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Journal Articles

Deep microbial life in high-quality granitic groundwater from geochemically and geographically distinct underground boreholes

Ino, Kohei*; Konno, Yuta*; Kozuka, Mariko*; Hirota, Akinari*; Togo, Yoko*; Fukuda, Akari*; Komatsu, Daisuke*; Tsunogai, Urumu*; Tanabe, Akifumi*; Yamamoto, Satoshi*; et al.

Environmental Microbiology Reports (Internet), 8(2), p.285 - 294, 2016/04

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:65.17(Environmental Sciences)

To understand the subsurface biosphere, borehole investigation was conducted for 300-m deep granitic rocks at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan. The initial biomass was the highest with the flourish of aerobic H$$_{2}$$-oxidizing Hydrogenophaga spp., whereas an uncultivated lineage of the phylum Nitrospirae became predominant after three years with decreasing biomass. The common occurrence of many species of Nitrospirae and Chlorobi phyla at the geographically distinct sites and the exclusive detection of their phylogenetically related environmental sequences from deep groundwaters and terrestrial hot springs, suggest that these bacteria are indigenous and potentially adapted to the deep terrestrial subsurface.

Journal Articles

SOL-divertor plasma simulations introducing anisotropic temperature with virtual divertor model

Togo, Satoshi*; Takizuka, Tomonori*; Nakamura, Makoto; Hoshino, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yuichi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 463, p.502 - 505, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:59.1(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

A 1D SOL-divertor plasma simulation code introducing the anisotropic ion temperature with virtual divertor model has been developed. By introducing the anisotropic ion temperature directly, the second-derivative parallel ion viscosity term in the momentum transport equation can be excluded and the boundary condition at the divertor plate becomes unnecessary. In order to express the effects of the divertor plate and accompanying sheath implicitly, the virtual divertor model has been introduced which has an artificial sinks of particle, momentum and energy. The virtual divertor model makes the periodic boundary condition available. By using this model, SOL-divertor plasmas satisfying the Bohm condition has been successfully obtained. Also investigated are the dependence of the ion temperature anisotropy on the normalized mean free path of ion and the validity of the approximated parallel ion viscosity for the Braginskii expression and the limited one.

Oral presentation

One-dimensional dynamical analysis of detached divertor plasmas

Nakamura, Makoto; Togo, Satoshi*; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori*; Ogawa, Yuichi*; Hoshino, Kazuo

no journal, , 

Plasma operation with detached divertors is considered to be a promising way to reduce divertor heat load. However, transient characteristics of the detached divertor plasma have notbeen studied yet. The edge localized mode can cause temporally changing cross-field heat and particle inputs from the core to the scrape-off-layer. Even in such a situation for a fusion DEMO reactor, the plasma should be kept detached and re-attachment onto the divertor should be avoided. We investigate response of the divertor plasma to the temporally changing heat and particle inputs. Time scales of changes in the plasma density and temperature are particularly investigated for sheath-limited, conduction-limited and detached divertor regimes.

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