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Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 2; South Africa: Denuclearization and verification methods

Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusu, p.85 - 88, 2019/11

This is the summary of research result of methods for denuclearization and IAEA verification after the denuclearization in South Africa. South Africa had developed and possessed nuclear weapons, and dismantled them including the related facilities and equipment etc. by itself secretly in the past. The method for the denuclearization and the verification is unique in the world. This report could give us the lessons to investigate how to denuclearize and to verify them.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearisation, 3; Denuclearisation at Libya: Process and success factors

Tamai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusu, p.89 - 92, 2019/11

Libya's denuclearisation, named 'the Libya model', is regarded as one of good practices in cooperation of the international community and measures that have a sense of speed with the countries and institutions involved. Success factors of the denuclearisation are the Libya's relatively low technological progress despite the procurement of extensive nuclear materials and components due to the delay of detecting the nuclear programme, prompt implementation with the close collaboration of countries concerned, and Libya's cooperation facing to the economic sanctions and the regime collapse by the Iraq war. Precious lessons will be learned towards the prevention and the denuclearisation in other countries.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 4; Iraq: Characteristics of Iraq's denuclearization

Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusu, p.93 - 96, 2019/11

Iraq, defeated by the Gulf War, had to accept denuclearization under UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 687, but did not immediately and accurately report all its past nuclear activities to the IAEA. IAEA, as an internationally authorized nuclear inspection and verification organization to Iraqi denuclearization by the UNSCR 687, gradually revealed existence and the whole picture of Iraqi clandestine nuclear activities and verified destruction of weapon related facilities and equipment as well as removal of nuclear materials outside Iraq. Analyzing Iraq's characteristics of denuclearization could serve as a good reference for not only preventing nuclear weapons development but also considering their denuclearization in current and future states.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 1; South Africa: Motivations for nuclear weapons development, incentives for denuclearization and characteristics of its denuclearization

Tazaki, Makiko; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusu, p.81 - 84, 2019/11

South Africa had developed, manufactured, and possessed nuclear weapons, but later dismantled them all together with related facilities and equipment. After joining Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear weapon state and concluding a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it started peaceful use of nuclear energy. In that sense, South Africa's denuclearization is one of good examples of past denuclearization in the world, although the South Africa's specific policy of apartheid had been deeply connected with its nuclear weapons development and denuclearization. Analysing South Africa's motivations for nuclear weapons development, incentives for denuclearization, and characteristics of its denuclearization could serve as a good reference for not only preventing nuclear weapons development but also considering their denuclearization in current and future states.

Journal Articles

Research on factor analysis for achieving denuclearization, 5; Iran's nuclear program and Iran nuclear deal

Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-40-Kai Nenji Taikai Puroshidhingusu, p.97 - 99, 2019/11

Despite international accusations, Iran pursued uranium enrichment capacity. But through unprecedented strong economic sanctions, Iran accepted the restrictions on uranium enrichment capacity and agreed to accept the additional protocol. Nuclear program of Iran and nuclear deal are good precedents for denuclearization that has solved peacefully through multilateral negotiations, its process and lessons are compiled.

Journal Articles

Study on current US views on bilateral civilian nuclear cooperation agreements

Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Kitade, Yuta; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 7 Pages, 2018/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A Study on the tendencies on the member states from which Broader Conclusion (BC) has been drawn and on those from which BC has not been drawn yet by the International Atomic Energy Agency; Extracting possible requirements for drawing the BC

Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Kimura, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Kitade, Yuta; Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/11

To extract the possible requirements for the Broader Conclusion (BC) drawn by the IAEA in the Member States, this study is to conduct the comparative analysis of the tendencies on the Member States from which the BC has been drawn and those from which the BC has not been drawn yet.

Journal Articles

Summary of research result of State Level Concept (SLC)

Kimura, Takashi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kitade, Yuta; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 5 Pages, 2018/11

This is the summary of research result of State Level Concept (SLC) which has been developed and conducted by the IAEA and a major purpose of the research reported here is to promote the nuclear operator's understandings for the importance of Broder Conclusion drawn continuously by the IAEA under SLC.

Journal Articles

Study on elements of establishing the regional safeguards

Kitade, Yuta; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Kimura, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-39-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/11

Regional Safeguards is considered as one of the measures for strengthening IAEA safeguards and its concept is recognized at NPT Review Conference and also NSG Guidelines amended in 2011. This Study examines the elements for the proper establishment of Regional Safeguards.

Journal Articles

Continuum excitation and pseudospin wave in quantum spin-liquid and quadrupole ordered states of Tb$$_{2+x}$$Ti$$_{2-x}$$O$$_{7+y}$$

Kadowaki, Hiroaki*; Wakita, Mika*; F${aa}$k, B.*; Ollivier, J.*; Kawamura, Seiko; Nakajima, Kenji; Takatsu, Hiroshi*; Tamai, Mototake*

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 87(6), p.064704_1 - 064704_6, 2018/06

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:27.92(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The ground states of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb$$_{2+x}$$Ti$$_{2-x}$$O$$_{7+y}$$ have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Three single-crystal samples are investigated; one shows no phase transition ($$x = -0.007 < x_{c} < sim -0.0025$$), being a putative quantum spin-liquid (QSL), and the other two ($$x = 0.000, 0.003$$) show electric quadrupole ordering (QO) below $$T_{c} sim 0.5$$ K. The QSL sample shows continuum excitation spectra with an energy scale 0.1 meV as well as energy-resolution-limited (nominally) elastic scattering. As $$x$$ is increased, pseudospin wave of the QO state emerges from this continuum excitation, which agrees with that of powder samples and consequently verifies good $$x$$ control for the present single crystal samples.

Journal Articles

Analysis of the trends on minimization of proliferation risk

Suda, Kazunori; Shimizu, Ryo; Tazaki, Makiko; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kitade, Yuta

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/04

Since India's nuclear explosion in 1974, there has been continued discussion on nuclear non-proliferation. At first, to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was established to discuss reprocessing, plutonium handling, and so on. After that, to respond to the threat of proliferation posed by DPRK, the international community desired to further enhance nuclear non-proliferation by strengthening the IAEA safeguards system. In recent years, some researchers at universities and national laboratories are studying proliferation resistance from the standpoint of nuclear materials that may be inherently self-protecting. This paper discusses minimization of proliferation risk and future prospects based on alternative measures for reprocessing, plutonium handling, and recycling described in INFCE-WG4.

Journal Articles

Study on nuclear nonproliferation conditions required by the US Atomic Energy Act in connection with nuclear cooperation agreements with the US

Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kitade, Yuta

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 9 Pages, 2018/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Consideration on UK Withdrawal from EURATOM

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kitade, Yuta; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

Nihon Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Dai-38-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 6 Pages, 2018/04

The United Kingdom, UK, in March 2017, notified the withdrawal from the European Union, EU. Since EURATOM is managed by the same organisation of EU, the withdrawal from EURATOM is considered to be unavoidable. UK has to define the regulation for the measures covered by EURATOM which include the implementing safeguards in the civil UK nuclear facilities and the nuclear cooperation agreements between EURATOM and third nations. UK experts recognise that such re-arrangements within 2-years are very tough hurdle, so that some alternative measures are proposed by industry side. For peaceful nuclear use in Japan, hindrances on the smooth transfers of nuclear materials and equipment between UK are concerned. This paper will discuss the UK withdrawal from EURATOM focused on the UK's correspondence and the potential influence on cooperation with Japan in view of nuclear non-proliferation.

Journal Articles

IAEA low enriched uranium bank; Towards the realization of international management initiatives

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai-Shi, 60(1), p.25 - 29, 2018/01

IAEA Low Enriched Uranium Bank, which is one of international management initiatives of nuclear materials operated by IAEA, will be realized soon. During increasing concern on proliferation risk of sensitive nuclear technologies as well as in this century the potential acquisition by terrorists, the IAEA bank will offer the fuel assurance aiming at decreasing incentive for acquiring those sensitive technologies. Throughout the argument on the criteria for the fuel supply, the bank site and its requirement have been established and will be in operation next year. The background, significance, and development of this initiative are described.

Journal Articles

Prospective features for integration of nuclear forensics capability in national framework

Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tazaki, Makiko; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Proceedings of INMM 58th Annual Meeting (Internet), 6 Pages, 2017/07

Nuclear forensics is a technical measure to analyse and collate samples of illegally used nuclear materials, etc., to clarify their origins, routes, etc. and contribute to criminal identifications. Close collaboration with police and judicial organizations is essential. The national response framework is being built up with international cooperation. Discussions on promoting technical capability and regional cooperation are presented.

Journal Articles

Prospects and challenges of the post-nuclear security summit phase

Tamai, Hiroshi

Hiroshima Repoto 2017-Nen Ban; Kakugunshuku, Kakufukakusan, Kakusekyuriti Wo Meguru 2016-Nen No Doko, p.163 - 165, 2017/03

The series of Nuclear Security Summit, initiated by President Barack Obama, was held biennially, four times since 2010, and played an important role in promoting international efforts to enhance nuclear security. Despite Russia's refusal to participate in the fourth meeting, these summit-level meetings have gained both international and domestic attention, which have led to remarkable improvements in the field of nuclear security of each participating country. Therefore, there is an urgent need to take continuous measures to keep this momentum alive even after the final Nuclear Security Summit concluded in 2016. The challenges in strengthening nuclear security, prospects in the post-Nuclear Security Summit phase, as well as efforts and measures that Japan should pursue are investigated.

Journal Articles

Technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework

Tamai, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshiki; Kokaji, Lisa; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tomikawa, Hirofumi

Dai-37-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2017/02

Nuclear Forensics capability has been developed under the international collaborations. For its effective function, technical development in analysis of seized nuclear materials as well as the institutional development in comprehensive response framework are required under individual national responsibility. In order to keep the "chain of custody" in the proper operation of sample collection at the event scene, radiological analysis at the laboratory, storage of the samples, and further inspection and trial, close cooperation and information sharing between relevant organisations are essential. IAEA issues the Implementing Guide to provide the model action plan and assists individual national development. International cooperation for the technical improvement and awareness cultivation is promoted. Examples in such national developments will be introduced and prospective technical/institutional prerequisite for nuclear forensics response framework will be studied.

Journal Articles

A Study of appropriate physical protection measures for the radioactive waste in consideration of US regulations and others

Tazaki, Makiko; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Suda, Kazunori; Shimizu, Ryo; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kokaji, Lisa

Dai-37-Kai Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai Nippon Shibu Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2017/02

As to states determination on physical protection measures of nuclear material and nuclear facilities against unauthorized removal of nuclear material, International Atomic Energy (IAEA) makes recommendation of states to follow a Table which sets out three different categories-based physical protection measures. Primary factors of such categories are isotope, quantity and radiation of nuclear material. On the other hand, in the US, attractiveness of nuclear material including physical form and degree of dilution of special nuclear material (SNM) are also primary determining factors of physical protection measures, in addition to IAEAs primary factors. Focusing on SMN within radioactive waste, authors carried out a study on optimization of physical protection measures for the radioactive waste, using the IAEA Implementing Guide and the US regulations as references.

Journal Articles

A Study on the Promotion of Nuclear Security Culture

Tamai, Hiroshi; Tazaki, Makiko; Kokaji, Lisa; Shimizu, Ryo; Suda, Kazunori

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-36-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 7 Pages, 2015/12

In recent years the promotion of nuclear security culture aiming at strengthening nuclear security is extensively mentioned, however, awareness of nuclear security culture seems to be not much high compared to the permeation of nuclear safety culture. As a world's leading country of peaceful nuclear use, permeation of nuclear security culture into each personnel attitude must be one of important issues in Japan. Learning from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, complementarity between nuclear safety and nuclear security in the aspect of both protection measures has been profoundly recognised. Therefore, it will be natural to promote nuclear security culture modelled on the preceding nuclear safety culture. On this standpoint, the paper examines an approach for the promotion of nuclear security culture which, for example, consists of awareness cultivation, attitude progress, permeation assessment, and resulting in the establishment of PDCA Cycle.

Journal Articles

Analysis of US policy on nuclear cooperation agreements

Tazaki, Makiko; Suda, Kazunori; Tamai, Hiroshi

Kaku Busshitsu Kanri Gakkai (INMM) Nippon Shibu Dai-36-Kai Nenji Taikai Rombunshu (Internet), 8 Pages, 2015/12

Since the enactment of the US Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, the US government has concluded nuclear cooperation agreements with other states (123 agreement) containing 9 nuclear non-proliferation conditions, in accordance with the 123 a. of the US Atomic Energy Act. Especially in the 21st century, 123 agreements can be analyzed as more detailed and diversified, due to the US government's case-by-case approach to 123 agreements, considering changes in international circumstances on nuclear proliferation concerns and expansion of peaceful use of nuclear energy. In this study, current US policy towards 123 agreements is analyzed through comparisons of various 123 agreements, particularly focusing on US approach to 9 nuclear nonproliferation conditions in the 123 agreements in the 21st century and also considering the other states' current environment on nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear energy utilization.

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