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Journal Articles

Mitigation of cavitation damage in J-PARC mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081004_1 - 081004_6, 2020/02

The beam window of the mercury target vessel in J-PARC is severely damaged by the cavitation. The cavitation damage is a crucial factor to limit lifetime of the target because it increases with the beam power. Therefore, mitigating cavitation damage is an important issue to operate the target stably for long time at 1 MW. At J-PARC, to mitigate the cavitation damage: gas microbubbles are injected into mercury for suppressing pressure waves, and double-walled structure with a narrow channel of 2 mm in width to form high-speed mercury flow ($$sim$$4m/s) has been adopted. After operation, the beam window was cut to inspect the effect of the cavitation damage mitigation on inner wall. We optimized cutting conditions through the cold cutting tests, succeeding in cutting the target No.2 (without damage mitigation technologies) smoothly in 2017, and target No.8 with damage mitigation technologies. In the workshop, progress of cavitation damage observation for the target vessel will be presented.

Journal Articles

New design and fabrication technology applied in mercury target vessel #8 of J-PARC

Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Hanano, Kohei; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Shimada, Tsubasa*; Kanomata, Kenichi*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081002_1 - 081002_6, 2020/02

A mercury target vessel of J-PRAC is designed with a triple-walled structure consisting of the mercury vessel and a double-walled water shroud with internal and external vessels. During the beam operation at 500 kW in 2015, small water leakages from a water shroud of the mercury target vessel occurred twice. Design, fabrication and inspection processes were improved based on the lessons learned from the target failures. The total length of welding lines at the front of the mercury target vessel decreases drastically to approximately 55% by adopting monolithic structure cut out from a block of stainless steel by the wire-electrical discharge machining. Thorough testing of welds by radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing was conducted. The fabrication of the mercury target vessel #8 was finished on September 2017 and the beam operation using it started. Stable beam operation at 500 kW has been achieved and it could experience the maximum beam power of 1 MW during a beam test.

Journal Articles

Optimum temperature for HIP bonding invar alloy and stainless steel

Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target has large size as 1.3$$times$$1.3$$times$$2.5 m$$^{3}$$. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 1$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ Pa m$$^{3}$$/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.

Journal Articles

Effect of welding on gigacycle fatigue strength of austenitic stainless steels

Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 3, p.123 - 128, 2018/08

A mercury target vessel, composed of SUS316L, is used for the pulsed neutron source and is assembled via TIG welding. While in operation, the target vessel suffers ca. 10$$^9$$ loading cycles with a high strain rate of ca. 50 s$$^{-1}$$ because of the proton-beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. The gigacycle fatigue strength for solution annealed SUS316L stainless steels and its welded specimens were investigated through ultrasonic fatigue tests. The experimental results showed that an obvious fatigue limit was not observed at fewer than 10$$^9$$ cycles for the base metal. In the case of no weld defects observed via penetration tests, the fatigue strength of the removed-weld-bead specimen, in which the weld lines were arranged at the center of the specimen, appeared to be slightly higher than that of the base metal. By contrast, as-welded specimens with the weld bead intact showed apparent degradation of the fatigue strength owing to the stress concentration around the weld toe.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on cavitation of a liquid lithium jet for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Wakai, Eiichi; Knaster, J.*

Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science, 3(4), p.041005_1 - 041005_11, 2017/10

A liquid-Li free-surface stream flowing at 15 m/s under a high vacuum of 10$$^{-3}$$ Pa is to serve as a beam target (Li target) for the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) or other intense fusion neutron sources. This study focuses on cavitation-like acoustic noise which was detected in a conduit downstream from the Li target. This noise was measured by using acoustic-emission (AE) sensors that were installed at several locations of the conduit via acoustic wave guides. As a result, we found that cavitation occurred only in a narrow area where the Li target impinged on the downstream conduit.

Journal Articles

Validation of liquid lithium target stability for an intense neutron source

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Wakai, Eiichi; Knaster, J.*

Nuclear Fusion, 57(6), p.066008_1 - 066008_10, 2017/07

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:20.28(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

A liquid-Li free-surface stream flowing at 15 m/s under a high vacuum of 10$$^{-3}$$ Pa is to serve as a beam target (Li target) for the planned International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) or other intense fusion neutron sources. We determined that the stability of the Li target remained unchanged despite using it for an extended period of 1,561 h. This finding is regarded as a significant step toward the realization of the IFMIF and the potential use of relevant neutron sources such as A-FNS and DONES.

Journal Articles

Nitrogen hot trap design and manufactures for lithium test loop in IFMIF/EVEDA project

Wakai, Eiichi; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi*; Ito, Yuzuru*; Suzuki, Akihiro*; Terai, Takayuki*; Yagi, Juro*; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 11, p.2405112_1 - 2405112_4, 2016/11

BB2015-1982.pdf:2.03MB

Journal Articles

Evaluation of annealing and double ion beam irradiation by a laser-induced and laser-detected surface acoustic wave diagnostic system

Kitazawa, Sin-iti*; Wakai, Eiichi; Aoto, Kazumi

Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 127, p.264 - 268, 2016/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:80.73(Chemistry, Physical)

The effects of annealing and double ion irradiation on nuclear structural materials were investigated using a novel, non-destructive, non-contact diagnostic method. A laser-induced and laser-detected surface acoustic wave (SAW) was adopted as a diagnostic system. The SAWs propagation velocity and the SAWs vibration velocity along the normal direction of the surface were measured to investigate mechanical properties of the substrates. Change of the shear modulus was detected in the annealed substrates. Non-linear effect on amplitude of the excited SAW was observed on the double ion irradiated materials. The potential of the SAW diagnostic system for assessing nuclear structural materials was demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Chemical reaction of lithium with room temperature atmosphere of various humidities

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.2138 - 2141, 2015/10

BB2014-0426.pdf:0.49MB

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:42.26(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), a back plate of the target assembly will be exchanged during the in-service period. During the works, the lithium components will react chemically with the surrounding atmosphere. In this research, the chemical reaction of lithium in air, oxygen and nitrogen containing variable humidity at room temperature has been investigated to estimate the chemical reaction during the exchange works.

Journal Articles

Measurement of Li target thickness in the EVEDA Li Test Loop

Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Hoashi, Eiji*; Yoshihashi, Sachiko*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.1991 - 1997, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:11.06(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A high-speed (15 m/s) liquid lithium jet is planned to be utilized as the target of two 40 MeV - 125 mA deuteron beams in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The target thickness is required to be maintained within 25 $$pm$$ 1 mm under a vacuum condition of 10$$^{-3}$$ Pa. This paper reports the result of measurements of the Li-target thickness under the IFMIF condition (Li speed of 10 to 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10$$^{-3}$$ Pa, Li temperature of 250$$^{circ}$$C) in the EVEDA Li Test Loop. The target thickness was found to be 26.08 mm on average at the speed of 15 m/s at the center of the IFMIF beam footprint. As for temporal fluctuation, average and maximum amplitude at the same measurement position were 0.26 and 1.45 mm, respectively, and more than 99.7% of all amplitudes measured were within the design requirement. Therefore, it was found that the Li target fulfilled the required stability for IFMIF.

Journal Articles

Overview on recent progress toward small specimen test technique

Wakai, Eiichi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Kim, B.*; Kimura, Akihiko*; Nogami, Shuhei*; Hasegawa, Akira*; Nishimura, Arata*; Soldaini, M.*; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi*; Knaster, J.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 98-99, p.2089 - 2093, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:24.89(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Effect of helium on irradiation creep behavior of B-doped F82H irradiated in HFIR

Ando, Masami; Nozawa, Takashi; Hirose, Takanori; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Wakai, Eiichi; Stoller, R. E.*; Myers, J.*

Fusion Science and Technology, 68(3), p.648 - 651, 2015/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:84.76(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Pressurized tubes of F82H and B-doped F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K up to $$sim$$6dpa have been measured by a laser profilometer. The irradiation creep strain in F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K was almost linearly dependent on the effective stress level for stresses below 260 MPa and 170 MPa, respectively. The creep strain of $$^{10}$$BN-F82H was similar to that of F82H IEA at each effective stress level except 294 MPa at 573 K irradiation. For 673 K irradiation, the creep strain of some $$^{10}$$BN-F82H tubes was larger than that of F82H tubes. It is suggested that a swelling caused in each $$^{10}$$BN-F82H because small helium babbles might be produced by a reaction of $$^{10}$$B(n, $$alpha$$) $$^{7}$$Li.

Journal Articles

The Accomplishment of the engineering design activities of IFMIF/EVEDA; The European-Japanese project towards a Li(d,xn) fusion relevant neutron source

Knaster, J.*; Ibarra, A.*; Ida, Mizuho*; Kondo, Keitaro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ohira, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Wakai, Eiichi; Watanabe, Kazuhito; 58 of others*

Nuclear Fusion, 55(8), p.086003_1 - 086003_30, 2015/08

 Times Cited Count:47 Percentile:1.61(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase under the frame of the Broader Approach Agreement between Europe and Japan, has accomplished in summer 2013, on schedule, its EDA phase with the release of the engineering design report of the IFMIF plant, which is here described. Many improvements of the design from former phases are implemented, particularly a reduction of beam losses and operational costs thanks to the superconducting accelerator concept. In the Test Cell design, the separation of the irradiation modules from the shielding block gaining irradiation flexibility and enhancement of the remote handling equipment reliability and cost reduction. The released IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report, which could be complemented if required concurrently with the outcome of the on-going EVA carried out since the entry into force of IFMIF/EVEDA in June 2007, will allow the decision making on its construction and/or serve as the basis for the definition of the next step, aligned with the evolving needs of our fusion community.

Journal Articles

Measurement of cavitation in a downstream conduit of the liquid lithium target for international fusion materials irradiation facility

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Wakai, Eiichi

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2015/05

A liquid-Li free-surface stream is to serve as a beam target (Li target) for the IFMIF. As a major activity for the Li target in the IFMIF/EVEDA, the EVEDA Li test loop (ELTL) was constructed. This study focuses on cavitation-like acoustic noise in a conduit downstream of the Li target. This noise was detected by using acoustic-emission sensors. The intensity of the noise was examined versus cavitation number of the Li target. In addition, a time-frequency analysis for the acoustic signal was performed to characterize the noise. The results are as follows: (1) the intensity of the noise was increased as decreasing the cavitation number; (2) the noise was at first intermittent in a larger cavitation number, subsequently the noise became continuous as decreasing the cavitation number; (3) the noise consisted of a number of a high frequency acoustic emission which occurred in a short duration. For these results, we conclude that cavitation occurred in the downstream conduit.

Journal Articles

Crack growth behavior of F82H steel in the 288$$^{circ}$$C water

Ito, Yuzuru; Saito, Masahiro*; Abe, Katsunori*; Wakai, Eiichi

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.11, p.73 - 78, 2015/03

Crack growth is a one of the key mechanical properties for the design evaluation in fusion materials to be tested at the High Flux Test Module (HFTM) in IFMIF. In this study, crack growth rate of the F82H steel in the 288$$^{circ}$$C water was investigated by using an almost standard size specimen in order to avoid the specimen size effect on the crack growth. It was found that the typical intergranular fracture surface could be obtained during the crack propagation even at room temperature. Chromium carbide, Cr$$_{23}$$C$$_{6}$$, precipitation along the grain boundaries in F82H steel may influence the intergranular fracture under the fatigue crack propagation at room temperature in air. The possible evidence of crack growth in the 288$$^{circ}$$C water was also observed. The crack growth rate at 30 MPa $$sqrt[]{m}$$ in the 288$$^{circ}$$C water was conservatively estimated to about 7$$times$$10$$^{-11}$$ m/s. Further systematic study of crack growth, and the improvement of surface finishing against crack propagation are necessary for the design evaluation in fusion materials.

Journal Articles

Effects of heat treatments and addition of minor elements of boron and nitrogen on mechanical properties and microstructures of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel

Wakai, Eiichi; Ando, Masami; Okubo, Nariaki

Journal of Plasma and Fusion Research SERIES, Vol.11, p.104 - 112, 2015/03

The reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels for the fusion DEMO reactor have been developing from around the 1980s. RAFM steels are the first candidate materials for the first wall and blanket structure of fusion DEMO reactors, the target back-plate and the target assembly of IFMIF. In this study, two subjects had been examined and are summarized as below: (1) Effect of initial heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of RAFM steels, including irradiation damage, is very important to design the fusion DEMO reactors and also control the changes of mechanical properties after the irradiation. (2) Effects of He and H production on the microstructures and mechanical properties of RAFM steels, including irradiation damage, are essential in the evaluation of design of fusion DEMO reactor, and we have to check and evaluate them in Fusion irradiation environment like IFMIF.

Journal Articles

Effect of hydrogen on crack growth behavior in F82H steel using small-size specimen

Ito, Yuzuru; Saito, Masahiro*; Abe, Katsunori*; Wakai, Eiichi

Small Specimen Test Techniques; 6th Volume (ASTM STP 1576), p.209 - 224, 2015/00

Journal Articles

Current status of the technology development on lithium safety handling under IFMIF/EVEDA

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Kato, Shoichi; Iijima, Minoru; Otaka, Masahiko; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(12), p.2902 - 2909, 2014/12

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:41.96(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For the irradiation test of the candidate materials for the fusion DEMO reactor, Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are performed under the Broader Approach Activities. As a major Japanese activity on the target facility of the IFMIF, the engineering validation using the EVEDA Lithium Test Loop which is the largest scale liquid lithium test loop has been started in 2012. In parallel with the design and fabrication, the research on the technology establishment for the lithium safety handling was started in 2008, as one of the related technologies under the IFMIF-EVEDA. In the research, experiments of lithium chemical reaction, experiments on lithium fire, establishment of chemical analysis of impurities in lithium and experiments on advanced lithium leak detection system were carried out. This paper describes the results of these experiments.

Journal Articles

Status of development of Lithium Target Facility in IFMIF/EVEDA project

Wakai, Eiichi; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hoashi, Eiji*; Fukada, Satoshi*; Suzuki, Akihiro*; Yagi, Juro*; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki*; et al.

Proceedings of Plasma Conference 2014 (PLASMA 2014) (CD-ROM), 2 Pages, 2014/11

In the IFMIF/EVEDA (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility/ Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity), the validation tests of the EVEDA lithium test loop with the world's highest flow rate of 3000 L/min was succeeded in generating a 100 mm-wide and 25 mm-thick free-surface lithium flow steadily under the IFMIF operation condition of a high-speed of 15 m/s at 250$$^{circ}$$C in a vacuum of 10 $$^{-3}$$ Pa. Some excellent results of the recent engineering validations including lithium purification, lithium safety, and remote handling technique were obtained, and the engineering design of lithium facility was also evaluated. These results will advance greatly the development of an accelerator-based neutron source to simulate the fusion reactor materials irradiation environment as an important key technology for the development of fusion reactor materials.

Journal Articles

The Start-up and observation of the Li target in the EVEDA Li test loop

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Groeschel, F.*; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1688 - 1693, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:31.23(Nuclear Science & Technology)

EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) Li Test Loop, which simulates the hydraulic condition of the Li target and the purification system of the IFMIF Li facility, is under operation in a frame work of the IFMIF/EVEDA. The Li target at a velocity of 20 m/s in a pressurized condition and a vacuum condition were observed by image devices in this study.

211 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)