovskite LaCrMnO films grown by pulsed-laser deposition. The magnetic-field dependence of magnetization curves showed hysteresis at low temperatures regardless of the degree of Cr/Mn order and the saturation magnetization became smaller for the higher-Cr/Mn-ordered film. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements suggested antiferromagnetic coupling between Cr and Mn ions, resulting in ferrimagnetism of the B-site-ordered double-perovskite LaCrMnO. A band structure was established by combining these results together with the synchrotron-radiation photoemission and optical spectra. We discuss the magnetic states among the -site-ordered LaMnO ( transition-metal elements from V to Ni) being basically consistent with the Kanamori-Goodenough rule.
Ye, M.*; Xu, T.*; Li, G.*; Qiao, S.*; 竹田 幸治; 斎藤 祐児; Zhu, S.-Y.*; Nurmamat, M.*; 角田 一樹*; 石田 行章*; et al.
Physical Review B, 99(14), p.144413_1 - 144413_7, 2019/04
We investigate the microscopic origin of ferromagnetism coupled with topological insulators in V-doped (Sb,Bi)Te employing X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopies, combined with first-principles calculations. We found an magnetic moment at the Te site anti-parallel to that of the V and Sb sites, which plays a key role in the ferromagnetic order. We ascribe it to the hybridization between Te 5 and V 3 majority spin states at the Fermi energy, consistent with the Zener-type - exchange interaction scenario. The substitution of Bi for Sb suppresses the bulk ferromagnetism by introducing extra electron carriers in the majority spin channel of the Te states that compensates the antiparallel magnetic moment on the Te site. Our findings reveal important clues to designing magnetic topological insulators with higher Curie temperature that work under ambient conditions.
Shikin, A. M.*; Estyunin, D. A.*; Surnin, Yu. I.*; Koroleva, A. V.*; Shevchenko, E. V.*; Kokh, K. A.*; Tereshchenko, O. E.*; Kumar, S.*; Schwier, E. F.*; 島田 賢也*; et al.
Scientific Reports (Internet), 9(1), p.4813_1 - 4813_17, 2019/03
A new kind of magnetically-doped antiferromagnetic (AFM) topological insulators (TIs), BiGdSbTe, has been studied by angle-resolved photoemission, superconducting magnetometry (SQUID) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). It has been shown that this TI is characterized by the Dirac gap at the Fermi level. In the paramagnetic phase, a surface magnetic layer is supposed to develop, where the coupling between the Gd magnetic moments is mediated by the topological surface states (TSSs). This assumption can be confirmed by opening a gap at the Dirac point indicated by the surface-sensitive ARPES, a weak hysteresis loop measured by SQUID, the XMCD showing a surface magnetic moment and the temperature dependence of electrical resistance demonstrating a mid-gap semiconducting behavior, which correlates with the temperature dependence of the surface magnetization and confirms the conclusion that only TSSs are located at the Fermi level.
藤森 伸一; 小畠 雅明; 竹田 幸治; 岡根 哲夫; 斎藤 祐児; 藤森 淳; 山上 浩志; 芳賀 芳範; 山本 悦嗣; 大貫 惇睦*
Physical Review B, 99(3), p.035109_1 - 035109_5, 2019/01
In the present study, we have elucidated the nature of the electron correlation effect in uranium compounds by imaging the partial density of states (pDOS) of typical itinerant, localized, and heavy fermion uranium compounds by using the 4-5 resonant photoemission spectroscopy. Obtained pDOS exhibit a systematic trend depending on the physical properties of compounds: Although the coherent peak at the Fermi level can be explained by the band-structure calculation, an incoherent peak emerges on the higher binding energy side () in the cases of localized and heavy fermion compounds. The intensity and energy position of the incoherent peak is increased and shifted to a higher binding energy as the localization of the state increases. These behaviors are consistent with the prediction of the Mott metal-insulator transition, suggesting that the Hubbard- type mechanism takes an essential role in the electronic structure of actinide materials.
藤森 伸一; 竹田 幸治; 岡根 哲夫; 斎藤 祐児; 藤森 淳; 山上 浩志; 芳賀 芳範; 山本 悦嗣; 大貫 惇睦*
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.82 - 85, 2018/11
One of the most remarkable properties of actinide compounds is the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetic ordering which has been realized in several strongly-correlated uranium based compounds. In these compounds, both superconductivity and magnetic ordering originate from U 5f states. To understand the origin of the coexistence as well as the mechanism of the superconductivity, it is essential to reveal their U 5f electronic structures. In this presentation, the U 5f electronic structures of heavy Fermion superconductors UPdAl and URuSi studied by photoelectron spectroscopy using soft X-rays from SPring-8 BL23SU are presented. For UPdAl, U 4d-5f resonant photoemission experiment was performed, and its partial U 5f spectrum was revealed experimentally. Furthermore, we have applied the three-dimentional ARPES to the hidden order compound URuSi, and revealed its complete 3D electronic structure in the paramagnetic phase. Their electronic structures are discussed based on these results.
竹田 幸治; 岡根 哲夫; 斎藤 祐児; 山上 浩志; 山本 悦嗣; 芳賀 芳範
Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 5, p.171 - 174, 2018/11
In order to investigate the electronic and magnetic states of UGe element-specifically, we have performed soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments at the U N and Ge L absorption edges. We have detected the XMCD signals at both the U and Ge sites and observed clear hysteresis loops in the ferromagnetic (FM) state at T = 5.5 K. From the branching ratio B, it is found that the occupation number of 5f electrons (n) in UGe is close to 3. In addition, applying the magneto-optical sum rules analysis to the XMCD spectrum at the U N edges, the ratio of orbital magnetic moment to the spin magnetic moment (-M/M) is estimated to be 2.17. These values of B and -M/M are comparable compared with the results of other FM superconductors: URhGe and UCoGe