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Journal Articles

Numerical simulation technologies for safety evaluation in plant lifecycle optimization method, ARKADIA for advanced reactors

Uchibori, Akihiro; Doda, Norihiro; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Sonehara, Masateru; Sogabe, Joji; Okano, Yasushi; Takata, Takashi*; Tanaka, Masaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Wakai, Takashi; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 413, p.112492_1 - 112492_10, 2023/11

The ARKAIDA has been developed to realize automatic optimization of plant design from safety evaluation for the advanced reactors represented by a sodium-cooled fast reactor. ARKADIA-Design offers functions to support design optimization both in normal operating conditions and design basis events. The multi-level simulation approach by the coupled analysis such as neutronics, core deformation, core thermal hydraulics was developed as one of the main technologies. On the other hand, ARKAIDA-Safety aims for safety evaluation considering severe accidents. As a key technology, the numerical methods for in- and ex-vessel coupled phenomena during severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors were tested through a hypothetical severe accident event. Improvement of the ex-vessel model and development of the AI technology to find best design solution have been started.

Journal Articles

JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation Vol. 3; Development of codes and standards considering condition in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

Okajima, Satoshi; Takaya, Shigeru; Wakai, Takashi; Asayama, Tai

Dai-27-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 3 Pages, 2023/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

JSME series in thermal and nuclear power generation Vol.3 (Sodium-cooled fast reactor development; R&Ds on thermal-hydraulics and safety assessment towards social implementation)

Tanaka, Masaaki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Okano, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Wakai, Takashi; Asayama, Tai

Dai-27-Kai Doryoku, Enerugi Gijutsu Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), 5 Pages, 2023/09

The book, JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation Vol.3 Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, was published as a 30th anniversary memorial project of Power & Energy Systems Division. This paper describes an introduction of the book on a part of key technologies regarding safety assessment, thermal-hydraulics, neutronics, and fuel and material development. This introductory paper also provides an overview of an integrated evaluation system named ARKADIA to offer the best possible solutions for challenges arising during the design process, safety assessment, and operation of a nuclear plant over its life cycle, in active use of the R&D efforts and knowledges on thermal-hydraulics and safety assessment with state-of-the-art numerical analysis technologies.

Journal Articles

Development of plant lifecycle optimization method, ARKADIA for advanced reactors

Uchibori, Akihiro; Sogabe, Joji; Okano, Yasushi; Takata, Takashi*; Doda, Norihiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Wakai, Takashi; Asayama, Tai; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of Technical Meeting on State-of-the-art Thermal Hydraulics of Fast Reactors (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/09

The ARKAIDA has been developed to realize automatic optimization of plant design from safety evaluation for the advanced reactors represented by a sodium-cooled fast reactor. ARKADIA-Design offers functions to support design optimization both in normal operating conditions and design basis events. The multi-level simulation approach by the coupled analysis such as neutronics, core deformation, core thermal hydraulics was developed as one of the main technologies of the ARKADIA-Design. On the other hand, ARKAIDA-Safety aims for safety evaluation considering severe accidents. As a key technology, the numerical methods for in- and ex-vessel coupled phenomena during severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors were tested through a hypothetical severe accident event.

Journal Articles

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Masaki*; Aizawa, Kosuke; Ando, Masanori; Ashida, Takashi; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Doda, Norihiro; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Ezure, Toshiki; Fukano, Yoshitaka; et al.

Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors; JSME Series in Thermal and Nuclear Power Generation, Vol.3, 631 Pages, 2022/07

This book is a collection of the past experience of design, construction, and operation of two reactors, the latest knowledge and technology for SFR designs, and the future prospects of SFR development in Japan. It is intended to provide the perspective and the relevant knowledge to enable readers to become more familiar with SFR technology.

Journal Articles

The Multiaxial creep-fatigue failure mechanism of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel under non-proportional loading; Effect of strain energy on failure lives

Ogawa, Fumio*; Nakayama, Yuta*; Hiyoshi, Noritake*; Hashidate, Ryuta; Wakai, Takashi; Ito, Takamoto*

Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (Internet), 7(2), p.549 - 564, 2022/06

The strain energy-based life evaluation method of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel under non-proportional multiaxial creep-fatigue loading is proposed. Inelastic strain energy densities were calculated as the areas inside the hysteresis loops. The effect of mean-stress has been experimentally considered and the relationship between inelastic strain energy densities and creep-fatigue lives was investigated. It was found from the investigation of hysteresis loops, the decrease in maximum stress leads to prolonged failure life, while stress relaxation during strain holding causes strength reduction. The correction method of inelastic strain energy density was proposed considering the effect of maximum stress in hysteresis loop and minimum stress during strain holding, and strain energy densities for uniaxial and non-proportional multiaxial loading were obtained. Based on these results, the mechanisms governing creep-fatigue lives under non-proportional multiaxial loading have been discussed.

Journal Articles

Material data acquisition activities to develop the material strength standard for sodium-cooled fast reactors

Toyota, Kodai; Onizawa, Takashi; Wakai, Takashi; Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Sustainable Clean Energy for the Future (FR22) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2022/04

Journal Articles

Development of the high-power spallation neutron target of J-PARC

Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Proceedings of 19th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-19) (Internet), 13 Pages, 2022/03

The cross-flow type target was developed as the basic design of mercury target in J-PARC, and the design has been improved to realize the MW-class pulsed spallation neutron source. When the high-power and short-pulsed proton beam is injected into the mercury target, pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation. The pressure waves induce the cavitation damages on the target vessel. Two countermeasures were adopted, namely, the injection of microbubbles into mercury and the double walled structure at the beam window. The bubble generator was installed in the target vessel to absorb the volume inflation of mercury and mitigate the pressure waves. Also, the double walled target vessel was designed to suppress the cavitation damage by the large velocity gradient of rapid mercury flow in the narrow channel of double wall. Finally, we could attain 1 MW beam operation with the duration time of 36.5 hours in 2020, and achieved the long term stable operation with 740 kW from April in 2021. This report shows the technical development of the high-power mercury target vessel in view of thermal hydraulics to attain 1 MW operation.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of multiaxial low cycle creep-fatigue life for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel under non-proportional loading

Nakayama, Yuta*; Ogawa, Fumio*; Hiyoshi, Noritake*; Hashidate, Ryuta; Wakai, Takashi; Ito, Takamoto*

ISIJ International, 61(8), p.2299 - 2304, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:36.78(Metallurgy & Metallurgical Engineering)

This study discusses the creep-fatigue strength for Mod.9Cr-1Mo steel at a high temperature under multiaxial loading. A low-cycle fatigue tests in various strain waveforms were performed with a hollow cylindrical specimen. The low cycle fatigue test was conducted under a proportional loading with a fixed axial strain and a non-proportional loading with a 90-degree phase difference between axial and shear strains. The low cycle fatigue tests at different strain rates and the creep-fatigue tests at different holding times were also conducted to discuss the effects of stress relaxation and strain holding on the failure life. In this study, two types of multiaxial creep-fatigue life evaluation methods were proposed: the first method is to calculate the strain range using Manson's universal slope method with considering a non-proportional loading factor and creep damage; the second method is to calculate the fatigue damage by considering the non-proportional loading factor using the linear damage law and to calculate the creep damage from the improved ductility exhaustion law. The accuracy of the evaluation methods is much better than that of the methods used in the evaluation of actual machines such as time fraction rule.

Journal Articles

Proposal of simulation material test technique for clarifying the structure failure mechanisms under excessive seismic loads

Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi; Onizawa, Takashi; Wakai, Takashi; Kasahara, Naoto*

Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/07

It is very essential to clarify the structure failure mechanisms under excessive seismic loads. However, structural tests using actual structural materials are very difficult and expensive. Therefore, we have proposed the structure test approach using lead alloys in order to simulate the structure failure mechanisms under the excessive seismic loads. In this study, we conducted material tests using lead alloy and verified the effectiveness of the simulated material tests. Moreover, we formulated inelastic constitutive equations (best fit fatigue curve equation and cyclic stress range - strain range relationship equation) of lead alloy based on the results of a series of material tests. Nonlinear numerical analyses, e.g. finite element analyses, can be performed using the proposed equations. A series of simulation material test technique enables structural tests and analyses using lead alloy to simulate the structure failure phenomena under excessive seismic loads.

Journal Articles

Development of leak before break assessment guidelines for sodium cooled fast reactors in Japan

Yada, Hiroki; Wakai, Takashi; Miyagawa, Takayuki*; Machida, Hideo*

Proceedings of ASME 2021 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2021) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/07

Journal Articles

Effect of gas microbubble injection and narrow channel structure on cavitation damage in mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.111 - 120, 2021/03

The mercury target vessel for the at the J-PARC neutron source is severely damaged by the cavitation caused by proton beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. To mitigate the cavitation damage, we adopted a double-walled structure with a narrow channel for the mercury at the beam window of the vessel. In addition, gas microbubbles were injected into the mercury to suppress the pressure waves. The front end of the vessel was cut out to inspect the effect of the damage mitigation technologies on the interior surface. The results showed that the double-walled target facing the mercury with gas microbubbles operating at 1812 MWh for an average power of 434 kW had equivalent damage to the single-walled target without microbubbles operating 1048 MWh for average power of 181 kW. The erosion depth due to cavitation in the narrow channel was clearly smaller than it was on the wall facing the bubbling mercury

Journal Articles

New design of high power mercury target vessel of J-PARC

Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Hanano, Kohei*; Haga, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Tsubasa*; Kanomata, Kenichi*

Materials Science Forum, 1024, p.145 - 150, 2021/03

To realize a high beam power operation at the J-PARC, a mercury target vessel covered with water shroud was developed. In the first step, to realize an operation at 500 kW, the basic structure of the initial design was followed and the connection method between the mercury vessel and the water shroud was changed. Additionally, the operation at a beam power of 500 kW was realized in approximately eight months. In the second step, to realize the operation at 1 MW, the new structure in which only rear ends of vessels were connected was investigated. Cooling of the mercury vessel is used to reduce thermal stress and thick vessels of the water shroud are used to increase stiffness for the internal pressure; therefore, it was adopted. The stress in each vessel was lower than the allowable stress based on the pressure vessel code criteria prescribed in the Japan Industrial Standard, and confirmation was obtained that the operation with a beam power of 1 MW could be conducted.

Journal Articles

Proposal of simulation materials test technique and their constitutive equations for structural tests and analyses simulating severe accident conditions

Hashidate, Ryuta; Kato, Shoichi; Onizawa, Takashi; Wakai, Takashi; Kasahara, Naoto*

Proceedings of ASME 2020 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2020) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2020/08

Although it is very essential to clarify how the structure collapses under the severe accident conditions, the failure mechanisms in excessive high temperatures are not clarified. However, it is very difficult and expensive to perform structural tests using actual structural materials. Therefore, we propose to use lead alloys instead of actual structural materials. For demonstration of analogy between the failure mechanisms of lead alloys structure at low temperature and those of the actual structures at high temperature, numerical analyses are required. Although the authors proposed inelastic constitutive equations for numerical analyses in 2019, the equations could not successfully express because of large variations observed in the material tests of the lead alloy. In this study, we propose the improved inelastic constitutive equations of the lead alloy on the basis of the material test results used by aged alloy which can stabilized the material characteristic.

Journal Articles

Mitigation of cavitation damage in J-PARC mercury target vessel

Naoe, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081004_1 - 081004_6, 2020/02

The beam window of the mercury target vessel in J-PARC is severely damaged by the cavitation. The cavitation damage is a crucial factor to limit lifetime of the target because it increases with the beam power. Therefore, mitigating cavitation damage is an important issue to operate the target stably for long time at 1 MW. At J-PARC, to mitigate the cavitation damage: gas microbubbles are injected into mercury for suppressing pressure waves, and double-walled structure with a narrow channel of 2 mm in width to form high-speed mercury flow ($$sim$$4m/s) has been adopted. After operation, the beam window was cut to inspect the effect of the cavitation damage mitigation on inner wall. We optimized cutting conditions through the cold cutting tests, succeeding in cutting the target No.2 (without damage mitigation technologies) smoothly in 2017, and target No.8 with damage mitigation technologies. In the workshop, progress of cavitation damage observation for the target vessel will be presented.

Journal Articles

New design and fabrication technology applied in mercury target vessel #8 of J-PARC

Wakui, Takashi; Wakai, Eiichi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Hanano, Kohei; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Shimada, Tsubasa*; Kanomata, Kenichi*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.081002_1 - 081002_6, 2020/02

A mercury target vessel of J-PRAC is designed with a triple-walled structure consisting of the mercury vessel and a double-walled water shroud with internal and external vessels. During the beam operation at 500 kW in 2015, small water leakages from a water shroud of the mercury target vessel occurred twice. Design, fabrication and inspection processes were improved based on the lessons learned from the target failures. The total length of welding lines at the front of the mercury target vessel decreases drastically to approximately 55% by adopting monolithic structure cut out from a block of stainless steel by the wire-electrical discharge machining. Thorough testing of welds by radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing was conducted. The fabrication of the mercury target vessel #8 was finished on September 2017 and the beam operation using it started. Stable beam operation at 500 kW has been achieved and it could experience the maximum beam power of 1 MW during a beam test.

Journal Articles

Study on fracture behaviour of through-wall cracked elbow under displacement control load

Machida, Hideo*; Koizumi, Yu*; Wakai, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji*

Nihon Kikai Gakkai M&M 2019 Zairyo Rikigaku Kanfarensu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.OS1307_1 - OS1307_5, 2019/11

This paper describes the fracture test and fracture analysis of a pipe under displacement control load. In order to grasp the fracture behavior of the circumferential through-wall cracked pipe, which is important in evaluating the feasibility of leak before break (LBB) in sodium cooled reactor piping, a fracture test in case of a circumferential throughwall crack in the weld line between an elbow and a straight pipe was carried out. From this test, it was found that no pipe fracture occurs in the displacement control loading condition even if a large circumferential through-wall crack (180$$^{circ}$$) was assumed. The fracture analysis of the pipe was carried out using Gurson's parameters set based on the tensile test results of the tested pipe material. The analytic results agree well with the test results, and it was found that it will be possible to predict the fracture behavior of sodium cooled reactor piping.

Journal Articles

A Proposal of inelastic constitutive equations of lead alloys used for structural tests simulating severe accident conditions

Hashidate, Ryuta; Onizawa, Takashi; Wakai, Takashi; Kasahara, Naoto*

Proceedings of 2019 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (PVP 2019) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2019/07

Under the severe accident conditions, structural materials of nuclear power plants are subjected to excessive high temperature. Although it is very essential to clarify how the structure collapses under the severe accident conditions, the failure mechanisms in such high temperatures are not clarified. However, it is very difficult and expensive to perform structural tests using actual structural materials. Therefore, we propose to use lead alloys instead of actual structural materials. Because the strength of lead alloys is much poorer than that of the actual structural materials, failure can be observed at low temperature and by small load. For demonstration of analogy between the failure mechanisms of lead alloys structure at low temperature and those of the actual structures at high temperature, numerical analyses are required. So, we confirm the material characteristics of lead alloys and develop inelastic constitutive equations of lead alloy required for finite element analyses.

Journal Articles

Optimum temperature for HIP bonding invar alloy and stainless steel

Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:18.73(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The mercury target has large size as 1.3$$times$$1.3$$times$$2.5 m$$^{3}$$. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 1$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$ Pa m$$^{3}$$/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.

Journal Articles

Effect of local plastic component on crack opening displacement and on J-integral of a circumferential penetrated crack

Machida, Hideo*; Arakawa, Manabu*; Wakai, Takashi

Proceedings of 27th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-27) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2019/05

This paper describes the effect of local plastic component on J-integral and crack opening displacement (COD) evaluation of a circumferential penetrated crack, applicable to the leak before break (LBB) assessment for sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) components. J-integral COD evaluation methods are generally formulated as a summation of elastic and plastic components, and so far many evaluation formulae based on these two components have been proposed. However, strictly, the plastic component consists of local plastic and fully plastic components. Many of the conventional evaluation methods often consider only the fully plastic component as the plastic component. The reason for this is that the effect of the local plastic component is much smaller than that of the fully plastic component excluding materials with extremely small work hardening. In contrast, for materials with high yield stress and small work hardening, such as modified 9Cr-1Mo steel which is one of the candidate materials for SFR piping, the effect of the local plastic component on J-integral and COD cannot be ignored. Therefore, the authors propose formulae taking the effect of local plastic component on J-integral and COD into account, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results, so that it is easy to apply to crack evaluation. The formulae will be employed in the guidelines on LBB assessment for SFR components published from Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME).

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