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Journal Articles

Analysis on ex-vessel loss of coolant accident for a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor

Watanabe, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Makoto; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Yoji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Uto, Hiroyasu; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Araki, Takao*; Asano, Shiro*; Asano, Kazuhito*

Proceedings of 26th IEEE Symposium on Fusion Engineering (SOFE 2015), 6 Pages, 2016/06

Safety studies of a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor have been performed. In the event of the blanket cooling pipe break outside the vacuum vessel, i.e. ex-vacuum vessel loss of coolant accident (ex-VV LOCA), the pressurized steam and air may lead to damage reactor building walls which have confinement function, and to release the radioactive materials to the environment. In response to this accident, we proposed three cases of confinement strategies. In each case, the pressure and thermal loads to the confinement boundaries and total mass of tritium released to outside the boundaries were analyzed by accident analysis code MELCOR modified for fusion reactor. These analyses developed design parameters to maintain the integrity of the confinement boundaries.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen behavior in primary precipitate of F82H steel; Atomistic calculation based on the density functional theory

Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Iwakiri, Hirotomo*; Murayoshi, Norihiko*; Kato, Daiji*; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 10, p.1205086_1 - 1205086_2, 2015/12

In this paper, formation energy of isolated hydrogen atom in Cr$$_{23}$$C$$_{6}$$ has been theoretically investigated with atomistic calculation based on the density functional theory. The lowest calculated formation energy of a hydrogen atom is -0.48 eV with a trigonal bipyramidal configuration surrounded by five regular Cr lattice atoms. A comparison of the formation energy of hydrogen atom in bcc-iron may indicate that hydrogen atoms in F82H steel are more energetically favorable in Cr$$_{23}$$C$$_{6}$$-based precipitate rather than Fe-based matrix, leading to an increase of the tritium retention in the precipitate.

Journal Articles

Impacts of friction stir processing on irradiation effects in vacuum-plasma-spray coated tungsten

Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Morisada, Yoshiaki*; Fujii, Hidetoshi*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.2054 - 2057, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.03(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, as typified by F82H, is a promising candidate for structural material of DEMO fusion reactors. To prevent plasma sputtering, tungsten (W) coating was essentially required. This study aims to examine the irradiation effects on hardness and microstructure of vacuum-plasma-spray coated W-F82H steel, with a special emphasis on the impacts of grain-refining induced by frictional stir processing (FSP). It was revealed that the hardness of the VPS-FSP W after ion-irradiation to 5.4 dpa at 800$$^{circ}$$C were not remarkably changed, where bulk W usually exhibited significant irradiation hardening.

Journal Articles

Modification of vacuum plasma sprayed tungsten coating on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by friction stir processing

Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ozawa, Kazumi; Morisada, Yoshiaki*; Noh, S.*; Fujii, Hidetoshi*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.2080 - 2084, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:60.95(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The vacuum plasma spray (VPS) technique has been investigated as the most practical method to form Tungsten (W) layer as a plasma facing material in fusion devices. The issues are the thermal conductivity and the strength of VPS-W, i.e., the thermal conductivity of VPS-W were significantly lower than that of the bulk W, and the hardness of VPS-W is much less than that of the bulk W. These are mainly caused by the porous structure of VPS-W. In order to solve these issues, friction stir processing (FPS) was applied on VPS-W in this study. It was suggested that FSP can contribute to significant improvement both in mechanical and thermal properties of VPS-W coating.

Journal Articles

Effect of helium on irradiation creep behavior of B-doped F82H irradiated in HFIR

Ando, Masami; Nozawa, Takashi; Hirose, Takanori; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Wakai, Eiichi; Stoller, R. E.*; Myers, J.*

Fusion Science and Technology, 68(3), p.648 - 651, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:12.03(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Pressurized tubes of F82H and B-doped F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K up to $$sim$$6dpa have been measured by a laser profilometer. The irradiation creep strain in F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K was almost linearly dependent on the effective stress level for stresses below 260 MPa and 170 MPa, respectively. The creep strain of $$^{10}$$BN-F82H was similar to that of F82H IEA at each effective stress level except 294 MPa at 573 K irradiation. For 673 K irradiation, the creep strain of some $$^{10}$$BN-F82H tubes was larger than that of F82H tubes. It is suggested that a swelling caused in each $$^{10}$$BN-F82H because small helium babbles might be produced by a reaction of $$^{10}$$B(n, $$alpha$$) $$^{7}$$Li.

Journal Articles

Neutronics analysis for fusion DEMO reactor design

Someya, Yoji; Tobita, Kenji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Uto, Hiroyasu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

This paper presents neutronics analysis mainly focused on key design issues for self-sufficient tritium production based on the conceptual design study carried out for a fusion DEMO reactor in past several years, which includes new findings regarding design methodology of breeding blanket. Self-sufficient production of tritium is one of the most critical requirements for fusion reactors. We considered a fusion DEMO reactor with a major radius of about 8 m and fusion output of 1.5 GW with breeding blanket consisting of a mixed bed of Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ and Be$$_{12}$$Ti pebbles. The net tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was estimated to be 1.15 with a three-dimensional analysis with the MCNP-5 with nuclear library of FENDL-2.1, satisfying a self-sufficient supply of tritium (net TBR$$>$$1.05). Throughout the research, we found that tritium breeding capability (i.e., local TBR) of breeding blanket is less dependent on the arrangement of cooling pipe in the blanket when the neutron wall loading is lower than about 1.5 MW/m$$^{2}$$ which is met in the DEMO considered. The result suggests that tolerance for the installation of cooling pipes in each blanket module will not be a critical matter. In addition, we found that a gap of about 0.02 m between neighboring blanket modules has little impact on the gross TBR.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of damage accumulation behavior and strength anisotropy of NITE SiC/SiC composites by acoustic emission, digital image correlation and electrical resistivity monitoring

Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Asakura, Yuki*; Koyama, Akira*; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 455(1-3), p.549 - 553, 2014/12

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:75.09(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

SiC/SiC composite is a promising candidate material of fusion DEMO reactor. This paper aims to identify its damage tolerance and strength anisotropy by various characterization techniques such as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, electrical resistivity (ER) measurement, and digital image correlation (DIC). The AE results identified that damage accumulation initiated prior to the proportional limit stress (PLS) by both tensile and compressive loadings for 2D composites. The preliminary AE waveform analysis implied that this AE detect strength corresponds to initiation of micro-cracking but the stress-strain curve shows further linearity due to the strong interfacial friction. Then fiber sliding occurred near the PLS, followed by the non-linearlity of the curve. The preliminary tensile test results using a notched specimen also suggest notch insensitivity of the composites in any loading directions. The detailed failure mechanism will eventually be discussed with ER and DIC results.

Journal Articles

Physical properties of F82H for fusion blanket design

Hirose, Takanori; Nozawa, Takashi; Stoller, R. E.*; Hamaguchi, Dai; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Enoeda, Mikio; Kato, Yutai*; Snead, L. L.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1595 - 1599, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:31 Percentile:94.05(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The material properties, focusing on the properties used for design analysis were re-assessed and newly investigated for various heats including F82H-IEA. Moreover, irradiation effects on those properties were studied in this work. As for thermal properties, thermal conductivity that has significant impacts on the thermo-hydraulic properties of the blanket was investigated on several heats of F82H including F82H-IEA. According to the measurements, the thermal conductivity falls in the range 28.3$$pm$$1.1 W/m/K at 293 K. Although this is comparable with that of the other ferritic/martensitic steels, it is 20% lower than the published value for F82H-IEA. The re-assessment on the published value revealed that the thermal diffusivity was over-estimated. As for irradiation effects on the physical properties, electric resistivity was measured after irradiation up to 6 dpa at 573 K and 673 K. The reduction of resistivity in F82H and its welds were 3% and 6%, respectively.

Journal Articles

R&D status on water cooled ceramic breeder blanket technology

Enoeda, Mikio; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Nakajima, Motoki; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1131 - 1136, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:84.87(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. Regarding the fabrication technology development using F82H, the fabrication of a real scale mockup of the back wall of TBM was completed. Also the assembling of the complete box structure of the TBM mockup and planning of the pressurization testing was studied. The development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for higher chemical stability was performed for future DEMO blanket application. From the view point of TBM test result evaluation and DEMO blanket performance design, the development of the blanket tritium simulation technology, investigation of the TBM neutronics measurement technology and the evaluation of tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been performed.

Journal Articles

Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, S.*; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1723 - 1727, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A SiC/SiC composite is a promising candidate material for the advanced fusion DEMO blanket. For the design of the DEMO, the stability of high-temperature strength of SiC/SiC composites needs to be identified. Additionally, strength anisotropy needs to be clarified because of its unique fabric architecture. This study therefore aims to evaluate mechanical properties by various modes at elevated temperatures, eventually providing a stress envelope for the design. A P/W Tyranno-SA3 fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composite with multilayered SiC/PyC interface was evaluated in this study. Tensile and compressive tests were conducted by the SSTT specifically arranged for the high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were contrarily estimated by the off-axial tensile method assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion is valid for composites. All tests were performed in vacuum. The preliminary test results indicate no degradation of both proportional limit stress (PLS) and the ultimate tensile strength at temperatures below 1000$$^{circ}$$C. Similarly, no significant degradation of high-temperature compressive and in-plane shear properties were identified, finally providing the stress envelope at elevated temperatures for the design.

Journal Articles

Study of safety features and accident scenarios in a fusion DEMO reactor

Nakamura, Makoto; Tobita, Kenji; Gulden, W.*; Watanabe, Kazuhito*; Someya, Yoji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Araki, Takao*; Matsumiya, Hisato*; Ishii, Kyoko*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2028 - 2032, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:68.92(Nuclear Science & Technology)

After the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, a social need for assuring safety of fusion energy has grown gradually in the Japanese (JA) fusion research community. DEMO safety research has been launched as a part of BA DEMO Design Activities (BA-DDA). This paper reports progress in the fusion DEMO safety research conducted under BA-DDA. Safety requirements and evaluation guidelines have been, first of all, established based on those established in the Japanese ITER site invitation activities. The amounts of radioactive source terms and energies that can mobilize such source terms have been assessed for a reference DEMO, in which the blanket technology is based on the Japanese fusion technology R&D programme. Reference event sequences expected in DEMO have been analyzed based on the master logic diagram and functional FMEA techniques. Accident initiators of particular importance in DEMO have been selected based on the event sequence analysis.

Journal Articles

Compatibility of Ni and F82H with liquid Pb-Li under rotating flow

Kanai, Akihiko*; Park, C.*; Noborio, Kazuyuki*; Kasada, Ryuta*; Konishi, Satoshi*; Hirose, Takanori; Nozawa, Takashi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1653 - 1657, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:36.81(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Key aspects of the safety study of a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor

Nakamura, Makoto; Tobita, Kenji; Someya, Yoji; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Gulden, W.*; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Araki, Takao*; Watanabe, Kazuhito*; Matsumiya, Hisato*; Ishii, Kyoko*; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 9, p.1405139_1 - 1405139_11, 2014/10

Key aspects of the safety study of a water-cooled fusion DEMO reactor is reported. Safety requirements, dose target, DEMO plant model and confinement strategy of the safety study are briefly introduced. The internal hazard of a water-cooled DEMO, i.e. radioactive inventories, stored energies that can mobilize these inventories and accident initiators and scenarios, are evaluated. It is pointed out that the enthalpy in the first wall/blanket cooling loops, the decay heat and the energy potentially released by the Be-steam chemical reaction are of special concern for the water-cooled DEMO. An ex-vessel loss-of-coolant of the first wall/blanket cooling loop is also quantitatively analyzed. The integrity of the building against the ex-VV LOCA is discussed.

Journal Articles

Corrosion-resistant coating technique for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel

Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ando, Masami

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(6), p.737 - 743, 2014/06

AA2013-0280.pdf:1.68MB

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are attractive materials for the fuel cladding of fast reactors and the first-wall material of fusion blanket. High-chromium ferritic ODS steels have better corrosion-resistance properties, but they have poor material workability and anisotropy, making their practical application difficult. In contrast, low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steels have better workability and their anisotropy can be reduced through martensitic transformation. However, their corrosion-resistance properties are poor, compared to high-chromium ferrtic ODS steels. In this work, we developed a corrosion-resistant coating technique for 8Cr ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. The ODS steel was coated with 304 or 430 stainless steel by changing the canning material from mild steel to stainless steel in the conventional material processing procedure and using it as a coating material.

Journal Articles

Radiation-induced effects in physical properties of materials, 2-6; Evaluation of irradiation creep for F82H steel by using pressurized tubes

Ando, Masami; Nozawa, Takashi; Hirose, Takanori; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 90(1), p.64 - 67, 2014/01

Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) is a candidate for the material of DEMO blanket structure. The irradiation creep behavior of F82H and JLF-1 steel has been measured at 300, 400 and 500$$^{circ}$$C up to 5 dpa using helium-pressurized creep tubes irradiated in HFIR. These tubes were pressurized with helium to hoop stress levels of 0$$sim$$400 MPa at the irradiation temperature. The results for F82H and JLF-1 with a 400 MPa hoop stress detected small creep strains ($$<$$ 0.25%) after irradiation at 300$$^{circ}$$C. Irradiation creep rate (creep strain/dose) was tendency to be a similar behavior for high-dose irradiated RAFM specimens in FFTF. In this paper, a procedure of irradiation creep test & evaluation was also summarized.

Journal Articles

Irradiation response in weldment and HIP joint of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H

Hirose, Takanori; Sokolov, M. A.*; Ando, Masami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Stoller, R. E.*; Odette, G. R.*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 442(1-3), p.S557 - S561, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:49.64(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Microsegregation in a F82H plate

Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 442(1-3), p.S18 - S22, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Through the Broader Approach (BA) activity in Japan, F82H-BA07 heat of 5 tons prepared applying electrosrag remelting (ESR) has been studied as a step toward a larger-scale melting about 20 tons. From the result of elemental mapping images using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-segregation of at least four metallic elements such as chromium, tungsten, vanadium and manganese was found as stripes parallel to the hot rolling direction. In the case of tungsten segregation, the maximum difference of content was about 1.0 wt% between the observed stripes. This difference could cause differences in nano-metric structures between stripes, and affect mechanical properties. In this presentation, we discuss how much micro-segregation should be decreased considering effects of micro-segregation on nano-metric structures and mechanical properties in addition to the result of optimization of homogenizing condition.

Journal Articles

Application of master curve method to the evaluation of fracture toughness of F82H steels

Kim, B. J.; Kasada, Ryuta*; Kimura, Akihiko*; Wakai, Eiichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 442(1-3), p.S38 - S42, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:70.63(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Re-defining failure envelopes for silicon carbide composites based on damage process analysis by acoustic emission

Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Fusion Engineering and Design, 88(9-10), p.2543 - 2546, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:78.31(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A SiC/SiC composite is a promising candidate for a fusion DEMO blanket. Due to the inherent quasi-ductile failure of composites, determining failure scenario for this class of composites is undoubtedly important to develop design codes in practical use of them. This study aims to evaluate the failure behavior of the quasi-ductile SiC/SiC composites to provide a strength map. For this purpose, detailed tensile, compressive and in-plane shear failure behaviors were evaluated by the acoustic emission (AE) technique. The AE results distinguished damage accumulation processes by wavelet analysis. Of particular emphasis is that matrix cracking occurred prior to the PLS by both tensile and compressive loadings because the rough-surface of SiC fibers resulted in the strong frictional stress at the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface. In this paper, an updated failure envelope will be provided by referring the actual matrix cracking stresses as more realistic and reasonable failure criteria.

Journal Articles

A View of technology maturity assessment to realize fusion reactor by Japanese young researchers

Kasada, Ryuta*; Goto, Takuya*; Fujioka, Shinsuke*; Hiwatari, Ryoji*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Miyazawa, Junichi*; Young Scientists Special Interest Group on Fusion Reactor Realization*

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 89(4), p.193 - 198, 2013/04

Japanese young researchers who have interest in realizing fusion reactor have analyzed Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) in Young Scientists Special Interest Group on Fusion Reactor Realization. In this report, brief introduction to TRL assessment and a view of TRL assessment against fusion reactor projects conducting in Japan.

231 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)