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Journal Articles

Development of microwave-assisted, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy without a microwave cavity or waveguide

Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 59(6), p.062001_1 - 062001_6, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Applied)

Using a semiconductor microwave source and a coaxial cable for microwave transmission, a compact microwave-assisted, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system without a microwave cavity or waveguide was developed. Several types of electrode heads were tested, so that the emission intensity was 50 times larger than without microwave. The limit of the enhancement effect was also found.

Journal Articles

Development of one-dimensional optical fiber type radiation distribution sensing method based on wavelength spectrum unfolding

Terasaka, Yuta; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Uritani, Akira*; Yamazaki, Atsushi*; Sato, Yuki; Torii, Tatsuo; Wakaida, Ikuo

Proceedings of International Youth Nuclear Congress 2020 (IYNC 2020) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2020/05

JAEA Reports

Measurement of plutonium spectrum using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; High resolution spectroscopy (350-670nm)

Akaoka, Katsuaki; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

JAEA-Research 2020-001, 142 Pages, 2020/03

JAEA-Research-2020-001.pdf:4.0MB

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method is an attractive technique because real-time, in-situ and remote elemental analysis is possible without any sample preparation. The LIBS technique can be applied for analyzing elemental composition of samples under severe environments such as the estimation of impurities in the next generation nuclear fuel material containing minor actinide (MA) and the detection of fuel debris in the post-accident nuclear core reactor of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. For applying LIBS to the analysis of nuclear fuel materials, it is indispensable to identify the emission spectrum and its intensity on impurities intermingled within complex emission spectra of matrix elements such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). In the present study, an echelle spectrometer with a resolving power of 50,000 was employed to identify spectra of plutonium of wavelength ranging from 350 to 670nm. The 465 atomic spectra and 341 ionic spectra can be identified. We have confirmed that the measured wavelength of spectra is consistent with published values.

Journal Articles

Radiation measurement and analysis

Wakaida, Ikuo; Hasegawa, Shuichi*; Tadokoro, Takahiro*

Nippon Kikai Gakkai-Shi, 122(1211), p.18 - 20, 2019/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of remote sensing technique using radiation resistant optical fibers under high-radiation environment

Ito, Chikara; Naito, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ito, Keisuke; Wakaida, Ikuo

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 24, p.011038_1 - 011038_6, 2019/01

A high-radiation resistant optical fiber has been developed in order to investigate the interiors of the reactor pressure vessels and the primary containment vessels at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The tentative dose rate in the reactor pressure vessels is assumed to be up to 1 kGy/h. We developed a radiation resistant optical fiber consisting of a 1000 ppm hydroxyl doped pure silica core and 4 % fluorine doped pure silica cladding. We attempted to apply the optical fiber to remote imaging technique by means of fiberscope. The number of core image fibers was increased from 2000 to 22000 for practical use. The transmissive rate of infrared images was not affected after irradiation of 1 MGy. No change in the spatial resolution of the view scope by means of image fiber was noted between pre- and post-irradiation. We confirmed the applicability of the probing system, which consists of a view scope using radiation-resistant optical fibers.

Journal Articles

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and related resonance spectroscopy for nuclear fuel cycle management and for decommissioning of "Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station"

Wakaida, Ikuo; Oba, Hironori; Miyabe, Masabumi; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Oba, Masaki; Tamura, Koji; Saeki, Morihisa

Kogaku, 48(1), p.13 - 20, 2019/01

By Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and by related resonance spectroscopy, elemental and isotope analysis of Uranium and Plutonium for nuclear fuel materials and in-situ remote analysis under strong radiation condition for melt downed nuclear fuel debris at damaged core in "Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station", are introduced and performed as one of the application in atomic energy research field.

Journal Articles

Isotope-selective microscale imaging of radioactive Cs without isobaric interferences using sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with two-step resonant ionization employing newly-developed Ti:Sapphire lasers

Sakamoto, Tetsuo*; Morita, Masato*; Kanenari, Keita*; Tomita, Hideki*; Sonnenschein, V.*; Saito, Kosuke*; Ohashi, Masaya*; Kato, Kotaro*; Iguchi, Tetsuo*; Kawai, Toshihide*; et al.

Analytical Sciences, 34(11), p.1265 - 1270, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:65.72(Chemistry, Analytical)

JAEA Reports

Expansion characteristics of particles in ablation plume measured with resonance absorption spectroscopy; Comparison of neutral atoms of titanium and hafnium

Jung, K.; Miyabe, Masabumi; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Oba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

JAEA-Research 2017-008, 26 Pages, 2017/08

JAEA-Research-2017-008.pdf:5.99MB

We are developing an analytical method using laser ablation absorption spectroscopy (LAAS) to analyze radioactive waste mixed with zirconium, uranium and so on. It is essential to evaluate the characteristics of the plume formed by the objective particles for LAAS analysis. Therefore, in this study, titanium and hafnium whose chemical properties are similar to those of Zr were chosen as analytical object. And the difference in expanding behavior of the plume due to the weight of the particles was investigated. As a result of changing the height of the probe beam and applying the optical time-of-flight method to the plume, it was found that the influence of the background gas is larger for Ti than Hf. The meaning of the resonance absorption signal of the waste sample mixed with nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactor materials was understood by this study and basic knowledge to optimize experimental conditions were also obtained.

Journal Articles

Laser ablation absorption spectroscopy for isotopic analysis of plutonium; Spectroscopic properties and analytical performance

Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Jung, K.; Iimura, Hideki; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Kato, Masaaki; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Khumaeni, A.*; Wakaida, Ikuo

Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 134, p.42 - 51, 2017/08

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:19.66(Spectroscopy)

Spectroscopic properties of atomic species of plutonium were investigated by combining laser ablation and resonance absorption techniques for the analysis of a plutonium oxide sample. For 17 transitions of Pu atoms and ions, the absorbance, isotope shift, and hyperfine splitting were determined via Voigt profile fitting of the recorded absorption spectra. Three transitions were selected as candidates for analytical use. Using these transitions, we investigated the analytical performance that was attainable and determined a correlation coefficient R2 between the absorbance and plutonium concentration of 0.9999, a limit of detection of 30-130 ppm, and a relative standard deviation of approximately 6% for an abundance of $$^{240}$$Pu of 2.4%. These results demonstrate that laser ablation absorption spectroscopy is applicable to the remote isotopic analysis of highly radioactive nuclear fuels and waste materials containing multiple actinide elements.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of uranium spectrum using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; High resolution spectroscopy (470-670 nm)

Akaoka, Katsuaki; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

JAEA-Research 2016-005, 40 Pages, 2016/05

JAEA-Research-2016-005.pdf:1.82MB

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) method is an attractive technique because real-time, in-situ and remote elemental analysis is possible without any sample preparation. The LIBS technique can be applied for analyzing elemental composition of samples under severe environments such as the estimation of impurities in the next generation nuclear fuel material containing minor actinide (MA) and the detection of fuel debris in the post-accident nuclear core reactor of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. For applying LIBS to the analysis of nuclear fuel materials, it is indispensable to identify the emission spectrum and its intensity on impurities intermingled within complex emission spectra of matrix elements such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). In the present study, an echelle spectrometer with a resolving power of 50,000 was employed to identify spectra of natural uranium of wavelength ranging from 470 to 670 nm. The 173 atomic spectra and 119 ionic spectra can be identified. We have confirmed that the measured wavelength and oscillator strength of spectra are consistent with published values.

Journal Articles

Effect of defocusing on laser ablation plume observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 55(2), p.022401_1 - 022401_4, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:83.36(Physics, Applied)

We used laser-induced fluorescence imaging with a varying beam focal point to observe ablation plumes from metal and oxide samples of gadolinium. The plumes expand vertically when the focal point is far from the sample surface. In contrast, the plume becomes hemispherical when the focal point is on the sample surface. In addition, the internal plume structure and the composition of the ablated atomic and ionic particles also vary significantly. The fluorescence intensity of a plume from a metal sample is greater than that from an oxide sample, which suggests that the number of monatomic species produced in each plume differs. For both the metal and oxide samples, the most intense fluorescence from atomic (ionic) species is observed with the beam focal point at 3-4 mm (2 mm) from the sample surface.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of uranium spectrum using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy; High resolution spectroscopy (350-470 nm)

Akaoka, Katsuaki; Oba, Masaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

JAEA-Research 2015-012, 48 Pages, 2015/10

JAEA-Research-2015-012.pdf:2.22MB

It is important to analyze the next generation nuclear fuel material containing minor actinide (MA) and the fuel debris generated at the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Therefore, the remote analysis for nuclear fuel materials using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is studied. For applying Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to the analysis of nuclear fuel materials, it is very important to identify the emission spectrum and its intensity on impurities intermingled within complex emission spectra of matrix elements such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). Then, the high resolution spectra of natural uranium of wavelength region of 350-470 nm are measured using LIBS, 247 atomic spectra and 294 single ion spectra were identified. We have confirmed that the measured wavelength and oscillator strength of spectra are consistent with published values.

Journal Articles

Ablation plume structure and dynamics in ambient gas observed by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

Miyabe, Masabumi; Oba, Masaki; Iimura, Hideki; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Khumaeni, A.*; Kato, Masaaki; Wakaida, Ikuo

Spectrochimica Acta, Part B, 110, p.101 - 117, 2015/08

AA2015-0183.pdf:3.11MB

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:19.13(Spectroscopy)

The dynamic behavior of an ablation plume in ambient gas has been investigated by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. The second harmonic beam from an Nd:YAG laser (0.5-6J/cm$$^{2}$$) was focused on a sintered oxide pellet or a metal chip of gadolinium. The produced plume was subsequently intersected with a sheet-shaped UV beam from a dye laser so that time-resolved fluorescence images were acquired with an intensified CCD camera at various delay times. The obtained cross-sectional images of the plume indicate that the ablated ground state atoms and ions of gadolinium accumulate in a hemispherical contact layer between the plume and the ambient gas, and a cavity containing a smaller density of ablated species is formed near the center of the plume. At earlier expansion stage, another luminous component also expands in the cavity so that it coalesces into the hemispherical layer. The splitting and coalescence for atomic plume occur later than those for ionic plume. Furthermore, the hemispherical layer of neutral atoms appears later than that of ions; however, the locations of the layers are nearly identical. This coincidence of the appearance locations of the layers strongly suggests that the neutral atoms in the hemispherical layer are produced as a consequence of three-body recombination of ions through collisions with gas atoms. The obtained knowledge regarding plume expansion dynamics and detailed plume structure is useful for optimizing the experimental conditions for ablation-based spectroscopic analysis.

Journal Articles

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for nuclear fuel material

Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Wakaida, Ikuo

Reza Kenkyu, 42(12), p.918 - 922, 2014/12

For the remote analysis of the next generation nuclear fuel material containing minor actinide (MA), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to uranium oxide (U$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$) including a small amount of neodymium oxide (Nd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$) as a simulated sample of MA. By using deconvolution technique for the spectra of Nd in U, the complex, overlapped and confused spectra were separated and their actual intensities were determined. As a result, the calibration curve with good linearity and the detection limit of less than 700 ppm were demonstrated.

Journal Articles

Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy method for elements analysis of metal ions in an aqueous solution in nuclear reprocessing process control

Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Wakaida, Ikuo

Reza Kenkyu, 42(12), p.892 - 896, 2014/12

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an attractive technique for determining elemental composition in real time, in-situ and remotely without any sample preparation. The LIBS analysis of metal ions in an aqueous solution is available in process control and environmental monitoring. In the present paper, we have reviewed the LIBS methods for a liquid phase that tried to improve the detection sensitivity. We have performed the LIBS measurement with the sheet flow for the simultaneous determination of elements in the simulated high-level radioactive waste liquid and have discussed on the application possibility as a tool for online process monitoring.

Journal Articles

Effect of liquid-sheet thickness on detection sensitivity for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solution

Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Wakaida, Ikuo; Tanabe, Rie*; Ito, Yoshiro*

Optics Express (Internet), 22(20), p.24478 - 24490, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:40.02(Optics)

For aqueous-solution-based elemental analysis, we used a thin liquid sheet ($$mu$$m-scale thickness) in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with nanosecond laser pulses. Laser-induced plasma is emitted by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) on a 5- to 80-$$mu$$m-thick liquid sheet in air. To optimize the conditions for detecting elements, we studied how the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) for H$$alpha$$ Balmer and Na-neutral emission lines depends on the liquid-sheet thickness. The SBR of the H$$alpha$$ Balmer and Na-neutral lines was maximized for a sheet thickness of $$sim$$20 $$mu$$m at the laser energy of 100 mJ. The hydrodynamics of liquid flow induced by the laser pulse was analyzed by laser flash shadowgraph imaging. Time-resolved observation of the hydrodynamics and plasma emission suggests that the dependence of the SBR on the liquid-sheet thickness is correlated with the volume of flowing liquid that interacts with the laser pulses.

Journal Articles

Development of a fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for analysis of underwater debris in a nuclear reactor core

Saeki, Morihisa; Iwanade, Akio; Ito, Chikara; Wakaida, Ikuo; Thornton, B.*; Sakka, Tetsuo*; Oba, Hironori

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(7-8), p.930 - 938, 2014/07

 Times Cited Count:38 Percentile:1.68(Nuclear Science & Technology)

To inspect post-accident nuclear core reactor of the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, a transportable fiber-coupled LIBS instrument was developed. The developed LIBS instrument was designed to analyze the underwater sample in high-radiation field by single-pulse breakdown with gas flow or double-pulse breakdown. To check the feasibility of the assembled fiber-coupled LIBS instrument to the inspection inside Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we investigated (1) influence of radiation dose on optical transmittance of the laser delivery fiber, (2) survey of the LIBS techniques to analyze the underwater sample and (3) candidates of emission lines for analysis of the debris. By employing the selected emission lines, we demonstrated that the developed LIBS instrument can analyze the simulated debris underwater by the single-pulse breakdown with the gas flow with high signal to noise ratio.

Journal Articles

Development of radiation-resistant optical fiber for application to observation and laser spectroscopy under high radiation dose

Ito, Chikara; Naito, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oba, Hironori; Wakaida, Ikuo; Sugiyama, Akira; Chiyatani, Keiji

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 51(7-8), p.944 - 950, 2014/07

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:33.27(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, it is necessary to survey the locations and conditions of fuel debris inside reactor pressure vessels or primary containment vessels under water and radiation environment in preparation for removing fuel debris. An optical fiber is well known for features such as signal transmission, light weight, superior insulation performance, water resistance and electromagnetic noise resistance. These features allow the optical fiber to simplify the instrumentation systems for in-vessel inspection, as long as provide that the optical fiber can be used under high radiation dose environment. The radiation resistance of an optical fiber was improved by increasing the amount of hydroxyl up to 1000 ppm in pure silica fiber. The improved optical fibers were irradiated with $$gamma$$-ray up to 1 $$times$$ 10$$^{6}$$ Gy using a $$^{60}$$Co source. They indicated a large peak around 600 nm and a peak tail from ultraviolet region, but no large absorption in infrared region except a hydroxyl absorption peak of 945 nm. We have confirmed that the optical fiber containing 1000 ppm hydroxyl has enough radiation resistance for radiation induced transmission losses and the infrared imaging is effective for observation under high radiation doses.

Journal Articles

In-vessel inspection probing technique using optical fibers under high radiation dose

Ito, Chikara; Naito, Hiroyuki; Oba, Hironori; Saeki, Morihisa; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Akihiko; Wakaida, Ikuo; Sekine, Takashi

Proceedings of 22nd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-22) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2014/07

A high-radiation resistant optical fiber has been developed in order to investigate the interiors of the reactor pressure vessels and the primary containment vessels of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The radiation resistance of an optical fiber was improved by increasing the amount of hydroxyl up to 1000 ppm in pure silica fiber. The improved image fiber consists of common cladding and a large number of fiber cores made from pure silica that contains 1000 ppm hydroxyl. The transmissive rate of an infrared image was not affected after the irradiation of 1 MGy. We have developed the fiber-coupled LIBS system to detect plasma emission efficiently in near-infrared region. In addition, we have performed a $$gamma$$ ray dose rate measurement using an optical fiber of which scintillator is attached to the tip. As a result, the concept of applicability of a probing system using the high-radiation resistant optical fibers has been confirmed.

Journal Articles

Enhancement of LIBS emission using antenna-coupled microwave

Khumaeni, A.; Tampo, Motonobu; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi; Wakaida, Ikuo

Optics Express (Internet), 21(24), p.29755 - 29768, 2013/12

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:15(Optics)

Intensified microwave coupled by a loop antenna (diameter of 3 mm) has been employed to enhance the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emission. In this method, a laser plasma was induced on Gd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ sample at a reduced pressure by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 ns, 5 mJ) at a local point, at which electromagnetic field was produced by introducing microwave radiation using loop antenna. The plasma emission was significantly enhanced by absorbing the microwave radiation, resulting in high-temperature plasma and long-lifetime plasma emission. By using this method, the enhancement of Gd lines was up to 32 times, depending upon the emission lines observed. A linear calibration curve of Ca contained in the Gd$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ sample was made. The detection limit of Ca was approximately 2 mg/kg. This present method is very useful for identification of trace elements in nuclear fuel and radioactive materials.

265 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)