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JAEA Reports

Development of mock-up test loop (IMMORTAL) for LBE spallation target

Obayashi, Hironari; Yamaki, Kenichi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Kita, Satoshi*; Wan, T.*; Sasa, Toshinobu

JAEA-Technology 2021-035, 66 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Technology-2021-035.pdf:4.26MB

Construction of Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is under planning in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) program to promote R&Ds on realization of transmutation technology by an accelerator driven system (ADS). As a facility of TEF, ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) will provide a spallation target to study target technology and perform post irradiation examination (PIE) of candidate materials of ADS. In ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy is used as a spallation target material and a core coolant. As is well known, LBE has corrosive to structural materials hence each component of the target system should provide compatibility with LBE. In addition, instrumentations for LBE are restricted by the target operation condition such as high temperature and irradiation environment. The devices for LBE have been developed individually to achieve the LBE target system. "Integrated Multi-functional MOckup for TEF-T Real-scale TArget Loop, IMMORTAL" was fabricated as a mock-up test loop of the target for the purpose of the integration testing of individually developed devices. This report describes an overview of IMMORTAL and the design of the installed devices.

JAEA Reports

Development of high temperature LBE corrosion test loop "OLLOCHI"

Saito, Shigeru; Wan, T.*; Okubo, Nariaki; Kita, Satoshi*; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

JAEA-Technology 2021-034, 94 Pages, 2022/03

JAEA-Technology-2021-034.pdf:5.91MB

Lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is a major candidate for a spallation target material and core coolant of an accelerator driven system (ADS) which has been developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to transmute high-level radioactive wastes. A proton irradiation facility to build a material irradiation database for future ADS development is under considering in the J-PARC. To realize both the ADS and the above-mentioned facility, there are many issues on operational safety of LBE to be solved. Especially, corrosion data for the major materials such as T91 (Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and SS316L at the temperature range between 400 and 550 $$^{circ}$$C under the conditions of flowing LBE with a controlled oxygen are not sufficient to design the ADS and the facility. JAEA developed a new large-scale corrosion test loop named "OLLOCHI (Oxygen-controlled LBE LOop for Corrosion tests in HIgh-temperature)" aiming to perform the compatibility tests between the LBE and the steels, as well as to develop the LBE operation technology. OLLOCHI has a function to automatically control the oxygen concentration in LBE. The maximum temperature at the regions of high-temperature and low-temperature of the OLLOCHI are 550 $$^{circ}$$C and 450 $$^{circ}$$C respectively to cover the ADS designed condition. As a result of 2,000 hours operation, it was demonstrated that the OLLOCHI showed the designed performance. In this report, outline of the OLLOCHI, details of the components, results of characteristic tests, and the future experimental plan are described.

Journal Articles

Track-structure modes in Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS); Application to radiobiological research

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Hirata, Yuho; Yoshii, Yuji*; Parisi, A.*; Liamsuwan, T.*

International Journal of Radiation Biology, 98(2), p.148 - 157, 2022/02

When investigating radiation-induced biological effects, it is essential to perform detailed track-structure simulations explicitly by considering each atomic interaction in liquid water (which is equivalent to human tissues) at sub-cellular and DNA scales. The Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) is a Monte Carlo code which can be used for track structure calculations by employing an original electron track-structure mode (etsmode) and the world-famous KURBUC algorithms (PHITS-KURBUC mode) for protons and carbon ions. In this study, the physical features (i.e., range, radial dose and microdosimetry) of these modes have been verified by comparing to the available experimental data and Monte Carlo simulation results reported in literature. In addition, applying the etsmode to radiobiological study, we estimated the yields of single-strand breaks (SSBs), double-strand breaks (DSBs) and complex DSBs, and evaluated the dependencies of DNA damage yields on incident electron energy. As a result, the simulations suggested that DNA damage types are intrinsically related with the spatial patterns of ionization and electronic excitations and that approximately 500 eV electron can cause much complex DSBs. In this paper, we show the development status of the PHITS track-structure modes and its application to radiobiological research, which would be expected to identify the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects based on physics.

Journal Articles

Status of LBE study and experimental plan at JAEA

Saito, Shigeru; Wan, T.*; Okubo, Nariaki; Obayashi, Hironari; Watanabe, Nao; Ohdaira, Naoya*; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yamaki, Kenichi*; Kita, Satoshi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011041_1 - 011041_6, 2021/03

An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for waste transmutation investigated in JAEA employs lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a neutron production target material and coolant. The neutrons are to be produced via the spallation with 1.5 GeV proton beam injection. As materials irradiation data are important for ADS development, JAEA plans to construct an irradiation facility with LBE neutron production target in J-PARC. There are many technical issues on LBE for practical use. In JAEA, various R&Ds are being carried out. Concerning corrosion study, conditioning operation and functional tests of OLLOCHI started. Oxygen concentration control technology has also developing. In the large scale LBE loop experiment, the operation for steady state and transient experiments was performed by using IMMORTAL. In the area of instrument, development of ultrasonic flow meter and freeze seal valve are progressing as a key technology for the LBE loop system. Investigation of behavior of impurities in LBE, which is important for design of the irradiation facility, started. In this paper, the status of the LBE studies and experimental plan will be presented.

Journal Articles

Remote handling technology for lead-bismuth spallation target system

Obayashi, Hironari; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; Kita, Satoshi*; Yamaki, Kenichi*; Wan, T.*; Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011048_1 - 011048_6, 2021/03

Journal Articles

Verification of KURBUC-based ion track structure mode for proton and carbon ions in the PHITS code

Matsuya, Yusuke; Kai, Takeshi; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Liamsuwan, T.*; Sasaki, Kohei*; Nikjoo, H.*

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 66(6), p.06NT02_1 - 06NT02_11, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:74.69(Engineering, Biomedical)

A general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation code, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), has the ability to handle diverse particle types over a wide range of energy. In PHITS version 3.20, ion track structure mode has been developed based on the algorithms in the KURBUC code, which enables to simulate the atomic interactions by primary ion and secondary particles (named as PHITS-KURBUC mode). In this study, we compared the range, radial dose distributions, and microdosimetric distributions calculated using the PHITS-KURBUC mode to the corresponding data obtained from the original KURBUC and from other studies. These comparative studies confirm the successful inclusion of the KURBUC code in the PHITS code. As results of the synergistic effect between the macroscopic and microscopic radiation transport codes, this implementation enabled the detailed calculation of the microdosimetric and nanodosimetric quantities under complex radiation fields, such as proton beam therapy with the spread-out Bragg peak. This PHITS-KURBUC mode is expected to pave the way for next-generation radiation researches, such as radiation physics, radiological protection, medical physics, and radiation biology.

Journal Articles

Current Status of R&D and PIE Program for ADS Material Development in JAEA

Saito, Shigeru; Okubo, Nariaki; Obayashi, Hironari; Wan, T.; Sugawara, Takanori; Sasa, Toshinobu; Maekawa, Fujio

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 28, p.071003_1 - 071003_6, 2020/02

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes transmutation of minor actinides (MA) by accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The ADS designed by JAEA is a system composed by LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) spallation target and a subcritical core. In the ADS, a beam window (BW) is exposed in complex field of heavy irradiation by proton/neutron and corrosion by flowing LBE. To develop ADS structural materials, it is of critical importance to investigate materials used in such environment. Thus, JAEA plans to construct a proton irradiation facility at the J-PARC to prepare an irradiation database for candidate ADS structural materials and to investigate irradiation effects in flowing LBE environment. In this paper, giving a whole scope of the JAEA ADS development, some results of experimental measurements and the specific program for planed R&D will be presented.

Journal Articles

Steady-state and transient experiments in mock-up of J-PARC LBE spallation target system using mock-up loop "IMMORTAL"

Obayashi, Hironari; Yamaki, Kenichi; Kita, Satoshi; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu; Wan, T.; Saito, Shigeru; Sasa, Toshinobu

Proceedings of 18th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-18) (USB Flash Drive), p.262 - 274, 2019/08

Construction of an experimental facility using LBE spallation target is under planning in the framework of J-PARC project to understand the compatibility of candidate ADS structural materials under flowing high temperature LBE environment with proton / neutron irradiation. We constructed a mock-up test loop, IMMORTAL to verify the feasibility of a primary cooling system in the target system. Including the layout considering remote maintainability, the same design as the actual JAEA's LBE target is reflected in most devices of IMMORTAL such as an electromagnetic pump (EMP), a heat exchanger and instrumentations. During the integrated tests, the individually developed devices of LBE loop system worked without significant malfunction. Several experimental data to verify the safety analysis model for LBE loop system using RELAP5-3D was acquired by simulation experiment of transient events such as beam over power and decrease of forced cooling.

Journal Articles

Numerical study on the potential of cavitation damage in a lead-bismuth eutectic spallation target

Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Materials, 12(4), p.681_1 - 681_15, 2019/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the LBE spallation target head in JAEA

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Nuclear Technology, 205(1-2), p.188 - 199, 2019/01

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Optimization of design of the LBE spallation target at JAEA

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Proceedings of 12th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-12) (USB Flash Drive), 14 Pages, 2018/10

Journal Articles

Flow-accelerated corrosion of type 316L stainless steel caused by turbulent lead-bismuth eutectic flow

Wan, T.; Saito, Shigeru

Metals, 8(8), p.627_1 - 627_22, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.06(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Design of LBE spallation target for ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) in J-PARC

Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Wan, T.; Okubo, Nariaki; Sugawara, Takanori; Endo, Shinya; Sasa, Toshinobu

Proceedings of 13th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Applications of Accelerators (AccApp '17) (Internet), p.448 - 457, 2018/05

JAEA proposes transmutation of minor actinides by accelerator-driven systems (ADS). To obtain the data for ADS design, JAEA plans to construct the ADS Target Test Facility (TEF-T) within the framework of the J-PARC project. In TEF-T, a 250 kW proton-beam-driven LBE (Lead-Bismuth Eutectic) spallation target will be installed to prepare an irradiation database for candidate ADS structural materials. Design activities of the LBE target and target trolley have been progressed. Conceptual design of hot-cells for LBE target loop maintenance and PIE (Post Irradiation Examination) of irradiated samples have been finished. Two LBE loops were manufactured. One is a loop for TEF-T target mock-up and the other is that for collection of material corrosion characteristics in flowing LBE. Oxygen potential control systems for LBE flow have been also developed. Remote handling tests for the target exchange are underway. In this paper, current activities and studies to realize TEF-T will be presented.

Journal Articles

Study on the thermal-hydraulic of TEF-T LBE spallation target in JAEA

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 13 Pages, 2017/09

Journal Articles

Experimental application of ultrasonic flowmeter for TEF-T LBE spallation target system

Obayashi, Hironari; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Wan, T.; Sasa, Toshinobu

Proceedings of 17th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/09

Journal Articles

Effects of grain size on ultrasonic attenuation in type 316L stainless steel

Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Materials, 10(7), p.753_1 - 753_17, 2017/07

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:59.14(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Study on the evaluation of erosion damage by using laser ultrasonic integrated with a wavelet analysis technique

Wan, T.; Naoe, Takashi; Wakui, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 842(1), p.012010_1 - 012010_10, 2017/06

BB2017-0418.pdf:0.95MB

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:91.4

Journal Articles

Design of 250kW LBE spallation target for the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

Sasa, Toshinobu; Saito, Shigeru; Obayashi, Hironari; Sugawara, Takanori; Wan, T.; Yamaguchi, Kazushi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu

NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.111 - 116, 2017/06

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) proposes to reduce the environmental impact caused from high-level radioactive waste by using Accelerator-driven system (ADS). To realize ADS, JAEA plans to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) within the framework of J-PARC project. For the JAEA-proposed ADS, lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is adopted as a coolant for subcritical core and spallation target. By using TEF in J-PARC, we are planning to solve technical difficulties for LBE utilization by completion of the data for the design of ADS. The 250kW LBE spallation target will be located in TEF facility to prepare material irradiation database. Various R&Ds for important technologies required to build the facilities are investigated such as oxygen content control, instruments development, remote handling techniques for target maintenance, and spallation target design. The large scale LBE loops for 250kW target mock up and material corrosion studies are also manufactured and ready for various experiments. The latest status of 250kW LBE spallation target optimization will be described in the presentation.

Journal Articles

Study on optimisation of target head design for the TEF-T LBE spallation target

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

NEA/CSNI/R(2017)2 (Internet), p.117 - 127, 2017/06

Journal Articles

Evaluation of globally- & locally-distributed erosion/cavitation damage by using laser ultrasonics

Wan, T.; Obayashi, Hironari; Sasa, Toshinobu

Kashika Joho Gakkai-Shi (USB Flash Drive), 36(Suppl.2), 8 Pages, 2016/10

42 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)