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Journal Articles

Late-Holocene salinity changes in Lake Ogawara, Pacific coast of northeast Japan, related to sea-level fall inferred from sedimentary geochemical signatures

Nara, Fumiko*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Yamasaki, Shinichi*; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi*; Seto, Koji*; Yamada, Kazuyoshi*; Yasuda, Yoshinori*

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 592, p.110907_1 - 110907_11, 2022/04

Radiocarbon dating, tephrochronology, and geochemical signatures such as bromine (Br), iodine (I), total sulfur (TS), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN) in a continuous sediment core (OG12-2) were applied to estimate past salinity change on the Lake Ogawara, Pacific coast of northeast Japan. Since the Lake Ogawara was the inner bay of the Pacific Ocean and became the brackish lake in the late Holocene, clarifying the past salinity change on the lake Ogawara could give us important insight into the past sea level changes of the Pacific Ocean. The core OG12-2 has two tephra layers, the Towada eruption and the Changbaishan eruption (B-Tm: AD 946). The age model for the core OG12-2 was established using the radiocarbon measurements of the plant residues in the core, also was constrained by the B-Tm tephra. Depletions of marine-derived elements (Br, I, and TS), from 88.4 to 64.2 mg/kg, 20.0 to 14.1 mg/kg, and 3.1 to 1.1 mass %, respectively, were observed in the layers with 2200-2000 cal BP. These results indicate paleosalinity changes from saline (inner bay) to brackish conditions within Lake Ogawara caused by sea level fluctuations during the late Holocene.

Journal Articles

Theoretical study of deuteron-induced reactions in the nuclear data field

Nakayama, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Osamu; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*

Few-Body Systems, 63(1), p.4_1 - 4_6, 2022/03

Intensive neutron sources using deuteron accelerators have been proposed for not only science and engineering fields but also medical applications. For the engineering design of such facilities, accurate and comprehensive nuclear data of deuteron-induced reactions are indispensable. However, it is difficult to meet the requirement by employing experimental data alone. Thus, theoretical model calculations play a key role in completing the necessary nuclear data by interpolation and extrapolation of experimental data. Under the above situations, we have been developing a code system dedicated for deuteron-induced reactions, called DEURACS. In the present work, calculations using DEURACS are compared with available experimental data and validation of the present modelling in DEURACS is discussed. Moreover, the importance of consideration of the breakup processes for accurate prediction of deuteron-induced reactions is also presented.

Journal Articles

Improving the safety of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor "HTTR" based on Japan's new regulatory requirements

Hamamoto, Shimpei; Shimizu, Atsushi; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Homma, Fumitaka; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Sekita, Kenji; Watanabe, Shuji; Furusawa, Takayuki; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; et al.

Nuclear Engineering and Design, 388, p.111642_1 - 111642_11, 2022/03

Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency adapted High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to meet the new regulatory requirements that began in December 2013. The safety and seismic classifications of the existing structures, systems, and components were discussed to reflect insights regarding High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) that were acquired through various HTTR safety tests. Structures, systems, and components that are subject to protection have been defined, and countermeasures to manage internal and external hazards that affect safety functions have been strengthened. Additionally, measures are in place to control accidents that may cause large amounts of radioactive material to be released, as a beyond design based accident. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission rigorously and appropriately reviewed this approach for compliance with the new regulatory requirements. After nine amendments, the application to modify the HTTR's installation license that was submitted in November 2014 was approved in June 2020. This response shows that facilities can reasonably be designed to meet the enhanced regulatory requirements, if they reflect the characteristics of HTGRs. We believe that we have established a reference for future development of HTGR.

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY2020

Nakada, Akira; Nakano, Masanao; Kanai, Katsuta; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Futagawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Ryohei; Uchiyama, Rei; et al.

JAEA-Review 2021-062, 163 Pages, 2022/02

JAEA-Review-2021-062.pdf:2.87MB

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2020 to March 2021. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Design and actual performance of J-PARC 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron for high-intensity operation

Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hayashi, Naoki; Saha, P. K.; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Tani, Norio; Takayanagi, Tomohiro; Kamiya, Junichiro; Shobuda, Yoshihiro; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 32 Pages, 2022/02

In the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, the purpose of the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is to accelerate a 1 MW, high-intensity proton beam. To achieve beam operation at a repetition rate of 25 Hz at high intensities, the RCS was elaborately designed. After starting the RCS operation, we carefully verified the validity of its design and made certain improvements to establish a reliable operation at higher power as possible. Consequently, we demonstrated beam operation at a high power, namely, 1 MW. We then summarized the design, actual performance, and improvements of the RCS to achieve a 1 MW beam.

Journal Articles

Age-hardening mechanisms of heterogeneous-nanostructured SUS316LN stainless steel fabricated by heavy cold rolling

Miura, Hiromi*; Watanabe, Chihiro*; Aoyagi, Yoshiteru*; Oba, Yojiro; Kobayashi, Masakazu*; Yoshinaga, Naoki*

Materials Science & Engineering A, 833, p.142531_1 - 142531_12, 2022/01

Journal Articles

Measurement of nuclide production cross sections for proton-induced reactions on Mn and Co at 1.3, 2.2, and 3.0 GeV

Takeshita, Hayato*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki*; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Maekawa, Fujio

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 511, p.30 - 41, 2022/01

Nuclide production cross sections for proton-induced reactions on Mn and Co at incident energies of 1.3, 2.2, and 3.0 GeV were measured by the activation method at the J-PARC. In total, 143 production cross sections of reaction products were obtained. Among them, the cross sections of $$^{55}$$Mn(p,X)$$^{38}$$S and $$^{55}$$Mn(p,X)$$^{41}$$Ar were measured for the first time. The stable proton beam and well established beam monitoring system contributed to the reduction of the systematic uncertainties to typically less than 5%, which was better than those of the previous data. To examine the prediction capabilities of spallation reaction models and evaluated data library, the measured data were compared with the spallation reaction models in PHITS (INCL4.6/GEM, etc.), INCL++/ABLA07, and the JENDL/HE-2007 library. The comparison of the mean square deviation factors indicated that both INCL4.6/GEM and JENDL/HE-2007 showed better agreement with the measured data than the others.

Journal Articles

The Kinetics and mechanism of H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ decomposition at the U$$_{3}$$O$$_{8}$$ surface in bicarbonate solution

McGrady, J.; Kumagai, Yuta; Watanabe, Masayuki; Kirishima, Akira*; Akiyama, Daisuke*; Kitamura, Akira; Kimuro, Shingo

RSC Advances (Internet), 11(46), p.28940 - 28948, 2021/08

 Times Cited Count:0

Journal Articles

JENDL/DEU-2020; Deuteron nuclear data library for design studies of accelerator-based neutron sources

Nakayama, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Osamu; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(7), p.805 - 821, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Intensive fast neutron sources using deuteron accelerators have been proposed for various applications. To contribute to the design study of such neutron sources, a deuteron nuclear data library for $$^{6,7}$$Li, $$^{9}$$Be, and $$^{12,13}$$C up to 200 MeV, JENDL/DEU-2020 is developed. The evaluation of JENDL/DEU-2020 are performed by employing the code system DEURACS with particular attention to neutron production data. Toward the evaluation of JENDL/DEU-2020, some modifications are made to DEURACS. The validation of the library is performed though simulation with the Monte Carlo transport calculation codes. From the simulation, it is shown that the calculation results based on JENDL/DEU-2020 reproduce the measured neutron production data well in the incident energies up to 200 MeV. The new library is expected to make a large contribution to diverse design studies of deuteron accelerator neutron sources.

JAEA Reports

Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project, Annual report for fiscal year 2019

Takeuchi, Ryuji; Onoe, Hironori; Murakami, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yusuke; Mikake, Shinichiro; Ikeda, Koki; Iyatomi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuhisa*; Sasao, Eiji

JAEA-Review 2021-003, 63 Pages, 2021/06

JAEA-Review-2021-003.pdf:12.67MB

The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to enhance the reliability of geological disposal technologies through investigations of the deep geological environment in the crystalline rock (granite) at Mizunami City, Gifu Prefecture, central Japan. On the occasion of JAEA reformation in FY2014, JAEA identified three remaining important issues on the geoscientific research program based on the synthesized latest results of research and development (R&D): "Development of countermeasure technologies for reducing groundwater inflow", "Development of modeling technologies for mass transport" and "Development of drift backfilling technologies". At the MIU, the R&D are being pursued with a focus on the remaining important issues from FY2015, and satisfactory results have been achieved. Based on this situation, the R&D on the MIU Project were completed at the end of FY2019. In this report, the results of R&D and construction activities of the MIU Project in FY2019 are summarized.

Journal Articles

Nuclide production cross sections of Ni and Zr irradiated with 0.4-, 1.3-, 2.2-, and 3.0-GeV protons

Takeshita, Hayato; Meigo, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hiroki; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Maekawa, Fujio; Watanabe, Yukinobu*

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011045_1 - 011045_6, 2021/03

To improve accuracy of nuclear design of accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems, nuclide production cross sections on Ni and Zr, which were candidate materials to be used in ADS, were measured for GeV energy protons. The measured results were compared with PHITS calculations and JENDL/HE-2007.

Journal Articles

Status of LBE study and experimental plan at JAEA

Saito, Shigeru; Wan, T.*; Okubo, Nariaki; Obayashi, Hironari; Watanabe, Nao; Ohdaira, Naoya*; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yamaki, Kenichi*; Kita, Satoshi*; Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu*; et al.

JPS Conference Proceedings (Internet), 33, p.011041_1 - 011041_6, 2021/03

An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for waste transmutation investigated in JAEA employs lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a neutron production target material and coolant. The neutrons are to be produced via the spallation with 1.5 GeV proton beam injection. As materials irradiation data are important for ADS development, JAEA plans to construct an irradiation facility with LBE neutron production target in J-PARC. There are many technical issues on LBE for practical use. In JAEA, various R&Ds are being carried out. Concerning corrosion study, conditioning operation and functional tests of OLLOCHI started. Oxygen concentration control technology has also developing. In the large scale LBE loop experiment, the operation for steady state and transient experiments was performed by using IMMORTAL. In the area of instrument, development of ultrasonic flow meter and freeze seal valve are progressing as a key technology for the LBE loop system. Investigation of behavior of impurities in LBE, which is important for design of the irradiation facility, started. In this paper, the status of the LBE studies and experimental plan will be presented.

Journal Articles

The Chemistry of uranium (II); Method and practice

Sato, Nobuaki*; Kirishima, Akira*; Watanabe, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takayuki*; Uehara, Akihiro*; Takeda, Shino*

Uran No Kagaku (II); Hoho To Jissen, 143 Pages, 2021/03

This book describes necessary facts when readers would have an opportunity to treat Uranium for experiments. In the content, the method section shows experimental facilities and equipment including method, and the practical section mentions solution and solid state experiments using Uranium and/or radioisotopes.

JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY2019

Nakano, Masanao; Fujii, Tomoko; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Hosomi, Kenji; Nagaoka, Mika; Yokoyama, Hiroya; Matsubara, Natsumi; et al.

JAEA-Review 2020-069, 163 Pages, 2021/02

JAEA-Review-2020-069.pdf:4.78MB

Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2019 to March 2020. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Measurement of double-differential thick-target neutron yields of the C($$d,n$$) reaction at 12, 20, and 30 MeV

Patwary, M. K. A*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Aoki, Katsumi*; Yoshinami, Kosuke*; Yamaguchi, Masaya*; Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Nozomi*; Asai, Masato; Sato, Tetsuya; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 58(2), p.252 - 258, 2021/02

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Nuclear Science & Technology)

While designing deuteron accelerator neutron sources for radioisotopes production, nuclear data for light elements such as Li, Be, and C have been systematically measured in the deuteron energy range from a few MeV to around 50 MeV. Currently, the experimental data available on double-differential thick-target neutron yields (DDTTNYs) is insufficient, especially for deuteron energies between 18 and 33 MeV. In this study, we measured the DDTTNYs of ($$d,n$$) reactions on $$^{rm nat}$$C target for incident deuteron energies of 12, 20, and 30 MeV using the multiple-foils activation method to improve nuclear data insufficiency. We applied the GRAVEL code for the unfolding process to derive the DDTTNYs. The results were compared with the calculation by DEURACS. The present data were also used to confirm the systematics of the differential neutron yields at 0$$^{circ}$$ and total neutron yield per incident deuteron in the wide range of deuteron energy.

Journal Articles

Characteristics in trace elements compositions of tephras (B-Tm and To-a) for identification tools

Nara, Fumiko*; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Yamasaki, Shinichi*; Minami, Masayo*; Asahara, Yoshihiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamada, Kazuyoshi*; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi*; Yasuda, Yoshinori*

Geochemical Journal, 55(3), p.117 - 133, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Geochemistry & Geophysics)

The absolute date of the Millennium Eruption (ME) of Changbaishan Volcano is widely recognized as AD 946. The Baegdosan-Tomakomai (B-Tm) tephra dispersed during the ME is a robust-age key bed. In order to identify the tephra, refractive index and major-element compositions of volcanic glass shards are conventionally used. However, trace-element analysis has been rarely carried out, especially for rare-earth elements (REEs) and for tephra layer bulk sediments. Here we present the datasets of major- and trace-element compositions datasets for the glass shards and bulk sediments of the B-Tm and Towada caldera eruptions (To-a) tephra deposits from the Lake Ogawara sediment core, Tohoku region, northern Japan. The depth profiles of the major and trace elements show the significant peaks for the K$$_{2}$$O and some trace elements (Zn, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Th, and U) at the B-Tm tephra layer in the Lake Ogawara sediment core, but no peaks of these elements at the To-a tephra layer. High concentrations of the trace elements in the B-Tm tephra layer were observed in individual glass shards as well as in the bulk sediment. These concentrations are highlighted by the elemental abundance pattern normalized by the crustal abundance. The elemental pattern in individual glass shards from other Japanese tephras showed significant differences from those of the B-Tm tephra, especially in REEs compositions. The trace-element compositions of the glass shards and bulk sediment show strong advantages for distinguishing the B-Tm tephra from other Japanese tephras.

Journal Articles

Geochemical characteristics of paleotsunami deposits from the Shizuoka plain on the Pacific coast of middle Japan

Watanabe, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi*; Kitamura, Akihisa*; Yamasaki, Shinichi*; Nara, Fumiko*

Geochemical Journal, 55(6), p.325 - 340, 2021/00

Geochemical signatures of natural samples could be an effective proxy to identify paleo tsunami deposits. However, less geochemical approach has been applied in the Pacific coast of middle Japan. Therefore, geochemical characteristics of the paleo tsunami deposits were studied using geological samples from the Shizuoka plain in the Pacific coast of middle Japan, and this paper shows the first geochemical dataset of paleo tsunami deposits from the area. In this study, typical geochemical biplots and ternary diagrams were applied to discriminate the paleo tsunami deposits from other layers. Additionally, vertical and horizontal distributions of titanium normalized values and statistical methods of geochemical data could provide the information for characteristic of the deposits to detect prehistorical tsunami inundation.

Journal Articles

Quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses using a portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; Geochemical applications in fault rocks, lake sediments, and event deposits

Watanabe, Takahiro; Ishii, Chikako; Ishizaka, Chika; Niwa, Masakazu; Shimada, Koji; Sawai, Yuki*; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi*; Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Ochiai, Shinya*; Nara, Fumiko*

Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 116(3), p.140 - 158, 2021/00

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03(Mineralogy)

A portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (potable XRF) can be an effective tool for detecting chemical elements in various materials, such as geological, and environmental samples. In this study, working curves were confirmed using reference materials, such as igneous rocks and other geochemical standards, distributed by national and international organizations. Subsequently, quantification and semi-quantification analyses were performed by the portable XRF for inorganic elements in (A) fault rocks, (B) lake sediments from the middle Japan, and (C) soils with paleotsunami deposits from the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. Twenty-four elements (Mg-U) in these geological samples were measured by potable XRF using our working curves. Measured values by the portable XRF of the samples were good agreement with the reported values in almost cases.

Journal Articles

Role of advection in atmospheric ammonia; A Case study at a Japanese lake basin influenced by agricultural ammonia sources

Kubota, Tomohiro; Kuroda, Hisao*; Watanabe, Mirai*; Takahashi, Akiko*; Nakazato, Ryoji*; Tarui, Mika*; Matsumoto, Shunichi*; Nakagawa, Keita*; Numata, Yasuko*; Ouchi, Takao*; et al.

Atmospheric Environment, 243, p.117856_1 - 117856_9, 2020/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

The dry and wet depositions of atmospheric ammonia (NH$$_{3}$$) is one of the important pathways of nitrogen loads to aquatic ecosystems. Crop and livestock agriculture, one of the largest emitters of NH$$_{3}$$ in Asian countries, are known to cause high spatial and seasonal variation of NH$$_{3}$$ and influence the surrounding lake basin areas via its dry and wet deposition. However, the spatial characteristics of the NH$$_{3}$$ concentration in basin scale are not completely understood for regulation in NH$$_{3}$$ emission. Here we aim to clarify dominant factors of spatial and seasonal variations of the NH$$_{3}$$ concentration in a eutrophic lake basin surrounded by agricultural areas in Japan. Passive sampling over various land use categories in the basin was conducted at 36 sites in total from October 2018 to January 2020. Interestingly, the observed NH$$_{3}$$ concentration near the livestock houses were higher in winter than summer, which was inconsistent with knowledge of seasonal changes of current NH$$_{3}$$ emission inventory based on temperature-driven volatilization process. Comparing monthly NH$$_{3}$$ concentrations with various meteorological factors, we suggested the importance of seasonal advection of NH$$_{3}$$ from high emission sources to which has been rarely paid attention by the previous past studies. As for this, should be considered for lake ecosystem management since deposition of NH$$_{3}$$ is known to be closely related to the ecological processes such as phytoplankton blooming.

Journal Articles

Study of the Li($$d,xn$$) reaction for the development of accelerator-based neutron sources

Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Sadamatsu, Hiroki*; Araki, Shohei*; Nakano, Keita*; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 239, p.20012_1 - 20012_4, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:89.98

Accelerator-based neutron sources induced by deuteron beams are attractive for study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste as well as radiation damage for fusion reactor materials. In the present work, we have carried out a Double Differential cross section (DDX) measurement for Li at 200 MeV in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. A deuteron beam accelerated to 200 MeV was transported to the neutron experimental hall and focused on a thin Li target. Emitted neutrons from the target were detected by two different-size EJ301 liquid organic scintillators located at two distances of 7 m and 20 m, respectively. The neutron DDXs were measured at six angles from 0$$^{circ}$$ to 25$$^{circ}$$). The neutron detection efficiencies of the detectors were calculated by SCINFUL-QMD code. We will present the results of the present DDX measurement and compare them with theoretical model calculations with DEURACS and PHITS.

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