Wakui, Takashi; Ishii, Hideaki*; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakai, Eiichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Materials Transactions, 60(6), p.1026 - 1033, 2019/06
The mercury target has large size as 184.108.40.206 m. In view of reducing the amount of wastes, we studied the structure so that the fore part could be separated. The flange is required to have high seal performance less than 110 Pa m/s. Invar with low thermal expansion is a candidate. Due to its low stiffness, however, the flange may deform when it is fastened by bolts. Practically invar is reinforced with stainless steel where all interface between them has to be bonded completely with the HIP bonding. In this study, we made specimens at four temperatures and conducted tensile tests. The specimen bonded at 973 K had little diffusion layer, and so fractured at the interface. The tensile strength reduced with increasing the temperature, and the reduced amount was about 10% at 1473 K. The analyzed residual stresses near the interface increased by 50% at maximum. Then, we concluded that the optimum temperature was 1173 K.
Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Eiichi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Takada, Hiroshi
Advanced Experimental Mechanics, 3, p.123 - 128, 2018/08
A mercury target vessel, composed of SUS316L, is used for the pulsed neutron source and is assembled via TIG welding. While in operation, the target vessel suffers ca. 10 loading cycles with a high strain rate of ca. 50 s because of the proton-beam-induced pressure waves in mercury. The gigacycle fatigue strength for solution annealed SUS316L stainless steels and its welded specimens were investigated through ultrasonic fatigue tests. The experimental results showed that an obvious fatigue limit was not observed at fewer than 10 cycles for the base metal. In the case of no weld defects observed via penetration tests, the fatigue strength of the removed-weld-bead specimen, in which the weld lines were arranged at the center of the specimen, appeared to be slightly higher than that of the base metal. By contrast, as-welded specimens with the weld bead intact showed apparent degradation of the fatigue strength owing to the stress concentration around the weld toe.
Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 506, p.35 - 42, 2018/08
A mercury target vessel made of 316L SS is damaged due to the cavitation caused by the pressure waves in mercury. Cavitation damage reduces the structural integrity of the target front, called "beam window", being major factor to determine the lifetime of target vessel. Aiming at mitigating the cavitation damage by faster mercury flow in narrow channel, we employed a target vessel with a double-walled structure at the beam window along with a gas microbubbles injection. After operating the double-walled target vessel with a beam power of 300 to 500 kW, we cut out the beam window using an annular cutter to examine the damage inside it, and found that damages with maximum pit depth of approximately 25 m distributed in a belt on the specimen facing narrow channel. Furthermore, numerical simulation result showed that the distribution of negative pressure period from beam injection to 1 ms was correlated with the damage distribution in the narrow channel. It was suggested that the cavitation induced by relatively short negative pressure period contributed to the damage formation.
Kai, Tetsuya; Uchida, Toshitsugu; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Seki, Masakazu; Oi, Motoki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 1021(1), p.012042_1 - 012042_4, 2018/06
Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Takada, Hiroshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 55(2), p.160 - 168, 2018/02
The mercury target vessel used for the spallation neutron source in J-PARC has multi-walled structure made of stainless steel type 316L, which comprises a mercury vessel and a water shroud. In 2015, water leak incidents from the water shroud occurred while the mercury target was operated with a proton beam power of 500 kW. Several investigations were conducted to identify the cause of failure. The results of the visual inspections, mockup tests, and analytical evaluations suggested that the water leak was caused by the combination of two factors. One was the diffusion bonding failure due to the large thermal stress induced by welding of the bolt head, which fixes the mercury vessel and the water shroud, during the fabrication process. The other was the thermal fatigue failure of the seal weld due to the repetitive beam trip during the operating period. These target failures point to the importance of eliminating initial defects from welding lines and to secure the rigidity and reliability of welded structures. The next mercury target was fabricated with an improved design which adopted parts of monolithic structure machined by wire EDM to reduce welding lines, and intensified inspections to eliminate the initial defects. The operation with the improved target is planned to be started in October 2017.
Takada, Hiroshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Aso, Tomokazu; Meigo, Shinichiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Oi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; et al.
Quantum Beam Science (Internet), 1(2), p.8_1 - 8_26, 2017/09
At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), a pulsed spallation neutron source provides neutrons with high intensity and narrow pulse width to promote researches on a variety of science in the Materials and life science experimental facility. It was designed to be driven by the proton beam with an energy of 3 GeV, a power of 1 MW at a repetition rate of 25 Hz, that is world's highest power level. A mercury target and three types of liquid para-hydrogen moderators are core components of the spallation neutron source. It is still on the way towards the goal to accomplish the operation with a 1 MW proton beam. In this paper, distinctive features of the target-moderator-reflector system of the pulsed spallation neutron source are reviewed.
Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Wakui, Takashi; Harada, Masahide; Takada, Hiroshi
Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 54(7), p.733 - 741, 2017/07
A mercury target system has been operated to produce neutron beams at the spallation neutron source in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Pressure waves are generated in mercury by rapid heat generation at the time of high-intensity short-pulse proton beam injection. Not only they cause cyclic stress but also induce the cavitation damage on the target vessel made from type 316L stainless steel. Reduction of these pressure waves is very important issue to ensure enough lifetime of the target vessel. To solve the issue, we have been developing the technique to inject microbubbles into mercury. In this study, we installed a microbubble generator in the mercury target vessel, and investigate the effect of proton beam condition and the microbubbles on the pressure wave mitigation by measuring the displacement velocity of the target vessel with an in-situ diagnostic system. As a result, we observed that the peak displacement velocity of the target vessel decreased down to 1/3 and 2/3 for the injected gas fractions of 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively.
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu
Materials, 10(7), p.753_1 - 753_17, 2017/07
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu
Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 842(1), p.012010_1 - 012010_10, 2017/06
Shibata, Akira; Wakui, Takashi; Nakamura, Natsuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Katsuhiro*; Naka, Michihiro
Zairyo Shiken Gijutsu, 62(1), p.41 - 47, 2017/01
Nuclear reactor fuel cladding material has been gradually replaced from Zircaloy-4 to Zr-Nb alloys such as M5. To reveal the origin of good corrosion resistance of Zr-Nb alloys, evaluation on oxide layer of fuel cladding tube Zircaloy-4 and M5 was performed. Nano-indentation with spherical indenter was performed on oxide layer of those materials. Test results of the indentation were evaluated by the inverse analysis using Kalman filter and Finite Element Method. The results analysis shows that the oxide layer of M5 has more ductility compare from that of Zircaloy 4. Thus, oxide layer of Zircaloy4 could be injured by smaller strain compare from that of M5.
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi
JAEA-Conf 2015-002, p.76 - 87, 2016/02
High power accelerator driven pulsed spallation neutron sources are being developed in the world. Mercury is used as a target material to produce neutrons via the spallation reaction induced by injected protons. At the moment of the proton injection, the mercury vessel with a double wall structure is impulsively excited by the interaction between mercury and solid wall. The vibrational signals were measured in noncontact and remotely by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) system to evaluate the structure integrity. The extreme damages were assumed as the first step, i.e., the inner structure was partly broken by erosion. The dependency of vibrational behaviors on the damage was systematically investigated through numerical simulations and experiments. A LDV was installed to monitor the dependency of an electro-Magnetic Impact Testing Machine (MIMTM) vibration on the damage size. Through the numerical simulation, it was found that the target vessel vibration depends on the damage size. A technique referred to a Wavelet Differential Analysis (WDA) has been developed to enhance the effect of damages on the impulsive vibration behavior. However, the vibration signals obtained from MIMTM contain considerable noise. In order to reduce the noise effect on the impulsive vibration behavior, the statistical methods referred to an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied. Numerical simulation results that obtained from controlling the damage size, were firstly added to random noise with various levels manually, and then were analyzed by the statistic methods. Then, the field data that measured from the real mercury target was analyzed. The results represent that the combination of WDA and ANOVA/ANCOVA could effectively indicate the damage dependency.
Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takada, Hiroshi; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 468, p.313 - 320, 2016/01
Mercury target vessel in the JSNS, which is made of 316L SS, is damaged owing to the pressure wave-induced cavitation resulting from the proton beam bombardment. The cavitation damage decreases the structural integrity of the target vessel and is currently a dominant factor to decide the service life in compared with the radiation damage. Injecting microbubbles into mercury is one of the prospective techniques to mitigate the pressure waves and cavitation damage. In the JSNS, a microbubble generator with a gas circulation system was installed and has been operated since October 2012. The effects of microbubble injection into mercury on pressure wave mitigation were studied using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The result showed that the vibrational velocity of the target vessel is clearly reduced according to the increase of void fraction. An average peak vibrational velocity under 340 kW operation with the void fraction of 0.1% was reduced to 1/4 of that without injecting microbubbles.
Naoe, Takashi; Teshigawara, Makoto; Wakui, Takashi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 450(1-3), p.123 - 129, 2014/07
A JSNS mercury target vessel composed of type 316L stainless steel suffers radiation damage in the proton and neutron environment. In addition to this damage, the inner wall of the target vessel in contact with mercury is damaged as a result of the cavitation. The target vessel was replaced with a new target in November 2011, because the pneumatic bellows were damaged during the earthquake. Before replacing the target, disk specimens were cut from the beam window of the target vessel in order to investigate the cavitation damage inside the target vessel and to evaluate the change in the mechanical properties due to radiation damage. As a result, it was confirmed that flow-induced erosion damage was not observed on the flow guide. The cavitation damage was concentrated at the center and around both sides approximately 15 mm from the center of the beam window. Based on the detailed measurements, it was concluded that the eroded damage depth of the beam window was 250 m.
Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Katsuhiro*
Applied Mechanics and Materials, 566, p.629 - 636, 2014/06
A double-walled liquid mercury target vessel, which consists of outer and inner walls, is being globally developed for MW-class spallation neutron sources. When proton beams bombard a mercury target, pressure waves are generated due to the rapid thermal heat deposition. These pressure waves trigger impulsive vibrations in the mercury vessel, and cause cavitation damage to the inner wall of the vessel. In this study, the dependency of the vibration behavior of the mercury vessel on the damage is systematically investigated through numerical simulations and experiments, for inner wall damage characterized by hole diameters of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm. A method referred to as wavelet differential analysis is developed, and a parameter referred to as average intensity is derived for a quantitative damage evaluation. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results show that the average intensity is damage-sensitive and depends on the damage feature size. The critical damage hole diameter is estimated to be 10 mm during damage evaluation.
Wan, T.; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Maekawa, Katsuhiro*; Wan, T.*
Jikken Rikigaku, 13(4), p.387 - 394, 2013/12
The mercury target system is used for MW-scale neutron sources in the Japan Spallation Neutron Source. During this operation, cavitation damage is imposed on the mercury target vessel. It is very important to nondestructively evaluate the cavitation damage from the viewpoints of the structural integrity evaluation and lifetime estimation of the mercury target vessel. In this study, the cavitation damage was evaluated using a nonlinear ultrasonic method. First, the cavitation damage was imposed on plate specimens using an electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine with 108 impact cycles. Nonlinear ultrasonic imaging was used to evaluate the damage. We found that the damping factor and higher harmonics of reflected waveforms from the damaged area can be used to evaluate the damage. An effective cavitation damage evaluation process has been developed based on our results. The evaluation process successfully detected minimal cavitation damage with peak-to-peak roughness of about 25 m.
Sonoda, Tetsu*; Wada, Michiharu*; Tomita, Hideo*; Sakamoto, Chika*; Takatsuka, Takaaki*; Furukawa, Takeshi*; Iimura, Hideki; Ito, Yuta*; Kubo, Toshiyuki*; Matsuo, Yukari*; et al.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 295, p.1 - 10, 2013/01
no abstracts in English
Oi, Motoki; Teshigawara, Makoto; Wakui, Takashi; Nishi, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Masahide; Maekawa, Fujio; Futakawa, Masatoshi
Journal of Nuclear Materials, 431(1-3), p.218 - 223, 2012/12
The Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is developed as a 1 MW spallation neutron source. The Ag-In-Cd (AIC) alloy was adopted as a decoupler material for two decoupled moderators. A high decoupling energy at 1 eV was for the first time achieved in MW class spallation neutron source due to the adoption of the AIC alloy. Although the AIC decoupler is superior in the neutronic performance, it has a demerit in high residual radioactivity due to production of Ag-110m and Ag-108m. To overcome this demerit, Au-In-Cd alloy was proposed. We studied to make ternary Au-In-Cd alloy and successfully done it at the maximum temperature of 1123 K with diffusion of the cadmium into the gold. Uniformity of the alloy was confirmed with EDX analysis. Thermal conductivity of Au-In-Cd alloy was 87.7 W/m/K. These results show enough performance as a decoupler.
Teshigawara, Makoto; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Wakui, Takashi; Meigo, Shinichiro; Seki, Masakazu; Harada, Masahide; Ito, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru; Ikezaki, Kiyomi; Maekawa, Fujio; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2012-024, 303 Pages, 2012/07
3 GeV Protons with 1 MW beam power are irradiated to mercury target of spallation neutron source in Materials and Life science Facility (MLF), which is one of facilities of J-PARC. Irradiated components, such as target container, moderator, reflector and proton beam window, are needed to replace periodically due to irradiation damage of high energy protons and neutrons. These used components are replaced remotely because of highly activated. Maintenance scenario was settled so as to handle these components. Required remote handling machines were designed and installed in hot cell and other room of the MLF. We performed remote handling tests by using actual components to confirm the design. We report results, such as replacement procedure, trouble and its solution, etc., for moderator, reflector and proton beam window in order to provide the handling of actual used components.
Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Wakui, Takashi; Matsui, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Haga, Katsuhiro; Teshigawara, Makoto; Meigo, Shinichiro; Seki, Masakazu; Sakamoto, Shinichi; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2011-040, 154 Pages, 2012/03
In the MLF, relatively high level irradiated components will be generated. Therefore, these components can not be kept in standard facilities. For the irradiated components at the MLF, the storage plan using the facilities in the Nuclear Science Research Institute has been studied, but the concrete plan is not decided yet. In this report, outline of the components, prehistory of the studying for storage, schedule of the component generation and status of the possible facility, which is a hot laboratory, are described. Resulting from the comparison between the generation schedule and the plan of the hot laboratory, the difference is very large. Present status of the hot laboratory and the cost estimation of the modification to use for storage of the MLF components were studied. Using the hot laboratory seems not to have advantage from the view point of cost and modification method. Therefore, the study on a new storage facility construction will be started as soon as possible.
Sakai, Kenji; Sakamoto, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Seki, Masakazu; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Wakui, Takashi; Naoe, Takashi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Tatsumoto, Hideki; et al.
JAEA-Technology 2011-039, 121 Pages, 2012/03
This report investigates the behavior, damage and restoration of a neutron source station of the MLF at the Great East Japan Earthquake and verified the safety design for emergency accidents in the neutron source station. In the MLF, after an occurrence of the Earthquake, strong quakes were detected at the instruments, the external power supply was lost, all of the circulators shut down automatically, and the hydrogen gas was released. The leakages of mercury, hydrogen and radio-activation gases did not occur. While, the quakes made gaps between the shield blocks and ruptured external pipe lines by subsidence around the building. But significant damages to the components were not found though the pressure drop of compressed air lines influenced on a target trolley lock system and so on. These results substantiated the validity of the safety design for emergency accidents in the source station, and suggested several points of improvement.