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Journal Articles

Fracture characterization and rock mass damage induced by different excavation methods in the Horonobe URL of Japan

Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei

International Journal of Civil Engineering, 16(4), p.371 - 381, 2018/04

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.34(Engineering, Civil)

JAEA Reports

Synthesized research report in the second mid-term research phase; Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project, Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project and Geo-stability Project

Hama, Katsuhiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sasao, Eiji; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sato, Toshinori; Fujita, Tomo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yokota, Hideharu; et al.

JAEA-Research 2015-007, 269 Pages, 2015/08

JAEA-Research-2015-007.pdf:68.65MB
JAEA-Research-2015-007(errata).pdf:0.07MB

We have synthesised the research results from Mizunami/Horonobe URLs and geo-stability projects in the second mid-term research phase. It could be used as technical bases for NUMO/Regulator in each decision point from sitting to beginning of disposal (Principal Investigation to Detailed Investigation Phase). High quality construction techniques and field investigation methods have been developed and implemented and these will be directly applicable to the National Disposal Program (along with general assessments of hazardous natural events and processes). It will be crucial to acquire technical knowledge on decisions of partial backfilling and final closure by actual field experiments in Mizunami/Horonobe URLs as main themes for the next phases.

Journal Articles

Effective 3D data visualization in deep shaft construction

Inagaki, Daisuke*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Nago, Makito*; Ijiri, Yuji*; Shigehiro, Michiko*

Proceedings of ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress 2015 (WTC 2015)/41st General Assembly, 10 Pages, 2015/05

Journal Articles

Permeability estimation based on crack tensor on site scale

Yamasaki, Masanao*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Otani, Tatsuhiko*; Shinji, Masato*

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, F2 (Chika Kukan Kenkyu) (Internet), 71(1), p.1 - 10, 2015/04

Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructed the Underground Research Laboratory in Hokkaido. In the shaft excavation, length, direction and aperture of geological observation are measured and analyzed in order to estimate rock permeability around lining. In this report, correlation between frequency of cracks and rock permeability based on crack tensor and stereology was discussed. Prediction equation of rock permeability from the frequency of cracks on the shaft wall was also proposed.

JAEA Reports

A Study on the strength properties of the rock mass based on triaxial tests conducted at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Kondo, Keiji*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Fujita, Tomo

JAEA-Research 2015-001, 46 Pages, 2015/03

JAEA-Research-2015-001.pdf:4.92MB
JAEA-Research-2015-001-appendix(CD-ROM).zip:67.95MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R&D activities at the off-site URL at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan in order to enhance reliability of technology related to deep geological disposal of HLW in sedimentary rocks. In this report, strength properties (cohesion and frictional angle) of rock masses in the Koetoi and Wakkanai formations are investigated on the basis of triaxial tests conducted in the Horonobe URL considering the relative depths to the formation. Strength properties investigated in this report are compared with the properties obtained in the designing phase. The cohesion in the Koetoi Formation increased with increasing depth. On the other hand, in the transition zone of the Wakkanai Formation, the cohesion increased significantly in the shallow Wakkanai formation (transition zone). Below the transition zone, the cohesion does not significantly depend on the depth. Thus the strength properties between two formations were found to be different. Comparing the cohesions and frictional angles determined from triaxial tests with the values determined in the designing phase, there was no agreement between these values in almost all the depth. Thus it is essential to determine cohesion and frictional angle considering the relative depths to the formation for detailed understanding of strength properties of rock mass.

Journal Articles

Investigations for av change of an excavation damaged zone with time at the 250 m gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Kubota, Kenji*; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Kondo, Keiji; Inagaki, Daisuke

Doboku Gakkai Rombunshu, C (Chiken Kogaku) (Internet), 70(4), p.412 - 423, 2014/12

The authors have been conducting seismic and resistivity tomography surveys in a gallery of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory in order to investigate an extent of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) along time. The objective of this paper is to discuss an influence of fracture distribution and water saturation of a rock mass on variations in seismic velocity and the value of apparent resistivity in an EDZ. Based on the result of seismic tomography survey, the extent of a layer which has low seismic velocity was about 1.0 m from the gallery wall after excavation of the tomography area. From the results of resistivity tomography survey, the value of apparent resistivity has not changed remarkably along time. To investigate a relationship between variations in seismic velocity and density of fracture in the survey area, the authors built a three dimensional fracture model around the tomography area. From the comparison of seismic velocity with density of fracture, seismic velocity decreased almost linearly as the density of fracture increased. Also, it was found that density of fracture in the layer of low seismic velocity could be estimated using a simple numeric model. From this result, seismic tomography survey and investigation of density of fracture are suitable method for evaluation of an EDZ.

Journal Articles

Hydrogeomechanical investigation of an excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Nohara, Shintaro*; Kubota, Kenji*; Tokiwa, Tetsuya*; Kondo, Keiji*; Inagaki, Daisuke*

Proceedings of 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2014/10

Journal Articles

Modeling damage processes in laboratory tests at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Asahina, Daisuke*; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Houseworth, J.*; Birkholzer, J.*

Proceedings of 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2014/10

Journal Articles

A Study of mechanical stability of support elements and surrounding rock mass during shaft sinking through a fault

Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Inagaki, Daisuke*; Nago, Makito*; Ijiri, Yuji*

Proceedings of 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2014/10

Journal Articles

An Investigation on mechanical properties of in-situ rock mass at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Tsusaka, Kimikazu*; Inagaki, Daisuke*; Niunoya, Sumio*; Jo, Mayumi*

Proceedings of 8th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium (ARMS-8) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2014/10

Journal Articles

Quantitative assessment of an Excavation Damaged Zone from variations in seismic velocity and fracture distribution around a gallery in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Kondo, Keiji; Inagaki, Daisuke

Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics; Structures in and on Rock Masses, p.487 - 492, 2014/05

In a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project, it will be important to evaluate an Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). In particular, in an EDZ, new fractures are expected to develop in response to excavation. These fractures can cause increase in permeability of rock mass around the gallery. In order to investigate density of these fractures in an EDZ, the authors integrated information of fracture mapping of a gallery into a result of seismic tomography survey conducted in the Horonobe underground Research Laboratory. As a result, seismic velocity decreased almost linearly as the density of fracture increased. Also, it was found that density of fracture in an EDZ is expected to be evaluated by the trend which is calculated from simple numeric model. This analysis provides useful data for HLW disposal from a viewpoint that one can evaluate condition of fractures in an EDZ using the result of seismic tomography survey.

Journal Articles

An Application of three-dimensional geological information system to underground construction

Kato, Nobuyoshi*; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Nago, Makito*; Yamagami, Masahito*; Matsubara, Makoto*; Shigehiro, Michiko*; Aizawa, Takao*; Kamemura, Katsumi*

Chishitsu To Chosa, (139), p.17 - 22, 2014/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Influence of fracture orientation on excavatability of soft sedimentary rock using a hydraulic impact hammer; A Case study in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tokiwa, Tetsuya

Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 38, p.542 - 549, 2013/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:25.58(Construction & Building Technology)

In the Japanese deep geological disposal project for high-level radioactive waste, the ease of excavation of a potential host rock is a key issue for the economics of project implementation. This is because it is estimated that about 300-kilometers of disposal drifts will need to be excavated for the disposal of 40,000 waste packages deep underground. In this study, the influence not only of the mechanical properties of intact host rock, but also fracture characteristics and their effect on the practical excavation rate of drifts using a hydraulic impact hammer were analyzed. The drifts were excavated through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. Fracture mapping was conducted at the excavation face before every excavation round for the evaluation of fracture characteristics. Equotip hardness testing was also conducted to estimate the strength of intact rock. The results indicate that the excavation rate of the drift excavated in the direction perpendicular to pre-existing fractures was faster than the excavation of the drift excavated in the direction parallel to pre-existing fractures. In addition, the drift excavated in the direction perpendicular to pre-existing fractures had a good correlation with fracture frequency. This result suggests that the preferred direction of disposal drifts should be perpendicular to the major pre-existing fractures in the host rock to optimize excavatability in any deep geological disposal project.

Journal Articles

A Study of the regional stress and the stress state in the galleries of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Kondo, Keiji; Inagaki, Daisuke; Kato, Harumi*

Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on In-situ Rock Stress (RS 2013) (CD-ROM), p.331 - 338, 2013/08

In a high-level radioactive waste disposal, initial stress state is important for designing support and layout of repository. Based on the background, objectives of this paper is to investigate the state of regional stress in detail and change of initial stress state along construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). Hydraulic fracturing tests and observation of the borehole breakouts through borehole televiewer logging have been conducted in the boreholes around the Horonobe URL and in the galleries of the URL. As a result, the values of the stress measured in the boreholes around the URL increased along depth and the orientations of the maximum horizontal stress were different between a map scale fault. In addition, values of initial stresses measured in the galleries were less than those of boreholes around the URL and orientation of the maximum horizontal stress were different in each depth of the gallery. These results suggest that measurements of the stress in the galleries are important for modification of the layout designed before construction of the URL.

Journal Articles

Rock spalling and countermeasures in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito*; Aoki, Tomoyuki*; Shigehiro, Michiko*

Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on In-situ Rock Stress (RS 2013) (CD-ROM), p.339 - 346, 2013/08

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory is planned to consist of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m in diameter), the East and West Access Shafts (6.5 m in diameter). The host rock of the URL site comprises Neogene sedimentary rocks. The unconfined compressive strength of the rocks is less than 20 MPa on average. Anisotropic stress distribution around the URL is also confirmed. Because several highly permeable fractures (hydraulic transmissivity: approximately 10$$^{-5}$$m$$^{2}$$/s) with the size greater than the shaft diameter develop under the condition of around 2 in competence factor (i.e., the ratio of the unconfined compressive strength of rock to the initial stress) below a depth of 250 m, shaft sinking is a challenging issue from the viewpoint of tunnel engineering in the Horonobe URL Project. In this paper, the construction of the Ventilation Shaft below a depth of 250 m at the Horonobe URL is reported. During shaft sinking, fracture mapping of the shaft wall was performed. The geometry of the shaft wall was also measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner in order to investigate the shape and volume of rock spalling in the shaft wall resulting from the excavation work. Rock spalling was predominantly observed on the south and north wall rock corresponding to the direction of the minimum horizontal initial stress. A large amount of rock spalling also developed along a large-scale fault. With respect to the lining span and the layout of rockbolts, several support patterns were designed and installed as the countermeasures to prevent the development of excessive rock spalling. A flowchart for selecting the optimum support design was then developed.

Journal Articles

Relationship between rock mass properties and damage of a concrete lining during shaft sinking in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project

Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito*; Kamemura, Katsumi*; Matsubara, Makoto*; Shigehiro, Michiko*

Proceedings of ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress 2013 (WTC 2013)/39th General Assembly, p.2014 - 2021, 2013/05

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been constructing three shafts to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. In this study, in consideration of support patterns installed, a relationship between the rock mass properties and mechanical response to excavation was investigated in detail during the construction of the East Access Shaft below a depth of 250 m. Since the shaft has intersected several faults with the size greater than the shaft diameter, some amounts of rock spalling have occurred and cracks have severely developed in a concrete lining in highly fractured zones. The results of pre-excavation grouting were compared with the results of fracture mapping in the shaft wall obtained during the shaft sinking. Applicability of several support patterns installed to control massive spalling during the shaft sinking was also analysed using the results of geometry profiling of shaft wall using a three-dimensional laser scanner and convergence measurements. As a result, based the empirical relationships among the characteristics of rocks, dimension of spalling, damage of a concrete lining and support patterns, a flow chart for selection of span of a concrete lining was proposed to control its severe damage prior to shaft excavation.

Journal Articles

The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Tsusaka, Kimikazu

Chika Kukan Riyo Gaidobukku 2013, p.350 - 354, 2013/04

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Initial stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing method in diatomaceous mudstone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Kondo, Keiji; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Sugita, Yutaka; Kato, Harumi*; Niunoya, Sumio*

Dai-13-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (CD-ROM), p.583 - 588, 2013/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Inagaki, Daisuke; Nago, Makito*; Koike, Masashi*; Matsubara, Makoto*; Sugawara, Kentaro*

Dai-13-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (CD-ROM), p.911 - 916, 2013/01

A repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep underground consists of several underground structures such as access and disposal drifts and shafts. In deep geological disposal project, a shaft is the first underground structure to be constructed and the last one to be backfilled. Therefore, the stability of shaft is one of key factors to steadily manage the project in the construction and operation phases. In this paper, the authors discuss influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one is for ventilation and the others are for access use) up to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m in diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack has developed in a concrete lining installed just above rock spalling. The authors have measured geometry of shaft wall by using three-dimensional laser scanner. They also conducted numerical analysis in order to calculate change in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in a concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced tensile stress in the vertical direction in a concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed tensile strength of a concrete lining in the case that it developed more than 100 cm in depth.

Journal Articles

Geomechanical assessment of excavation damaged zone in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Kondo, Keiji; Inagaki, Daisuke

Dai-13-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (CD-ROM), p.905 - 910, 2013/01

In a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project, quantitative evaluation of the extent of excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which is estimated to cause the mechanical, hydrological and geochemical effect to the rock. In Horonobe URL, P-wave tomography survey and rock core observation in the tomography area were conducted at the depth of 250 m to evaluate EDZ. In addition to these in-situ measurement and observation, the authors conducted numerical analysis to identify damaged zone. As a result of P-wave tomography, remarkable low velocity layer was extended about 0.6 m from the drift wall. From the result of rock core observation, the region which has several EDZ fractures developed to 0.3 m from the gallery wall. Furthermore, the numerical analysis showed that the failure zone was extended about 0.2 m from the drift wall. From these results, the authors concluded that the extension of remarkable low velocity layer matched with the extension of the region which has several EDZ fractures.

62 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)