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Journal Articles

Cryogenic sample environments shared at the MLF, J-PARC

Kawamura, Seiko; Takahashi, Ryuta*; Ishikado, Motoyuki*; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro*; Nakamura, Masatoshi*; Ouchi, Keiichi*; Kira, Hiroshi*; Kambara, Wataru*; Aoyama, Kazuhiro*; Sakaguchi, Yoshifumi*; et al.

Journal of Neutron Research, 21(1-2), p.17 - 22, 2019/05

The Cryogenics and Magnets group in the Sample Environment team is responsible for operation of cryostats and magnets for user's experiments at the MLF in J-PARC. We have introduced a top-loading $$^4$$He cryostat, a bottom-loading $$^3$$He cryostat, a dilution refrigerator insert and a superconducting magnet. The frequency of use of them dramatically becomes higher in these two years, as the beam power and the number of proposal increase. To respond such situation, we have made efforts to enhance performance of these equipment as follows. The $$^3$$He cryostat originally involves an operation software for automatic initial cooling down to the base temperature and automatic re-charge of $$^3$$He. Recently we made an additional program for automatic temperature control with only the sorb heater. Last year, a new outer vacuum chamber of the magnet with an oscillating radial collimator (ORC) was fabricated. The data quality was drastically improved by introducing this ORC so that the magnet can be used even for the inelastic neutron scattering experiments.

Journal Articles

Examination of evaluation method for fault activity based on morphological observation of fault planes

Tanaka, Yoshihiro*; Kametaka, Masao*; Okazaki, Kazuhiko*; Suzuki, Kazushige*; Seshimo, Kazuyoshi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Koji; Watanabe, Takahiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

Oyo Chishitsu, 59(1), p.13 - 27, 2018/04

This paper aims to develop a methodology for understanding the fault activity by observing exposed fault planes without covering younger strata. Based on purpose, faults developed in relatively homogeneous rocks such granitic types are investigated as follows; Gosuke Dam upstream outcrop of Gosukebashi Fault and Funasaka-nishi outcrop of Rokkou Fault were selected for the study of an active fault; and K-3 outcrop of Rokkou Houraikyo Fault was chosen for a non-active fault.

JAEA Reports

Preliminary missions for the decommissioning of the laboratory building No.1 for the plutonium research program

Segawa, Yukari; Horita, Takuma; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Kumagai, Yuta; Aoyagi, Noboru; Nakada, Masami; Otobe, Haruyoshi; Tamura, Yukito*; Okamoto, Hisato; Otomo, Takashi; et al.

JAEA-Technology 2016-039, 64 Pages, 2017/03

JAEA-Technology-2016-039.pdf:5.24MB

The laboratory building No.1 for the plutonium research program (Bldg. Pu1) was chosen as one of the facilities to decommission by Japan Atomic Energy Agency Reform in September, 2013. The research groups, users of Bldg. Pu1, were driven by necessity to remove used equipment and transport nuclear fuel to other facilities from Bldg. Pu1. Research Group for Radiochemistry proactively established the Used Equipment Removal Team for the smooth operation of the removal in April, 2015. The team classified six types of work into the nature of the operation, removal of used equipment, disposal of chemicals, stabilization of mercury, stabilization of nuclear fuel, transportation of nuclear fuel and radioisotope, and survey of contamination status inside the glove boxes. These works were completed in December, 2015. This report circumstantially shows six works process, with the exception of the approval of the changes on the usage of nuclear fuel in Bldg. Pu1 to help prospective decommission.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of dark current profile for prediction of voltage holding capability on multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for ITER

Nishikiori, Ryo; Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Naotaka; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Hiratsuka, Junichi; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 11, p.2401014_1 - 2401014_4, 2016/03

One of critical issues for high-energy high-current beam acceleration in ITER and JT-60SA is the high voltage holding which is dominated by vacuum discharges. The past results suggest that vacuum discharge occurs beyond the threshold of the dark current. The dark current can be derived from F-N theory where electric field enhancement factor beta is included. Though, beta could only be evaluated from the experiment previously. Therefore, the method to decide beta without experiment is required. This time dark currents were measured at three different areas to compare beta in different electric field. As a result, the effective electric field $$beta$$E, where E is average electric field, were found to be almost constant for different areas although the beta is largely different. By applying $$beta$$E, beta can be evaluated analytically, leading to the analytical prediction of the dark current and voltage holding capability without the measurements.

Journal Articles

Progress report of Japanese simulation research projects using the high-performance computer system Helios in the International Fusion Energy Research Centre

Ishizawa, Akihiro*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imadera, Kenji*; Kasuya, Naohiro*; Kanno, Ryutaro*; Satake, Shinsuke*; Tatsuno, Tomoya*; Nakata, Motoki*; Nunami, Masanori*; Maeyama, Shinya*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 92(3), p.157 - 210, 2016/03

The high-performance computer system Helios which is located at The Computational Simulation Centre (CSC) in The International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) started its operation in January 2012 under the Broader Approach (BA) agreement between Japan and the EU. The Helios system has been used for magnetised fusion related simulation studies in the EU and Japan and has kept high average usage rate. As a result, the Helios system has contributed to many research products in a wide range of research areas from core plasma physics to reactor material and reactor engineering. This project review gives a short catalogue of domestic simulation research projects. First, we outline the IFERC-CSC project. After that, shown are objectives of the research projects, numerical schemes used in simulation codes, obtained results and necessary computations in future.

Journal Articles

Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji*; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B137_1 - 02B137_3, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:87.63(Instruments & Instrumentation)

To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of 16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

Journal Articles

Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

Yoshida, Masafumi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi*; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B144_1 - 02B144_4, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:66.11(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Time evolution of spatial profile of negative ion production during an initial conditioning phase has been experimentally investigated in the JT-60 negative ion source. Up to 0.4 g Cs injection, there is no enhancement of the negative ion production and no observation of the Cs emission signal in the source, suggesting the injected Cs is mainly deposited on the water-cooled wall near the nozzle. After 0.4 g Cs injection, enhancement of the negative ion production appeared only at the central segment of the PG. The calculation of the Cs neutral/ion trajectories implied that a part of Cs was ionized near the nozzle and was transported to this area. The expansion of the area of the surface production was saturated after ~2 g Cs injection corresponding to 6000 s discharge time. From the results, it is found that Cs ionization and its transport plays an important role for the negative ion production.

Journal Articles

Development of design technique for vacuum insulation in large size multi-aperture multi-grid accelerator for nuclear fusion

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B304_1 - 02B304_5, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:66.11(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Optimization techniques of the vacuum insulation design have been developed in order to realize a reliable voltage holding capability of Multi-Aperture Multi-Grid accelerators for giant negative ion sources for nuclear fusion. In this method, the nested multilayer configuration of each acceleration stage in the MAMuG accelerator can be uniquely designed to satisfy the target voltage within given boundary conditions. The evaluation of the voltage holding capabilities of each acceleration stages were based on the past experimental results of the area effect and the multi-aperture effect on the voltage holding capability. Moreover, total voltage holding capability of multi-stage was estimated by taking the multi-stage effect into account, which was experimentally obtained in this time. In this experiment, the multi-stage effect appeared as the superposition of breakdown probabilities in each acceleration stage, which suggested that multi-stage effect can be considered as the voltage holding capability of the single acceleration gap having the total area and aperture. The analysis on the MAMuG accelerator for JT-60SA agreed with the past gap-scan experiments with an accuracy of less than 10% variation.

Journal Articles

Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Nishikiori, Ryo; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; et al.

Review of Scientific Instruments, 87(2), p.02B322_1 - 02B322_4, 2016/02

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:49.14(Instruments & Instrumentation)

In International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60 SA), the D$$^{-}$$ ion beams of 1 MeV, 40 A and 0.5 MeV, 22 A are required to produce 3600 s and 100 s for the neutral beam injection, respectively. In order to realize such as powerful D$$^{-}$$ ion beams for long duration time, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has energetically developed cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion sources (CsNIS) and electro-static multi-aperture and multi-stage accelerators (MAMuG accelerator) which are chosen as the reference design of ITER and JT-60 SA. In the development of the CsNIS, a 100s production of the H$$^{-}$$ ion beam has been demonstrated with a beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. At the higher current, the long pulse production of the negative ions has been tried by the mitigation of the arcing in the plasma inside the ion source. As for the long pulse acceleration of the negative ions in the MAMuG accelerator, the beam steering angle has been controlled to reduce the power loading of the acceleration grids A pulse duration time has been significantly extended from 0.4 s to 60 s at reasonable beam power for ITER requirement. The achieved pulse duration time is limited by the capacity of the power supplies in the test stand. In the range of $$<$$ 60 s, there are no degradations of beam optics and voltage holding capability in the accelerator. It leads to the further extension of the pulse duration time at higher power density. This paper reports the latest results of development on the negative ion source and accelerator at JAEA.

Journal Articles

Influence of linear energy transfer on the scintillation decay behavior in a lithium glass scintillator

Koshimizu, Masanori*; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kimura, Atsushi; Yanagida, Takayuki*; Fujimoto, Yutaka*; Watanabe, Kenichi*; Asai, Keisuke*

Journal of Luminescence, 169(Part B), p.678 - 681, 2016/01

We analyzed the effects of linear energy transfer (LET) on the scintillation properties of a Li glass scintillator, GS20. The scintillation time profiles were measured by using pulsed ion beams having different LETs. The rise in the scintillation time profiles was faster for higher LET, whereas the decay part was not significantly different for largely different LETs. The LET effects in the rise was ascribed to the effects of excited states interaction during the energy transfer process from the host glass to the luminescent centers, Ce$$^{3+}$$ ions. Supposing that the light yield decreases with LET, the fast rise at high LET was explained in terms of the competition between the energy transfer and the quenching due to the excited states interaction.

Journal Articles

Operational experience of CW SRF injector and main linac cryomodules at the Compact ERL

Sakai, Hiroshi*; Enami, Kazuhiro*; Furuya, Takaaki*; Kako, Eiji*; Kondo, Yoshinari*; Michizono, Shinichiro*; Miura, Takako*; Qiu, F.*; Sato, Masato*; Shinoe, Kenji*; et al.

Proceedings of 56th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL 2015) (Internet), p.63 - 66, 2015/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Preparation and evaluation of an astatine-211-labeled sigma receptor ligand for $$alpha$$ radionuclide therapy

Ogawa, Kazuma*; Mizuno, Yoshiaki*; Washiyama, Koshin*; Shiba, Kazuhiro*; Takahashi, Naruto*; Kozaka, Takashi*; Watanabe, Shigeki; Shinohara, Atsushi*; Odani, Akira*

Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 42(11), p.875 - 879, 2015/11

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:28.5(Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging)

Journal Articles

Progress in long-pulse production of powerful negative ion beams for JT-60SA and ITER

Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Komata, Masao; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 55(6), p.063006_1 - 063006_9, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:8.67(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Significant progresses in the extension of pulse durations of powerful negative ion beams have been made to realize the neutral beam injectors for JT-60SA and ITER. In order to overcome common issues of the long pulse production/acceleration of negative ion beams in JT-60SA and ITER, the new technologies have been developed in the JT-60SA ion source and the MeV accelerator in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. As for the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA ion source, the pulse durations have been successfully increased from 30 s at 13 A on JT-60U to 100 s at 15 A by modifying the JT-60SA ion source, which satisfies the required pulse duration of 100 s and 70% of the rated beam current for JT-60SA. This progress was based on the R&D efforts for the temperature control of the plasma grid and uniform negative ion productions with the modified tent-shaped filter field configuration. Moreover, the each parameter of the required beam energy, current and pulse has been achieved individually by these R&D efforts. The developed techniques are useful to design the ITER ion source because the sustainment of the cesium coverage in large extraction area is one of the common issues between JT-60SA and ITER. As for the long pulse acceleration of high power density beams in the MeV accelerator for ITER, the pulse duration of MeV-class negative ion beams has been extended by more than 2 orders of magnitude by modifying the extraction grid with a high cooling capability and a high-transmission of negative ions. A long pulse acceleration of 60 s has been achieved at 70 MW/m$$^{2}$$ (683 keV, 100 A/m$$^{2}$$) which has reached to the power density of JT-60SA level of 65 MW/m$$^{2}$$.

Journal Articles

Water experiments on thermal striping in reactor vessel of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor; Countermeasures for significant temperature fluctuation generation

Kobayashi, Jun; Ezure, Toshiki; Kamide, Hideki; Oyama, Kazuhiro*; Watanabe, Osamu*

Proceedings of 23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-23) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2015/05

A column type upper internal structure (UIS) is installed in the upper plenum of reactor vessel in JSFR. High cycle thermal fatigue may occur at the bottom plate (CIP) of the UIS where the hot sodium from the fuel subassembly can mix with the cold sodium from the control rod channel and the blanket fuel subassembly. We have been conducted a water experiment using a reactor upper plenum model to grasp the thermal-hydraulic phenomena around control rod (CR) channels, and to obtain countermeasures for significant temperature fluctuation on the CIP. The experimental apparatus has 1/3 scale and 60$$^{circ}$$ sector model of the reactor upper plenum. By the experiment, characteristics of fluid temperature fluctuation between the handling head of the assemblies and the CIP are measured and countermeasure for the significant temperature fluctuation generation will be discussed on the influence of the distance from the handling head outlet to the lower surface of the CIP.

Journal Articles

Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Umeda, Naotaka; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*; NB Heating Technology Group

AIP Conference Proceedings 1655, p.060002_1 - 060002_10, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:14.87

In this paper, the recent activities on the new test stand are reported toward demonstration of the long pulse production for 22A, 100s negative ion beams. As for the temperature control of the plasma grid, a prototype of the grid with cooling/heating by circulating a high-temperature fluorinated fluid has been improved to cover the full extraction area by using 5 segments of the PG. These grids were found to have a capability to control the temperature with a time constant of 10s as well as the prototype grid. As a result, 15A negative ion beams for 100s have been achieved.

Journal Articles

Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H$$^{-}$$ ion beam for ITER

Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Dairaku, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Hanada, Masaya

AIP Conference Proceedings 1655, p.050001_1 - 050001_10, 2015/04

For ITER neutral beam system, negative deuterium ion beam of 1 MeV, 40 A (current density of 200 A/m$$^{2}$$) is required for 3600 s. To demonstrate ITER relevant negative ion beam acceleration, beam acceleration test has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA. The present target is H$$^{-}$$ ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m$$^{2}$$ for 60 s, which beam energy and pulse length are the present facility limit. To extend pulse duration time up to facility limit at high power density beam, new extraction grid has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel. In addition, the aperture size of the electron suppression grid is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm and the aperture displacement is modified to reduce collision of negative ion beam on the grid. By these modifications, total grid power loading has reduced from 14% to 11%. As a result, beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 700 kV, 100 A/m$$^{2}$$ of negative ion beam without breakdown.

Journal Articles

Non-linear dependence of deflection angle on beam steering control grid displacement in accelerator for N-NBI

Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Umeda, Naotaka; Kojima, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Masafumi

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 10(Sp.2), p.3405045_1 - 3405045_4, 2015/04

To produce high current density ($$>$$ 200 A/m$$^{2}$$), high-energy ($$>$$ 1 MeV) negative ion beams for long pulse duration time (1 hour) for International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the suppression of the direct interception of the negative ions with the grids has been carefully investigated with studying the deflection angle by aperture displacement technique. The non-linear dependence of the deflection angle appears at the aperture diameter of $$>$$ 14 mm on a steering control grid (SCG). From this dependence, the aperture diameter and the offset distance of the SCG has been designed to be 16 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively and tested in a prototype accelerator for ITER. Each of the beamlets on the multiple apertures is properly steered with compensation of the deflection due to the residual magnetic field in the accelerator and the grid power loading was significantly reduced. It resulted in a 10% enhancement of the accelerated beam current.

Journal Articles

Development of an evaluation methodology for the natural circulation decay heat removal system in a sodium cooled fast reactor

Watanabe, Osamu*; Oyama, Kazuhiro*; Endo, Junji*; Doda, Norihiro; Ono, Ayako; Kamide, Hideki; Murakami, Takahiro*; Eguchi, Yuzuru*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(9), p.1102 - 1121, 2015/03

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:38.86(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A natural circulation (NC) evaluation methodology has been developed to ensure the safety of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) of 1500MW adopting the NC decay heat removal system (DHRS). The methodology consists of a 1D safety analysis which can evaluate the core hot spot temperature taking into account the temperature flattening effect in the core, a 3D fluid flow analysis which can evaluate the thermal-hydraulics for local convections and thermal stratifications in the primary system and DHRS, and a statistical safety evaluation method. The safety analysis method and the 3D analysis method have been validated using results of a 1/10 scaled water test simulating the primary system of the SFR and a 1/7 scaled sodium test simulating the primary system and the DHRS, and the applicability of the safety analysis for the SFR has been confirmed by comparing with the 3D analysis. Finally, a statistical safety evaluation has been performed for the SFR using the safety analysis method.

JAEA Reports

Measurement of pure water resistivity in a high temperature region

Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Maejima, Tetsuya; Terunuma, Yuto; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya

JAEA-Technology 2014-037, 12 Pages, 2014/12

JAEA-Technology-2014-037.pdf:4.27MB

Resistivity of a high temperature pure water has been measured up to 180$$^{circ}$$C which is the maximum water temperature in the ITER Neutral Beam Injector. The resistivity of the pure water is decreased by increasing the water temperature. It was found that even different resistivity water of 9 M$$Omega$$cm and 5 M$$Omega$$cm showed almost the same resistivity at the higher temperature region of 100$$^{circ}$$C. The resistivity of 0.36 M$$Omega$$cm was measured at the temperature of 180$$^{circ}$$C. This resistivity agreed well to the calculated value for the theoretical pure water.

Journal Articles

100s extraction of negative ion beams by using actively temperature-controlled plasma grid

Kojima, Atsushi; Hanada, Masaya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Umeda, Naotaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Grisham, L. R.*

Review of Scientific Instruments, 85(2), p.02B312_1 - 02B312_5, 2014/02

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:47.61(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The negative ion source for JT-60SA is designed to produce high power and long pulse beams with a beam energy of 500 keV, a negative ion current of 22A and a pulse duration of 100s. One of the key issues toward long pulse production of such high-current beams is the control of the surface temperature on the plasma grid (PG) where cesium is layered. In order to optimize cesium layer on PG for long pulse duration, we have developed an actively cooled PG where fluorinated fluids having high boiling point of 270$$^{circ}$$C is circulated. While the surface temperature of the PG in the JT-60 negative ion source has been kept at 170$$^{circ}$$C for 100s with ramp-up time of 7s, stable long pulse beam extractions of 100s have been obtained. This current density is 90% of the required current density for JT-60 SA. The further increase of the current density is expected by optimizing the arc discharge power.

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