Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*
Materials Transactions, 62(8), p.1239 - 1246, 2021/08
The FeCrAl-ODS alloy claddings were manufactured and Vickers hardness, ring tensile tests and TEM observations of these claddings were performed to investigate the effects of thermal aging at 450 C for 5,000 and 15,000 h. The age-hardening of all FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding was found. In addition, the significant increase in tensile strength was accompanied by much larger loss of ductility. It was suggested that this age-hardening behavior was attributed to the (Ti, Al)-enriched phase (' phase) and the ' phase precipitates (content of Al is 7 wt%). In comparison with FeCrAl-ODS alloys with almost same chemical compositions, there was significant age-hardening in both alloys. However, the extrusion bar with no-recrystallized structures was keeping good ductility. It was suggested that this different behavior of reduction ductility was attributed to the effects of grain boundaries, dislocation densities and specimen preparation direction.
Aghamiri, S. M. S.*; Sugawara, Naoya*; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ono, Naoko*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Yamashita, Shinichiro
Materials Characterization, 176, p.111043_1 - 111043_6, 2021/06
Advanced oxidation-resistant FeCrAl ODS alloys were developed via the control of composition-processing conditions for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. For the first time, a single-crystal like recrystallized FeCrAl ODS alloy was achieved with a unique crystallographic texture of 110-plane and 211-direction and a high number density of fine nanoscale oxide particles. Evaluation of yield strengths at different temperatures showed higher values in transverse (T) direction than longitudinal (L) direction. The crystal orientation dependence of the yield strength up to 800C was attributed to lower value of Schmid factor in transverse direction. Accordingly, the critical resolved shear stress of this practical class of advanced materials was calculated in various temperatures.
Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yano, Yasuhide; Inoue, Toshihiko; Sowa, Takashi*
Materials Science & Engineering A, 812, p.141076_1 - 141076_11, 2021/04
FeCrAl oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising materials for accident tolerant fuels for light water reactors (LWRs). In these alloys, Al and Cr are key elements with important synergistic effects: enhancement of the formation of oxidation-resistant AlO phase by Cr addition and suppression of the formation of the embrittling Cr-rich ' phase by Al addition. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The solid-solution strengthening resulting from Al and Cr co-addition was investigated in this study. The Al and Cr contents were systematically varied from 9-16 at.% and 10-17 at.%, respectively, and tensile tests were conducted at 298 K, 573 K and 973 K in the as-annealed condition. The solid solution strengthening increased linearly, 20 MPa per 1 at.% Al and 5 MPa per 1 at.% Cr, at the typical LWR operational temperature of 573 K. The conventional Fleischer-Friedel and Labusch theories cannot explain this level of solid-solution strengthening. It was shown that Suzuki's double kink theory for screw dislocations reasonably predicts the solid solution strengthening by Al and Cr as well as the inverse dependency on the absolute temperature and linear dependency on the Al and Cr content.
Ukai, Shigeharu; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Satoshi
Materials Science & Engineering A, 794, p.139863_1 - 139863_13, 2020/09
The FeCrAl-oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy is the promising cladding material for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) of the light water reactors (LWR). Ring-creep tests for FeCrAl-ODS alloy cladding were carried out at 973 K and 1273 K. The dislocation detachment stress from the dispersoid was derived by considering the dislocation-dispersoid elastic interaction and the dislocation relaxation effect by climb motion. When the applied stress exceeds the dislocation detachment stress, dislocations overcome the dispersoids with the reduced values of the stress exponent. When the stress is lower than the dislocation detachment stress, grain boundary sliding (GBS) is dominant factor for the low strain rate creep deformation at 1273 K. Based on those findings, new constitutive equations for creep deformation were constructed, which is applicable to low stress, low strain rate and high temperature conditions encountered at the reactor sever accident.
Ukai, Shigeharu*; Ono, Naoko*; Otsuka, Satoshi
Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, 2nd Edition, Vol.3, p.255 - 292, 2020/08
Fe-Cr-based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have a strong potential for high burnup (long-life) and high-temperature applications typical for SFR fuel cladding. Current progress in the development of Fe-Cr-based ODS steel claddings is reviewed, including their relevant mechanical properties, e.g. tensile and creep rupture strengths in the hoop directions. In addition, this paper reviewed the current research status on corrosion resistant Fe-Cr-Al-based ODS steel claddings, which are greatly paid attention recently as the accident tolerant fuel claddings for the light water reactor (LWR) and also as the claddings of the lead fast reactors (LFR) utilizing Pb-Bi eutectic (LBE) coolant.
Kumada, Takayuki; Oba, Yojiro; Motokawa, Ryuhei; Morooka, Satoshi; Tominaga, Aki; Tanida, Hajime; Shobu, Takahisa; Konno, Azusa; Owada, Kenji*; Ono, Naoko*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 528, p.151890_1 - 151890_7, 2020/01
We have developed an anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) diffractometer in SPring-8 to investigate irradiation-induced nanostructural change in ion-beam irradiated stainless steel. A thermally-aged MA956 stainless steel sample displays power-law scattering that follows the Porod law at the magnitude of scattering vector, Q, below 0.5 nm and an overlapped shoulder around 0.7 nm. After the ion-beam irradiation, the intensity of the shoulder remained unchanged, whereas that of the power-law scattering nearly doubled. This result indicates that none of the structural parameters of the Cr-rich nanoprecipitates, such as the number density, size, and interface roughness, were changed by the irradiation.
Konno, Azusa; Ono, Naoko*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kondo, Sosuke*; Hashitomi, Okinobu*; Kimura, Akihiko*
Materials Transactions, 60(11), p.2260 - 2266, 2019/11
A stability of cuboidal ' phase under heavy irradiation was studied for newly developed Ni-based Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) superalloy as a candidate for the core structural materials in VHTR or GFR. The ion irradiation was applied at 873K, 1073K, 1273K and the dose was 100 dpa. The ' phase remained the cuboidal shape at 873K but got out of the shape at 1073K after irradiation. Those growths can be explained by the Nelson-Hudson-Mazey (NHM) model. For the result of 1273K irradiation, however, huge ' phase appeared in the whole irradiated area at the post irradiation-observation. This behavior is interpreted in terms of disordering of the ordered ' phase due to cascade collision, and thus increasing Gibbs free energy of the disordered phase induces a change of the element distribution inside the irradiated area. The ordered ' phase was reproduced from the disordered state at the cooling after ion irradiation.
Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ioka, Ikuo; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; Kurata, Masaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Fukahori, Tokio; Nozawa, Takashi*; Sato, Daiki*; Murakami, Nozomu*; et al.
Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference / Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance Conference (Global/Top Fuel 2019) (USB Flash Drive), p.206 - 216, 2019/09
After the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant, research and development (R&D) program for establishing technical basis of accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) started from 2015 in Japan. Since then, both experimental and analytical studies necessary for designing a new light water reactor (LWR) core with ATF candidate materials are being conducted within the Japanese ATF R&D Consortium for implementing ATF to the existing LWRs, accompanying with various technological developments required. Until now, we have accumulated experimental data of the candidate materials by out-of-pile tests, developed fuel evaluation codes to apply to the ATF candidate materials, and evaluated fuel behavior simulating operational and accidental conditions by the developed codes. In this paper, the R&D progresses of the ATF candidate materials considered in Japan are reviewed based on the information available such as proceedings of international conference and academic papers, providing an overview of ATF program in Japan.
Yano, Yasuhide; Sekio, Yoshihiro; Tanno, Takashi; Kato, Shoichi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 516, p.347 - 353, 2019/04
9Cr-ODS steel claddings consisting of tempered martensitic matrix, showed prominent creep rupture strength at 1000 C, which surpassed that of heat-resistant austenitic steels although creep rupture strength of tempered martensitic steels is generally lower than that of austenitic steels at high temperatures. The measured creep rupture strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings at 1000 C was higher than that from extrapolated creep rupture trend curves formulated using data at temperatures from 650 to 850 C. This superior strength seemed to be owing to transformation of the matrix from the -phase to the -phase. The transient burst strengths for 9Cr-ODS steel were much higher than those for 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Cumulative damage fraction analyses suggested that the life fraction rule can be used for the rupture life prediction of 9Cr-ODS steel and PNC-FMS claddings in the transient and accidental events with a certain accuracy.
Kondo, Keietsu; Aoki, So; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Hirai, Mutsumi*; Kimura, Akihiko*
Nuclear Materials and Energy (Internet), 15, p.13 - 16, 2018/05
Radiation hardening and microstructural evolution of ion irradiated 12Cr-6Al ODS ferritic steel was studied. Ion irradiation experiments were performed using Fe ions up to the nominal displacement damage of 20 dpa at the irradiation temperature was 300C. The monotonical increase of radiation hardening with dose was confirmed by experimentally obtained hardness data. The radiation hardening was also calculated theoretically by introducing the microstructural character examined by TEM into the dispersed barrier hardening model. The results showed a good agreement with the experimentally obtained data up to 5 dpa, while a slight discrepancy was found between theoretical and experimental hardness values at 20 dpa. Radiation hardening was mainly caused by irradiation-induced defect clusters below the irradiation dose of 5 dpa. As the irradiation dose increased toward 20 dpa, an additional influence of the radiation appeared, which was assumed to be induced by ' phase transformation.
Yamashita, Shinichiro; Nagase, Fumihisa; Kurata, Masaki; Nozawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Seiichi*; Kirimura, Kazuki*; Kakiuchi, Kazuo*; Kondo, Takao*; Sakamoto, Kan*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09
In Japan, the research and development (R&D) project on accident tolerant fuel and other components (ATFs) of light water reactors (LWRs) has been initiated in 2015 for establishing technical basis of ATFs. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has coordinated and carried out this ATF R&D project in cooperation with power plant providers, fuel venders and universities for making the best use of the experiences, knowledges in commercial uses of zirconium-base alloys (Zircaloy) in LWRs. ATF candidate materials under consideration in the project are FeCrAl steel strengthened by dispersion of fine oxide particles(FeCrAl-ODS) and silicon carbide (SiC) composite, and are expecting to endure severe accident conditions in the reactor core for a longer period of time than the Zircaloy while maintaining or improving fuel performance during normal operations. In this paper, the progresses of the R&D project are reported.
Sakamoto, Kan*; Hirai, Mutsumi*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; Yamaji, Akifumi*; Kusagaya, Kazuyuki*; Kondo, Takao*; Yamashita, Shinichiro
Proceedings of 2017 Water Reactor Fuel Performance Meeting (WRFPM 2017) (USB Flash Drive), 7 Pages, 2017/09
This paper will show the overview of current status of development of accident tolerant FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings for BWRs (boiling water reactors) in the program sponsored and organized by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan. This program is being carried out to create the technical basis for the practical use of the accident tolerant fuels and the other components in LWRs through multifaceted activities. In the development of FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings both the experimental and the analytical studies have been performed. The acquisition and accumulation of key material properties of FeCrAl-ODS fuel claddings were conducted by using bar, sheet and tube shaped FeCrAl-ODS materials fabricated in this program to support the evaluations in the analytical studies. A neutron irradiation test was also started in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to examine the effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties.
Yano, Yasuhide; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kato, Shoichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; et al.
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 487, p.229 - 237, 2017/04
Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were carried out to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions; temperatures ranged from room temperature to 1400C which is near the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at the ultra-high temperatures between 900 and 1200C, but that there was significant degradation in tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with / transformation, which was associated with reduced ductility. On the other hand, tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 C unlike the other tested materials. Present study includes the result of "R&D of ODS ferritic steel fuel cladding for maintaining fuel integrity at the high temperature accident condition" entrusted to Hokkaido University by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).
Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Yano, Yasuhide; Otsuka, Satoshi; Naganuma, Masayuki; Tanno, Takashi; Oka, Hiroshi; Kato, Shoichi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Kimura, Akihiko*; et al.
Proceedings of 2017 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP 2017) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2017/04
Tolerance of fast rector fuel elements to failure in the typical accident conditions was evaluated for the oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel claddings that are candidate of the cladding material for advanced fast reactors. The evaluation was based on the cladding creep damage, which was quantified by the cumulative damage fractions (CDFs). It was shown that the CDFs of the ODS ferritic steel cladding were substantially lower than the breach limit of 1.0 in the loss of flow and transient over power conditions until a passive reactor shutdown system operates.
Ijiri, Yuta*; Ono, Naoko*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Yu, H.*; Otsuka, Satoshi; Abe, Yosuke; Matsukawa, Yoshitaka*
Philosophical Magazine, 97(13), p.1047 - 1056, 2017/02
The interaction between oxide particles and dislocations in a 9Cr-ODS ferritic steel is investigated by both static and in-situ TEM observation under dynamic straining conditions and room temperature. The measured obstacle strength () of the oxide particles was no greater than 0.80 and the average was 0.63. The dislocation loops around some coarsened particles were also observed. The calculated obstacle strength by a stress formula of the Orowan interaction is nearly equaled to the average experimental value. Not only cross-slip system but also the Orowan interaction should be considered as the main interaction mechanism between oxide particles and dislocation in 9Cr-ODS ferritic steel.
Ukai, Shigeharu*; Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; de Carlan, Y.*; Ribis, J.*; Malaplate, J.*
Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors, p.357 - 414, 2017/00
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are the most promising candidate materials for fuel cladding of generation IV nuclear reactors. The progress and current status for development of ODS/FM(ferrite-martensite) steels conducted mainly in Japan and France are overviewed. The chemical compositions of ODS/FM steels are listed. Fabrication routes of cladding tube are mentioned for ferrite-type ODS steels using recrystallized process and martensite-type one using - phase transformation. The optimized process is identical for both countries. Joining process between cladding and end-plug has been also developed by using the pressurized resistance upset welding method. The improvements brought by ODS/FM steels in high-temperature strength and irradiation resistance are verified.
Abe, Yosuke; Tsuru, Tomohito; Shi, S.*; Ono, Naoko*; Ukai, Shigeharu*
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 53(10), p.1528 - 1534, 2016/10
Various types of nanometric defects such as voids and helium (He) bubbles produced by high energy neutron irradiations are known to degrade the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. In this study, we have evaluated the obstacle strength of He bubbles to the mobility of an edge dislocation in -iron for 2 and 4 nm bubbles with He-to-vacancy (He/V) ratios ranging from 0 to 1 at 300 and 500 K, by molecular dynamics simulation. Results showed that as the He/V ratio increases, the obstacle strength needed for the release of a dislocation from the bubble becomes stronger up to a moderate He/V ratio, and a further increase in the He/V ratio leads to weakening of the obstacle strength. For He/V = 1, the obstacle strengths are weaker than those at moderate He/V ratios depending on the bubble size and temperature. The extent of obstacle strength was found to be correlated with the dilation caused by He bubbles depending on the bubble size, He/V ratio, and temperature.
Shi, S.*; Ono, Naoko*; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Abe, Yosuke
Materials Science & Engineering A, 617, p.61 - 65, 2014/11
Bubble dispersion strengthened copper (BDS-Cu) was synthesized by using the pyrolysis gaseous products of Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) during spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Bubbles with an average diameter of 14 nm are densely dispersed in copper matrix with a dispersion distance 119 nm. Vickers' hardness of BDS-Cu is 400 MPa higher than that of pure copper. The strengthening effect is due to the dislocation pinning effect of bubbles.
Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu*; Inoue, Masaki; Okuda, Takanari*; Kimura, Akihiko*
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 441(1-3), p.286 - 292, 2013/10
The Al addition to ODS ferritic steels considerably improves the compatibility between U-Zr fuel and the ODS steels. The threshold temperature for reaction layer formation is roughly 50K higher in the Al-containing ODS ferritic steels than in those same steels without Al addition. The activity calculation results obtained using general thermodynamic data indicate the possibility that stabilization of the intact alpha-Zr layer by Al addition is the main mechanism for the compatibility improvement by Al addition.