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Journal Articles

Progress of criticality control study on fuel debris by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to support Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority

Tonoike, Kotaro; Watanabe, Tomoaki; Gunji, Satoshi; Yamane, Yuichi; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Umeda, Miki; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2019) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2019/09

Criticality control of the fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be a risk-informed control to mitigate consequences of criticality events, instead of a deterministic control to prevent such events. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has administrated a research and development program to tackle this challenge since 2014. The Nuclear Safety Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, commissioned by the authority, is conducting activities such as computations of criticality characteristics of the fuel debris, development of a criticality analysis code, preparation of criticality experiments, and development of a criticality risk analysis method.

Journal Articles

Examination of analytical method of rare earth elements in used nuclear fuel

Ozawa, Mayumi; Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Sato, Makoto; Kamohara, Keiko*; Suyama, Kenya; Tonoike, Kotaro; Oki, Keiichi; Umeda, Miki

Proceedings of 53rd Annual Meeting of Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling Working Group (HOTLAB 2016) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2016/11

Journal Articles

Study on criticality control of fuel debris by Japan Atomic Energy Agency to support Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan

Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamane, Yuichi; Umeda, Miki; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroki

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC 2015) (DVD-ROM), p.20 - 27, 2015/09

From the viewpoint of safety regulation, criticality control of the fuel debris in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station would be a risk-informed control to mitigate consequences of criticality events, instead of a deterministic control to prevent such events. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has set up a research and development program to tackle this challenge. The Nuclear Safety Research Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, commissioned by the authority, has launched activities such as computations of criticality characteristics of the fuel debris, development of criticality risk assessment method, and preparation of criticality experiments to support them.

Journal Articles

Development of the method to assay barely measurable elements in spent nuclear fuel and application to BWR 9$$times$$9 fuel

Suyama, Kenya; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Miki; Yamamoto, Toru*; Suzuki, Motomu*

Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal, p.47 - 56, 2015/00

In fission products in used nuclear fuel, there are several stable isotopes which have large neutron absorption effect. It is known that there are several hardly measurable elements in such important fission products. JAEA had been developed the method to assess the amount of fission products which are hardly measurable and have large neutron capture cross section, under the auspices of the JNES. In this development, the measurement method was developed combining a simple and effective chemical separation scheme of fission products from used nuclear fuel and ICP-MS with high-sensitivity and high-precision. This method was applied to the measurement program for used BWR 9$$times$$9 fuel assembly. This method is applicable to the required measurement for the countermeasure to the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Company. This presentation describes the measurement method developed in the study as well as the future measurement plan in JAEA.

Journal Articles

Options of principles of fuel debris criticality control in Fukushima Daiichi reactors

Tonoike, Kotaro; Sono, Hiroki; Umeda, Miki; Yamane, Yuichi; Kugo, Teruhiko; Suyama, Kenya

Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal, p.251 - 259, 2015/00

In the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor accident, a large amount of fuel debris was formed whose criticality condition is unknown except the possible highest $$^{235}$$U/U enrichment. The fuel debris had to be cooled and shielded by water in which the minimum critical mass is much smaller than the total mass of fuel debris. To overcome this uncertain situation, the coolant water was borated with sufficient concentration to secure the subcritical condition. The situation is more severe in the damaged reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, where the coolant water flow is practically "once through". Boron must be endlessly added to the water to secure the subcritical condition of the fuel debris, which is not feasible. The water is not borated relying on the circumstantial evidence that the xenon gas monitoring in the containment vessels does not show a sign of criticality. The criticality condition of fuel debris may worsen due to the gradual drop of its temperature, or the change of its geometry by aftershocks or the retrieval work, that may lead the criticality. To avoid criticality and its severe consequences, a certain principle of criticality control must be established. There may be options, such as prevention of the criticality by coolant water boration or by neutronic monitoring, prevention of the severe consequences by intervention measures against criticality, etc. Every option has merits and demerits that must be adequately evaluated toward selection of the best principle.

Journal Articles

Development of mineralization techniques for organic solvents by the silver mediated electrochemical oxidation process with the ultrasound agitation

Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Ishii, Junichi; Shirahashi, Koichi; Umeda, Miki; Sakuraba, Koichi

Kakuhan, Kongo Gijutsu To Toraburu Taisaku, p.341 - 344, 2014/10

The silver mediated electrochemical oxidation (Ag/MEO) process with the ultrasound agitation has been developed for the purpose of the mineralization of organic wastes containing transuranium nuclides at the nuclear fuel reprocessing process. In the Ag/MEO process, organic solvents are decomposed by divalent silver cations under the relatively low temperature and the ambient pressure condition. The ultrasound agitation is effective in mixing the electrolytic solutions and the organic solvents, and is expected to promote the oxidation of the organic solvents. Therefore, the Ag/MEO process with the ultrasound agitation could be a candidate for the treatment of organic solvents. Destruction tests of TBP and dodecane by the Ag/MEO process were conducted to optimize some treatment conditions. Under optimized conditions, the destruction tests of kerosene and TODGA were carried out. It was confirmed that the Ag/MEO process is effective for the mineralization of these organic solvents.

Journal Articles

Revival of criticality safety research in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Tonoike, Kotaro; Izawa, Kazuhiko; Sono, Hiroki; Umeda, Miki; Yamane, Yuichi

Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 110(1), p.282 - 285, 2014/06

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Examination of measurement method of isotopic composition of fission products in spent fuel

Fukaya, Hiroyuki; Suyama, Kenya; Sonoda, Takashi; Okubo, Kiyoshi; Umeda, Miki; Uchiyama, Gunzo

JAEA-Research 2013-020, 81 Pages, 2013/10

JAEA-Research-2013-020.pdf:3.81MB

Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a project "Isotopic Composition measurement of Fission Products in Spent Fuel from FY2008 to FY2011" by the entrustment of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization. In that project, we measured the isotopic composition of neodymium isotopes which are important to evaluate the burnup value of spent nuclear fuel by using two different methods and obtained different results. So that we carried out the follow-up measurement in order to investigate the reason of the difference between two neodymium measurements. It was found that we needed correction to the measurement results of neodymium for two samples and a part of other fission products for all samples in total five samples. This report summarizes the all works carried out in this follow-up measurement and obtained results.

Journal Articles

Major safety and operational concerns for fuel debris criticality control

Tonoike, Kotaro; Sono, Hiroki; Umeda, Miki; Yamane, Yuichi; Kugo, Teruhiko; Suyama, Kenya

Proceedings of International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference; Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads (GLOBAL 2013) (CD-ROM), p.729 - 735, 2013/09

JAEA is conducting studies on criticality control of the fuel debris formed in the accident of Fukushima-Daiichi site. A new control principle must be established, referring principles for existing facilities, and based on criticality characteristics of the debris. In accordance with the principle, safe and practical control has to be realized for the debris whose condition is uncertain at present. This report outlines the present condition of debris and Fukushima site, introduces examples of criticality analysis, and discusses control principles. Research subjects are also proposed to realize the control.

JAEA Reports

Operation databook of the fuel treatment system of the Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY); JFY 2004 to JFY 2008

Kokusen, Junya; Sumiya, Masato; Seki, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Ishii, Junichi; Umeda, Miki

JAEA-Technology 2012-041, 32 Pages, 2013/02

JAEA-Technology-2012-041.pdf:1.6MB

Uranyl nitrate solution fuel used in the STACY and the TRACY is adjusted in the Fuel Treatment System, in which such parameters are varied as concentration of uranium, free nitric acid, soluble neutron poison, and so on. Operations for concentration and denitration of the solution fuel were carried out with an evaporator from JFY 2004 to JFY 2008 in order to adjust the fuel to the experimental condition of the STACY and the TRACY. In parallel, the solution fuel in which some kinds of soluble neutron poison were doped was also adjusted in JFY 2005 and JFY 2006 for the purpose of the STACY experiments to determine neutron absorption effects brought by fission products, etc. After these experiments in the STACY, a part of the solution fuel including the soluble neutron poison was purified by the solvent extraction method with mixer-settlers in JFY 2006 and JFY 2007. This report summarizes operation data of the Fuel Treatment System from JFY 2004 to JFY 2008.

Journal Articles

Progress in development and design of the neutral beam injector for JT-60SA

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yutaka; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 86(6-8), p.835 - 838, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:39.06(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Neutral beam (NB) injectors for JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) have been designed and developed. Twelve positive-ion-based and one negative-ion-based NB injectors are allocated to inject 30 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams in total for 100 s. Each of the positive-ion-based NB injector is designed to inject 1.7 MW for 100s at 85 keV. A part of the power supplies and magnetic shield utilized on JT-60U are upgraded and reused on JT-60SA. To realize the negative-ion-based NB injector for JT-60SA where the injection of 500 keV, 10 MW D$$^{0}$$ beams for 100s is required, R&Ds of the negative ion source have been carried out. High-energy negative ion beams of 490-500 keV have been successfully produced at a beam current of 1-2.8 A through 20% of the total ion extraction area, by improving voltage holding capability of the ion source. This is the first demonstration of a high-current negative ion acceleration of $$>$$1 A to 500 keV. The design of the power supplies and the beamline is also in progress. The procurement of the acceleration power supply starts in 2010.

Journal Articles

Development of the JT-60SA Neutral Beam Injectors

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Masaki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Naotaka; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; et al.

AIP Conference Proceedings 1390, p.536 - 544, 2011/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:20.64

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Achievement of 500 keV negative ion beam acceleration on JT-60U negative-ion-based neutral beam injector

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tanaka, Yutaka*; Kawai, Mikito*; Akino, Noboru; Kazawa, Minoru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Usui, Katsutomi; Sasaki, Shunichi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(8), p.083049_1 - 083049_8, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:40 Percentile:10.89(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Hydrogen negative ion beams of 490 keV, 3 A and 510 keV, 1 A have been successfully produced in the JT-60 negative ion source with three acceleration stages. These successful productions of the high-energy beams at high current have been achieved by overcoming the most critical issue, i.e., a poor voltage holding of the large negative ion sources with the grids of 2 m$$^{2}$$ for JT-60SA and ITER. To improve voltage holding capability, the breakdown voltages for the large grids was examined for the first time. It was found that a vacuum insulation distance for the large grids was 6-7 times longer than that for the small-area grid (0.02 m$$^{2}$$). From this result, the gap lengths between the grids were tuned in the JT-60 negative ion source. The modification of the ion source also realized a significant stabilization of voltage holding and a short conditioning time. These results suggest a practical use of the large negative ion sources in JT-60SA and ITER.

Journal Articles

Behavior of coated fuel particle of High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

Umeda, Miki; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Ueta, Shohei; Sawa, Kazuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 47(11), p.991 - 997, 2010/11

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:53.74(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Development and design of the negative-ion-based NBI for JT-60 Super Advanced

Hanada, Masaya; Akino, Noboru; Endo, Yasuei; Inoue, Takashi; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Kikuchi, Katsumi; Komata, Masao; Kojima, Atsushi; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.9, p.208 - 213, 2010/08

A large negative ion source with an ion extraction area of 110 cm $$times$$ 45 cm has been developed to produce 500 keV, 22 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beams required for JT-60 Super Advanced. To realize the JT-60SA negative ion source, the JT-60 negative ion source has been modified and tested on the negative-ion-based neutral beam injector on JT-60U. A 500 keV H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been produced at 3 A without a significant degradation of beam optics. This is the first demonstration of a high energy negative ion acceleration of more than one-ampere to 500 keV in the world. The beam current density of 90 A/m$$^{2}$$ is being increased to meet 130 A/m$$^{2}$$ of the design value for JT-60SA by tuning the operation parameters. A long pulse injection of 30 s has been achieved at a injection D$$^{0}$$ power of 3 MW. The injection energy, defined as the product of the injection time and power, reaches 80 MJ by neutralizing a 340 keV, 27 A D$$^{-}$$ ion beam produced with two negative ion sources.

JAEA Reports

Basic study on decontamination of TRU wastes with cerium mediated electrolytic oxidation method

Ishii, Junichi; Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Uchida, Shoji; Sumiya, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Shirahashi, Koichi; Umeda, Miki; Sakuraba, Koichi

JAEA-Technology 2009-068, 20 Pages, 2010/03

JAEA-Technology-2009-068.pdf:2.49MB

At Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility, the cerium mediated electrolytic oxidation method which is a decontamination technique to decrease the radioactivity of TRU wastes to the clearance-level has been developed for the effective reduction of TRU wastes generated from the decommissioning of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility and so on. This method corrodes the oxide layer and the surface of metallic TRU metal wastes by the strong oxidation power of Ce$$^{4+}$$ in nitric acid. In this study, parameter tests were conducted to optimize the solution condition of Ce$$^{3+}$$ initial concentrations and nitric acid concentrations. The target corrosion rate of metallic TRU wastes set to be 2$$sim$$4$$ mu$$m/h for the practical use of this method. Under the optimized solution condition, a dissolution test of stainless steel simulating wastes was carried out. From the result of the dissolution test, the average corrosion rate was 3.3 $$mu$$m/h during the test time of 90 hours. Based on the supposition that the corrosion depth of metallic TRU wastes was 20 $$mu$$m enough to achieve the clearance-level, the treatment time for the decontamination was about 6 hours. It was confirmed from the result that the decontamination could be performed within one day and the decontamination solution could repeatedly reuse 15 times.

JAEA Reports

Basic study on the mineralization of organic solvents by the silver mediated electrochemical oxidation process with the ultrasound agitation

Kobayashi, Fuyumi; Ishii, Junichi; Shirahashi, Koichi; Umeda, Miki; Sakuraba, Koichi

JAEA-Technology 2009-056, 16 Pages, 2009/11

JAEA-Technology-2009-056.pdf:1.53MB

The silver mediated electrochemical oxidation (Ag/MEO) process with the ultrasound agitation has been developed for the purpose of the mineralization of organic wastes containing transuranium nuclides at the nuclear fuel reprocessing process. In the Ag/MEO process, organic solvents are decomposed by divalent silver cations under the relatively low temperature and the ambient pressure condition. The ultrasound agitation is effective in mixing the electrolytic solutions and the organic solvents, and is expected to promote the oxidation of the organic solvents. Therefore, the Ag/MEO process with the ultrasound agitation could be a candidate for the treatment of organic solvents. Destruction tests of TBP and dodecane by the Ag/MEO process were conducted to optimize some treatment conditions. Under optimized conditions, the destruction tests of kerosene and TODGA were carried out. It was confirmed that the Ag/MEO process is effective for the mineralization of these organic solvents.

Journal Articles

Applicability of NSRR room/high temperature test results to fuel safety evaluation under power reactor conditions

Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Umeda, Miki; Udagawa, Yutaka; Sasajima, Hideo; Suzuki, Motoe; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Proceedings of OECD/NEA Workshop on Nuclear Fuel Behaviour during Reactivity Initiated Accidents (CD-ROM), 12 Pages, 2009/09

Journal Articles

Effect of initial coolant temperature on mechanical fuel failure under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Umeda, Miki; Sasajima, Hideo; Suzuki, Motoe; Fuketa, Toyoshi

Proceedings of Top Fuel 2009 (DVD-ROM), p.489 - 496, 2009/09

Journal Articles

Behavior of LWR/MOX fuels under reactivity-initiated accident conditions

Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Umeda, Miki; Sasajima, Hideo; Nagase, Fumihisa

Proceedings of Top Fuel 2009 (DVD-ROM), p.465 - 472, 2009/09

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