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Journal Articles

Development of advanced inductive scenarios for ITER

Luce, T. C.*; Challis, C. D.*; Ide, Shunsuke; Joffrin, E.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Politzer, P. A.*; Schweinzer, J.*; Sips, A. C. C.*; Stober, J.*; Giruzzi, G.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 54(1), p.013015_1 - 013015_15, 2013/12

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:22.07(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

Schaffer, M. J.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Evans, T. E.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Gao, X.*; Garofalo, A. M.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(10), p.103028_1 - 103028_11, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:15.21(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of ferromagnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking; confinement; L-H transition; edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations; ELMs and the H-mode pedestal; energetic particle losses; and more. The experiments used a 3-coil mock-up of 2 magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The experiments did not reveal any effect likely to preclude ITER operations with a TBM-like error field. The largest effect was slowed plasma toroidal rotation v across the entire radial profile by as much as $$Delta v/v_{0} sim 50%$$ via non-resonant braking. Changes to global $$Delta n/n_{0}$$, $$Delta v/v_{0}$$ and $$Delta H_{98}/H_{98,0}$$ were $$sim$$3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher $$beta$$ and lower $$v_{0}$$. Other effects were smaller.

Journal Articles

Event structure and double helicity asymmetry in jet production from polarized $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review D, 84(1), p.012006_1 - 012006_18, 2011/07

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:28.74(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

We report on the event structure and double helicity asymmetry ($$A_{LL}$$) of jet production in longitudinally polarized $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV. Photons and charged particles were measured by the PHENIX experiment. Event structure was compared with the results from PYTHIA event generator. The production rate of reconstructed jets is satisfactorily reproduced with the next-to-leading-order perturbative QCD calculation. We measured $$A_{LL}$$ = -0.0014 $$pm$$ 0.0037 at the lowest $$P_T$$ bin and -0.0181 $$pm$$ 0.0282 at the highest $$P_T$$ bin. The measured $$A_{LL}$$ is compared with the predictions that assume various $$Delta G(x)$$ distributions.

Journal Articles

Identified charged hadron production in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(6), p.064903_1 - 064903_29, 2011/06

 Times Cited Count:140 Percentile:0.67(Physics, Nuclear)

Transverse momentum distributions and yields for $$pi^{pm}, K^{pm}, p$$, and $$bar{p}$$ in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC. We present the inverse slope parameter, mean transverse momentum, and yield per unit rapidity at each energy, and compare them to other measurements at different $$sqrt{s}$$ collisions. We also present the scaling properties such as $$m_T$$ and $$x_T$$ scaling and discuss the mechanism of the particle production in $$p + p$$ collisions. The measured spectra are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

Journal Articles

Measurement of neutral mesons in $$p$$ + $$p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV and scaling properties of hadron production

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review D, 83(5), p.052004_1 - 052004_26, 2011/03

 Times Cited Count:133 Percentile:1.64(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the invariant differential cross section for production of $$K^0_s$$, $$omega$$, $$eta'$$ and $$phi$$ mesons in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV. The spectral shapes of all hadron transverse momentum distributions are well described by a Tsallis distribution functional form with only two parameters, $$n$$ and $$T$$, determining the high $$p_T$$ and characterizing the low $$p_T$$ regions for the spectra, respectively. The integrated invariant cross sections calculated from the fitted distributions are found to be consistent with existing measurements and with statistical model predictions.

Journal Articles

Validation of on- and off-axis neutral beam current drive against experiment in DIII-D

Park, J. M.*; Murakami, Masanori*; Petty, C. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Holcomb, C. T.*; Van Zeeland, M. A.*; Prater, R.*; Luce, T. C.*; Wade, M. R.*; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 16(9), p.092508_1 - 092508_10, 2009/09

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:38.91(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Neutral beam current drive (NBCD) experiments in DIII-D using vertically shifted plasmas to move the current drive away from the axis have clearly demonstrated robust off-axis NBCD. Time-dependent measurements of magnetic pitch angles by the motional Stark effect diagnostic are used to obtain the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux, which indicates a broad off-axis NBCD profile with a peak at about half the plasma radius. In most cases, the measured off-axis NBCD profile is consistent with calculations using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code for the beam ion slowing down including finite-orbit effects, provided there is no large-scale MHD activity such as Alfv$'e$n eigenmodes modes or sawteeth. Good agreement is found between the measured pitch angles and those from simulations using transport-equilibrium codes. Two-dimensional image of Doppler-shifted fast ion D$$alpha$$ light emitted by neutralized energetic ions shows clear evidence for a hollow profile of beam ion density, consistent with classical beam ion slowing down. The magnitude of off-axis NBCD is sensitive to the alignment of the beam injection relative to the helical pitch of the magnetic field lines. If the signs of B and I yield the proper helicity, both measurement and calculation indicate that the efficiency is as good as on-axis NBCD because the increased fraction of trapped electrons reduces the electron shielding of the injected ion current, in contrast with electron current drive schemes where the trapping of electrons degrades the efficiency. The measured off-axis NBCD increases approximately linearly with the injection power, although a modest amount of fast ion diffusion is needed to explain an observed difference in the NBCD profile between the measurement and the calculation at high injection power.

Journal Articles

Off-axis neutral beam current drive for advanced scenario development in DIII-D

Murakami, Masanori*; Park, J. M.*; Petty, C. C.*; Luce, T. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Prater, R.*; Wade, M. R.*; Anderson, P. M.*; Austin, M. E.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 49(6), p.065031_1 - 065031_8, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:38 Percentile:15.02(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beam lines is planned to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) peaked as far off-axis as half the plasma minor radius. New calculations for a downward-steered beam indicate strong current drive with good localization off-axis so long as the toroidal magnetic field, BT, and the plasma current, Ip, point in the same direction. This is due to good alignment of neutral beam injection (NBI) with the local pitch of the magnetic field lines. This model has been tested experimentally on DIII-D by an injecting equatorially-mounted NBs into reduced size plasmas that are vertically displaced with respect to the vessel midplane. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in the changes seen in sawtooth behavior in the internal inductance. By shifting the plasma upward or downward, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, measured off-axis NBCD profiles measured with motional Stark effect data and internal loop voltage show a difference in amplitude (40%-45%) consistent with predicted differences predicted by the changed NBI alignment with respect to the helicity of the magnetic field lines. The effects of NB injection direction relative to field line helicity can be large even in ITER: off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 20% if the BT direction is reversed. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as providing flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.

Journal Articles

Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U

Maggi, C. F.*; Groebner, R. J.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Sartori, R.*; Horton, L. D.*; Sips, A. C. C.*; Suttrop, W.*; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Leonard, A.*; Luce, T. C.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(7), p.535 - 551, 2007/07

 Times Cited Count:55 Percentile:10.09(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Pedestal and global plasma parameters are compared in ELMy H-modes and improved confinement discharges from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, JET and JT-60U with varying net input power. The pedestal top pressure increases moderately with power, in broad agreement with the power dependence of the H98(y,2) scaling. For all machines and all scenarios a robust correlation between the total and the pedestal thermal stored energy is observed. In AUG the improved confinement is due to improved pedestal confinement in improved H-modes with early heating and to both improved pedestal and core confinement in improved H-modes with late heating. In DIII-D the increase in confinement is due to improved confinement in the plasma core. JT-60U reversed shear H-modes have strong internal transport barriers and thus improved core performance. In all four tokamaks improved edge stability is correlated with increasing total $$beta_{p}$$ and H98(y,2) increases with pedestal $$beta_{p}$$.

Journal Articles

Progress in the ITER physics basis, 2; Plasma confinement and transport

Doyle, E. J.*; Houlberg, W. A.*; Kamada, Yutaka; Mukhovatov, V.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Polevoi, A.*; Bateman, G.*; Connor, J. W.*; Cordey, J. G.*; Fujita, Takaaki; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S18 - S127, 2007/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Progress in the ITER physics basis, 6; Steady state operation

Gormezano, C.*; Sips, A. C. C.*; Luce, T. C.*; Ide, Shunsuke; Becoulet, A.*; Litaudon, X.*; Isayama, Akihiko; Hobirk, J.*; Wade, M. R.*; Oikawa, Toshihiro; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(6), p.S285 - S336, 2007/06

 Times Cited Count:255 Percentile:22.81(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper reviews recent world-wide progress in physics research towards International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER). This chaper descrives on steady state operation with emphasis on: integrated scenarios, review of presently developed experimental scenarios, actuators for steady state operation, specific control issues to steady state operation, simulation of ITER steady-state and hybrid scenarios.

Journal Articles

Stabilization and prevention of the 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode for improved performance in DIII-D

Prater, R.*; La Haye, R. J.*; Luce, T. C.*; Petty, C. C.*; Strait, E. J.*; Ferron, J. R.*; Humphreys, D. A.*; Isayama, Akihiko; Lohr, J.*; Nagasaki, Kazunobu*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(5), p.371 - 377, 2007/05

 Times Cited Count:52 Percentile:11.33(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The $$m=2$$ /$$n=1$$ neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) has been observed to strongly degrade confinement and frequently lead to a disruption in high $$beta$$ discharges in DIII-D if allowed to grow to large size. Stabilization of grown NTMs by application of highly localized electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) at the island location has led to operation at increased plasma pressure, up to the no-wall kink limit. After the NTM is stabilized by the ECCD, the correct location for the current drive is maintained using information from real-time equilibrium reconstructions which include measurements from the motional Stark effect diagnostic. This same process is used alternatively to prevent the mode from ever growing, leading to performance at the pressure limit in high performance hybrid discharges with $$beta$$ above 4%. Modeling using the modified Rutherford equation shows that the required power is in close agreement with the experimental threshold for prevention of the 2/1 NTM.

Journal Articles

Edge pedestal physics and its implications for ITER

Kamada, Yutaka; Leonard, A. W.*; Bateman, G.*; Becoulet, M.*; Chang, C. S.*; Eich, T.*; Evans, T. E.*; Groebner, R. J.*; Guzdar, P. N.*; Horton, L. D.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U

Maggi, C. F.*; Groebner, R. J.*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Sartori, R.*; Horton, L. D.*; Sips, A. C. C.*; Suttrop, W.*; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Leonard, T.*; Luce, T. C.*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

Pedestal and global plasma parameters are compared in ELMy H-mode discharges from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, JET and JT-60U. The increase in pedestal pressure (p$$^{PED}$$) with power is continuous, reflecting the continuous transition from "standard H-mode" to "improved confinement scenario". In AUG improved H-modes p$$^{PED}$$ increases with power due to an increase of both pedestal top density and temperature. In DIII-D p$$^{PED}$$ increases primarily due to an increase of the pedestal temperature. In JT-60U high $$beta_{pol}$$ H-modes at $$q_{95}$$ = 6.5 and high $$delta$$ the improved confinement is due to an increase of $$W_{PED}$$, while in reversed shear H-modes to an increase of $$W_{core}$$. In JET hybrid discharges at 1.4 MA $$W_{th}$$ increases with power and $$delta$$ due to an increase of $$W_{PED}$$. In all four tokamaks improved edge stability is correlated to increasing total $$beta_{pol} $$ and H98(y,2) increases with pedestal $$beta_{pol}$$.

Journal Articles

Prevention of the 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode in DIII-D

Prater, R.*; La Haye, R. J.*; Luce, T. C.*; Petty, C. C.*; Strait, E. J.*; Ferron, J. R.*; Humphreys, D. A.*; Isayama, Akihiko; Lohr, J.*; Nagasaki, Kazunobu*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2007/03

Onset of the m/n=2/1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) has been prevented in high-performance DIII-D discharges using localized electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Active tracking of the $$q$$=2 surface location, using real-time equilibrium reconstructions with motional Stark effect data, allows the current drive to be maintained at the rational surface even in the absence of a detectable mode. With the application of this technique in DIII-D hybrid discharges, the 2/1 mode is avoided and good energy confinement is maintained for more than 1 second with $$beta$$ at the estimated n=1 no-wall stability limit for ideal kink modes ($$beta$$$$_{rm T}$$ approximately equals 3.9 % and normalized beta $$beta$$$$_{rm N}$$ approximately equals 3.2). The results can be understood through modeling using the modified Rutherford equation.

Journal Articles

Survey of type I ELM dynamics measurements

Leonard, A. W.*; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Boedo, J. A.*; Becoulet, M.*; Counsell, G. F.*; Eich, T.*; Fundamenski, W.*; Herrmann, A.*; Horton, L. D.*; Kamada, Yutaka; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 48(5A), p.A149 - A162, 2006/05

 Times Cited Count:40 Percentile:17.73(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This report summarizes Type I edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics measurements from a number of tokamaks. Several transport mechanisms are conjectured to be responsible for ELM transport, including convective transport due to filamentary structures ejected from the pedestal, parallel transport due to edge ergodization or magnetic reconnection and turbulent transport driven by the high edge gradients when the radial electric field shear is suppressed. The experimental observations are assessed for their validation, or conflict, with these ELM transport conjectures.

Journal Articles

Steady state high $$beta_{rm N}$$ discharges and real-time control of current profile in JT-60U

Suzuki, Takahiro; Isayama, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Ide, Shunsuke; Fujita, Takaaki; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Luce, T. C.*; Wade, M. R.*; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Naito, Osamu; et al.

Proceedings of 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2004) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2004/11

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Results of ITER test blanket module mock-up experiments on DIII-D

Snipes, J. A.*; Schaffer, M. J.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Evans, T. E.*; Gao, X. M.*; Garofalo, A.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.

no journal, , 

A series of experiments was performed on DIII-D to mock-up the field that will be induced in a pair of ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER to determine the effects of such error fields on plasma operation and performance. A set of coils producing both poloidal and toroidal fields was placed inside a re-entrant horizontal port close to the plasma. The coils produce a localized ripple due to the toroidal field (TF) + TBM up to 5.7%, which is more than four times that expected from a pair of representative 1.3 ton TBMs in ITER. The experiments show that the reduction in the toroidal rotation is sensitive to the ripple. On the other hand, the confinement is reduced by up to 15-18% for local ripple $$ge$$ 3% but is hardly affected at 1.7% local ripple.

17 (Records 1-17 displayed on this page)
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