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Journal Articles

Development of a microcalorimeter with transition edge sensor for detection of LX rays emitted by transuranium elements

Nakamura, Keisuke; Maeda, Makoto*; Yasumune, Takashi*; Maehata, Keisuke*; Ishibashi, Kenji*; Tanaka, Keiichi*; Umeno, Takahiro*; Takasaki, Koji; Momose, Takumaro

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 146(1-3), p.88 - 91, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:11.72(Environmental Sciences)

A Transition Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter has been developed for use as an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. A TES microcalorimeter is a thermal detector used to measure the energy of an incident photon with increase in temperature. In this work, a TES microcalorimeter with a 5$$mu$$m Au absorber was developed for use in measuring LX rays emitted from transuranium elements. Furthermore, as a cooling system a dilution refrigerator utilizing a Gifford-McMahon refrigerator was used, which needs no liquid helium. The performance of the TES microcalorimeter was evaluated by measuring the LX rays emitted by an $$^{241}$$Am source. This system proved effective in the measurement of the LX rays because the full width at half maximum of the L$$_{beta1}$$X ray was about 80 eV.

Journal Articles

Feasibility of lead-bismuth-cooled accelerator-driven system for minor-actinide transmutation

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Nishihara, Kenji; Umeno, Makoto*; Takei, Hayanori

Nuclear Technology, 161(3), p.315 - 328, 2008/03

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:65.48(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Feasibility was discussed for lead-bismuth cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides partitioned from high-level radioactive waste. Since lead-bismuth will cause considerable corrosion and erosion effects at high temperature, the fuel clad temperature must be kept as low as possible. Moreover, the most critical issue of ADS design is engineering viability of the high-power spallation target and the beam window. Thermal-hydraulic and structural analysis was carried out for both the fuel assembly and the beam window. In addition to the analysis in steady state, transient behaviors were also studied during typical transient and unprotected accidents. The results showed that engineering viability is reasonably achievable in nominal operation. For beam trip which will be the most frequent transient, the number of events to cause the failure of the beam window is estimated as more than $$10^{5}$$. For safety aspects of ADS during unprotected accidents, estimated results showed that ULOF would cause the most significant problem, if beam operation was kept. Therefore, high reliability of the beam shutdown is required for the ADS safety.

Journal Articles

Research and development program on accelerator driven subcritical system in JAEA

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Nishihara, Kenji; Umeno, Makoto*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 44(3), p.483 - 490, 2007/03

 Times Cited Count:33 Percentile:90.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For a dedicated transmutation system, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been proceeding with the research and development (R&D) on an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS). JAEA has started a comprehensive R&D program since the fiscal year of 2002 to acquire knowledge and elemental technology for the validation of engineering feasibility of the ADS. In this paper, the outline and the results in the first three-years stage of the program are reported. For R&D on accelerator, a prototype cryomodule was built and its good performance in electric field was examined. For R&D on LBE, various technical data for material corrosion, thermal-hydraulics and radioactive impurity were obtained. For R&D on subcritical core, engineering feasibility for the ADS was discussed using thermal-hydraulic and structural analysis not only in normal operation but also in transient situations. Reactor physics experiments for subcritical monitoring of ADS were performed at critical assemblies.

Journal Articles

Design optimization of ADS plant proposed by JAERI

Saito, Shigeru; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Nishihara, Kenji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ouchi, Nobuo; Takei, Hayanori; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 562(2), p.646 - 649, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:21 Percentile:82.37(Instruments & Instrumentation)

JAERI is conducting R&D on the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) to transmute minor actinides (MAs) contained in the high-level radioactive waste under the OMEGA (Options Making Extra Gains from Actinides and fission products) program. The present study discusses the design of the ADS plant and various R&D on the ADS. The reference design of ADS plant in JAERI is the 800 MWth, Pb-Bi eutectic (LBE) cooled, tank-type subcritical reactor loaded with (MA+Pu) nitride fuel. LBE is selected as a spallation target material. In our results of the optimization study on the neutronics of the ADS, we have adopted the maximum multiplication factor (k$$_{eff}$$) of 0.97. From the results of the thermal-hydraulic analysis around the LBE spallation target, partition wall and flow control nozzle are required to keep the structural integrity around the core and the beam window. Feasibility of beam window was also discussed for transient conditions of proton beam.

Journal Articles

Concept of transmutation experimental facility

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Toshinobu; Kikuchi, Kenji; Nishihara, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Umeno, Makoto*; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Motoharu; et al.

Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on the Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators, p.507 - 517, 2005/11

Under the framework of J-PARC, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plans to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF). The TEF consists of two facilities: the Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) and the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T). The TEF-P is a critical facility which can accept a 600 MeV - 10 W proton beam. The TEF-T is a material irradiation facility using a 600 MeV - 200 kW proton beam, where a Pb-Bi target is installed, but neutron multiplication by nuclear fuel will not be attempted. This report describes the purposes of the facility, the present status of the conceptual design, and the expected experiments to be performed.

Journal Articles

Design study around beam window of ADS

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Nishihara, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Takano, Hideki*; et al.

Proceedings of 4th International Workshop on the Utilisation and Reliability of High Power Proton Accelerators, p.325 - 334, 2005/11

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting the research and development (R&D) on the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System (ADS) for the effective transmutation of minor actinides (MAs). The ADS proposed by JAERI is the 800 MWth, Pb-Bi cooled, tank-type subcritical reactor loaded with (MA+Pu) nitride fuel. The Pb-Bi is also used as the spallation target. In this study, the feasibility of the ADS was discussed with putting the focus on the design around the beam window. The partition wall was placed between the target region and the ductless-type fuel assemblies to keep the good cooling performance for the hot-spot fuel pin. The flow control nozzle was installed to cool the beam window effectively. The thermal-hydraulic analysis showed that the maximum temperature at the outer surface of the beam window could be repressed below 500 $$^{circ}$$C even in the case of the maximum beam power of 30 MW. The stress caused by the external pressure and the temperature distribution of the beam window was also below the allowable limit.

Journal Articles

Research and development program on accelerator driven subcritical system in JAERI

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Sasa, Toshinobu; Nishihara, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Umeno, Makoto*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Nuclear Energy System for Future Generation and Global Sustainability (GLOBAL 2005) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2005/10

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been proceeding with the research and development (R&D) on accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS). The ADS proposed by JAERI is a lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic cooled fast subcritical core with 800 MWth. To realize such an ADS, some technical issues should be studied, developed and demonstrated. JAERI has started a comprehensive R&D program since the fiscal year of 2002 to acquire knowledge and elemental technology that are necessary for the validation of engineering feasibility of the ADS. The first stage of the program had been continued for three years. The program is conducted by JAERI, and many institutes, universities and private companies were involved. Items of R&D are concentrated on three technical areas peculiar to the ADS: (1) superconducting linear accelerator (SC-LINAC), (2) Pb-Bi eutectic as spallation target and core coolant, and (3) subcritical core design and technology. In the present work, the outline and the results in the first stage of the program are reported.

JAEA Reports

Conceptual study of transmutation experimental facility, 2; Study on ADS target test facility

Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Mizubayashi, Hiroshi*; Mori, Keijiro*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Saito, Shigeru; Kai, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kimikazu*; Zako, Akira*; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki*; et al.

JAERI-Tech 2005-021, 114 Pages, 2005/03

JAERI-Tech-2005-021.pdf:9.66MB

To perform the research and development for accelerator-driven system (ADS), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plans to build a Transmutation Experimental Facility under the JAERI-KEK joint J-PARC program. Transmutation Experimental Facility consists of two buildings, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility to make reactor physics experiment with subcritical core, and ADS Target Test Facility for the preparation of irradiation database for various structural materials. In this report, purpose to build, experimental schedule, and design study of the ADS target test facility with drawer type spallation target are summarized.

Journal Articles

R&D activities on accelerator-driven transmutation system in JAERI

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Saito, Shigeru; Nishihara, Kenji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Takano, Hideki*; et al.

EUR-21227 (CD-ROM), p.483 - 493, 2005/00

JAERI is conducting the study on the dedicated transmutation system using the accelerator driven subcritical system (ADS). A subcritical reactor with the thermal power of 800 MW has been proposed. Many research and development activities including the conceptual design study are under way and planned at JAERI to examine the feasibility of the ADS. In the field of the proton accelerator, a superconducting LINAC is being developed. In the field of the spallation target using lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), material corrosion, thermal-hydraulics, polonium behavior, and irradiation effect on materials are being studied. Moreover, in the framework of the J-PARC project, JAERI plans to construct the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) to study the feasibility of the ADS using a high-energy proton beam and nuclear fuel and to establish the technology for the LBE spallation target and relevant materials.

JAEA Reports

Technology for cleaning of Pb-Bi adhering to steel, 1; Basic tests

Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Kurata, Yuji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Futakawa, Masatoshi

JAERI-Tech 2004-074, 41 Pages, 2004/12

JAERI-Tech-2004-074.pdf:24.5MB

The accelerator driven system (ADS) is proposed to transmute minor actinides (MA) in high-level waste from spent fuels of nuclear power reactors. Liquid Pb-Bi alloy is a candidate material for spallation target and coolant of ADS. Pb-Bi cleaning technology is required to reduce radiation exposure during maintenance service and to decontaminate replaced components. In this study, three cleaning methods were tested; silicon oil cleaning at 170$$^{circ}$$C, mixture of acetic acid and nitric acid cleaning. Specimens were prepared by immersion in melted Pb-Bi. After silicon oil tests, most of Pb-Bi remained on the surface of the specimens. It was found that blushing was needed to remove Pb-Bi effectively. On the other hands, Pb-Bi was easily dissolved and almost removed in the mixed acid and nitric acid. Silicon oil cleaning did not affect on base metals. The surface of base metals was slightly blacked after mixed acid cleaning. F82H base metals were corroded by nitric acid.

Journal Articles

Lead-bismuth eutectic compatibility with materials in the concept of spallation target for ADS

Kikuchi, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Kurata, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Eiichi; Umeno, Makoto*; Mizubayashi, Hiroshi*; Miura, Kuniaki*

JSME International Journal, Series B, 47(2), p.332 - 339, 2004/05

Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) is favored by spallation neutron sources and coolant in the sub-critical reactor at the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation system (ADS). Technical issues of ADS are material technology of how to compromise with flowing lead bismuth, high-energy proton accelerator technology and a sub-critical reactor system technology. This paper describes LBE technology developed at JAERI. First a scenario in order to realize the ADS is shown. The concept of spallation target test facility is introduced with a target design of thermo-fluid dynamics. Base data of flow rate and temperature of Pb-Bi during LBE circulation are described. The results of LBE loop operation under the flowing conditions of target design concept are reported. The stagnant corrosion tests were done to know the controlling parameters among the various steels. The tube-type oxygen sensor with having the solid electrolyte was studied. Cleaning techniques were developed to remove LBE from materials.

Journal Articles

Research and development on accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI

Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Umeno, Makoto*; Ouchi, Nobuo; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 230(1-3), p.209 - 222, 2004/05

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:88.72(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JAERI carries out research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The system is composed of high intensity proton accelerator, lead-bismuth spallation target and lead-bismuth cooled subcritical core with nitride fuel. About 2,500 kg of minor actinide is loaded into the subcritical core. Annual transmutation amount using this system is 250 kg with 800MW of thermal output. A superconducting linear accelerator with the beam power of 30MW is connected to drive the subcritical core. Many research and development activities are under way and planned in the fields of subcritical core design, spallation target technology, lead-bismuth handling technology, accelerator development, and minor actinide fuel development. Especially, to study and evaluate the feasibility of the ADS from physics and engineering aspects, the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is proposed under a framework of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project.

Journal Articles

Recent activities of Pb-Bi technology for ADS at JAERI

Kikuchi, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Kurata, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Makoto*; Mori, Keijiro*; Takano, Hideki; Wakai, Eiichi

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-11) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2003/04

In order to construct ADS Target Test facility in J-PARC project the research and development on Pb-Bi technology have been carried, which cover target design with computer simulation, flowing loop test, stagnant corrosion test, oxygen sensor and cleaning techniques. Obtained results are as follows: Corrosion rate of SUS316 under flowing Pb-Bi at 1m/s at 450$$^{circ}$$C is 0.1 mm / 3000 hrs. Fe and Cr were melted into lead bismuth from SS316 in the high temperature part and deposited in the low-temperature part according to the difference of solubility. The corrosion thickness decreases with increasing Cr content in the stagnant corrosion test at saturated oxygen concentration. Reliable oxygen sensors are to be developed by using suitable reference electrodes. As a result of cleaning tests, blushing process was needed to remove Pb-Bi effectively after immersion in the silicon oil. The mixed acid easily dissolved Pb-Bi and removed almost perfectly. But specimens themselves were affected by coloring.

Journal Articles

Research and development on accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI

Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Umeno, Makoto*; Ouchi, Nobuo; et al.

Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-11) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2003/04

JAERI carries out research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products in high-level radioactive waste. The system is composed of high intensity proton accelerator, lead-bismuth spallation target and lead-bismuth cooled subcritical core with nitride fuel. About 2500 kg of minor actinide is loaded into the subcritical core. Annual transmutation amount using this system is 250 kg with 800MW of thermal output. A superconducting linear accelerator with the beam power of 20 - 30MW is connected to drive the subcritical core. The nitride fuel without uranium, such as (Np, Am, Pu)N, is selected. The fuel irradiated in the ADS is reprocessed by pyrochemical process followed by the re-fabrication of the fuel. Many research and development activities are under way. Especially, to study and evaluate the feasibility of the ADS from physics and engineering aspects, the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is proposed under a framework of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project.

Journal Articles

Research and development program on accelerator driven system in JAERI

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Takano, Hideki; Nishihara, Kenji; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; et al.

Proceedings of GLOBAL2003 Atoms for Prosperity; Updating Eisenhower's Global Vision for Nuclear Energy (CD-ROM), p.1374 - 1379, 2003/00

JAERI is developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste such as minor actinide and long-lived fission product. To acquire the knowledge and the elemental technology that are necessary for the validation of engineering feasibility of ADS, JAERI has started a comprehensive research and development (R&D) program since 2002. The first stage of the program will be continued for three years. The program is conducted by JAERI with many institutes, universities and private companies. Items of R&D are concentrated on three technical areas peculiar to ADS: (1) a superconducting linear accelerator, (2) lead-bismuth eutectic as spallation target and core coolant, and (3) subcritical core design and physics. The outline and the preliminary results of the program are summarized in the present report.

Journal Articles

Research and development on accelerator-driven system for transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste at JAERI

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Sasa, Toshinobu; Takano, Hideki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Saito, Shigeru; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Umeno, Makoto*; et al.

Proceedings of 13th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference (PBNC 2002) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2002/10

To reduce the burden on the final disposal of the nuclear waste, the Acclelerator-Driven System (ADS) which can transmute minor actinides efficiently has been studied in JAERI. The proposed ADS design is an 800MWth subcritical core with lead-bismuth coolant and minor-actinide nitride fuel driven by a neutron source of a superconductivity linear accelerator with 30MW and a lead-bismuth spallation target. To realize the ADS, many research and development are under way in the fields of the accelerator, the spallation target and the nitride fuel. Moreover, a new experimental facility, the Transmutation Experimental Facility, is proposed under a framework of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project to study the feasibility of the ADS from physics and engineering aspects.

Journal Articles

Examination of Pb-Bi cleaning technology

Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto*; Kurata, Yuji; Kikuchi, Kenji; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Nihon Kikai Gakkai 2002-Nendo Nenji Taikai Koen Rombunshu, p.267 - 268, 2002/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The Current status of R&D for accelerator-driven system at JAERI

Sasa, Toshinobu; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Nishihara, Kenji; Umeno, Makoto*; Takano, Hideki*

Proceedings of International Conference on Global Environment and Advanced Nuclear Power Plants (GENES4/ANP 2003) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2000/09

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) performs research and development for accelerator-driven transmutation systems to improve the environmental impact and increase a capacity of waste disposal plant. The system consists of a superconducting proton LINAC, Pb-Bi eutectic spallation target and Pb-Bi cooled subcritical core. Thermal output of the system is 800MW by injection of the proton beam with the power of 20 to 30MW and then, about 250kg of minor actinides can be transmuted annually. To study and evaluate the feasibility of ADS by a physical and an engineering viewpoint, the Transmutation Experimental Facility is proposed under a framework of J-PARC project. In the presentation, the R&D activities by the contract between the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology will be presented.

Oral presentation

A Study on proton accelerator for ADS, Accelerator Driven transmutation System, 4

Takei, Hayanori; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Umeno, Makoto; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

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