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Journal Articles

Primary radiation damage; A Review of current understanding and models

Nordlund, K.*; Zinkle, S. J.*; Sand, A. E.*; Granberg, F.*; Averback, R. S.*; Stoller, R. E.*; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, L.*; Banhart, F.*; Weber, W. J.*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 512, p.450 - 479, 2018/12

 Times Cited Count:271 Percentile:99.52(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Scientific understanding of any kind of radiation effects starts from the primary damage. We consider the extensive experimental and computer simulation studies that have been performed over the past several decades on what the nature of the primary damage is. We review both the production of crystallographic or topological defects in materials as well as radiation mixing, i.e. the process where atoms in perfect crystallographic positions exchange positions with other ones in non-defective positions. We also consider the recent effort to provide alternatives to the current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model for metals. We present in detail new complementary displacement production estimators ("athermal recombination corrected dpa": arc-dpa) and atomic mixing ("replacements per atom": rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa, and discuss their advantages and limitations.

Journal Articles

Improving atomic displacement and replacement calculations with physically realistic damage models

Nordlund, K.*; Zinkle, S. J.*; Sand, A. E.*; Granberg, F.*; Averback, R. S.*; Stoller, R.*; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, L.*; Banhart, F.*; Weber, W. J.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 9, p.1084_1 - 1084_8, 2018/03

 Times Cited Count:198 Percentile:98.87(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only $$sim$$1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators.

Journal Articles

Fast magnetic-field annihilation in the relativistic collisionless regime driven by two ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses

Gu, Y. J.*; Klimo, O.*; Kumar, D.*; Liu, Y.*; Singh, S. K.*; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*

Physical Review E, 93(1), p.013203_1 - 013203_6, 2016/01


 Times Cited Count:24 Percentile:86.12(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Evolution of laser induced electromagnetic postsolitons in multi-species plasma

Liu, Y.*; Klimo, O.*; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Bulanov, S. V.; Gu, Y.*; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*

Physics of Plasmas, 22(11), p.112302_1 - 112302_8, 2015/11


 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:14.13(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Fast magnetic field annihilation driven by two laser pulses in underdense plasma

Gu, Y. J.*; Klimo, O.*; Kumar, D.*; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Weber, S.*; Korn, G.*

Physics of Plasmas, 22(10), p.103113_1 - 103113_9, 2015/10


 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:38.34(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Journal Articles

Primary radiation damage in materials

Nordlund, K.*; Sand, A. E.*; Granberg, F.*; Zinkle, S. J.*; Stoller, R.*; Averback, R. S.*; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, L.*; Banhart, F.*; Weber, W. J.*; et al.

NEA/NSC/DOC(2015)9 (Internet), 86 Pages, 2015/00

Within this report, we review the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons with emphasis on the range of validity of the dpa concept in all main classes of materials, and in particular discuss known shortcomings. We recognise that the current NRT-dpa standard is fully valid in the sense of a scaled radiation exposure measure, as it is essentially proportional to the radiation energy deposited per volume. As such, it is highly recommended to be used in reporting neutron damage results to enable comparison between different nuclear reactor environments and ion irradiations. However, in the sense of a measure of damage production the NRT-dpa value has several well-known problems. We discuss this matter and propose an improved dpa definition.

Journal Articles

Development of an accurate methodology for measuring the pore fluid pH of low-pH cementitious materials

Alonso, M. C.*; Garc$'i$a Calvo, J. L.*; Pettersson, S.*; Cu$~n$ado, M.*; Vuorio, M.*; Weber, H.*; Ueda, Hiroyoshi*; Naito, Morimasa; Walker, C.

Proceedings of 13th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement (13th ICCC) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2011/07

Low pH cementitious (LopHC) materials are expected to be used in the construction of an underground repository for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW). A fundamental aspect of the development of LopHC is the accurate and reliable measurement of the pore fluid pH in order to qualify and help quantify mix designs to achieve specific pH targets. The main objective of the current research is the development of an agreed protocol for measuring the pH value of LopHC. There are four different methods described in the literature for characterizing the pore solution of cementitious materials: (1) Pore fluid expression; (2) Leaching methods, including both in-situ and ex-situ techniques); (3) Percolation methods; and (4) Embedded pH sensors. In a first step, different parameters that may affect the measured pH values were evaluated, including the solid/liquid ratio, fineness, carbonation, time, and the results obtained from a pH meter in comparison with an OH titration. Based on the results obtained from the first step, selected protocols were proposed and tested for reproducibility and repeatability in 8 laboratories of 7 countries using the same LopHC sample. The proposed methodologies showed very promising results with low deviation and high reproducibility and have allowed the development of an agreed set of simple protocols for the determination of pH in LopHC.

Journal Articles

State-of-the-art report on nuclear aerosols

Allelein, H.-J.*; Auvinen, A.*; Ball, J.*; G$"u$ntay, S.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Hidaka, Akihide; Jones, A. V.*; Kissane, M.*; Powers, D.*; Weber, G.*

NEA/CSNI/R(2009)5, 388 Pages, 2009/12

Journal Articles

Interatomic Coulombic decay following the Auger decay; Experimental evidence in rare-gas dimers

Ueda, Kiyoshi*; Fukuzawa, Hironobu*; Liu, X.*; Sakai, Katsunori*; Pr$"u$mper, G.*; Morishita, Yuichiro*; Saito, Norio*; Suzuki, Isao*; Nagaya, Kiyonobu*; Iwayama, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 166-167, p.3 - 10, 2008/11

 Times Cited Count:23 Percentile:72.73(Spectroscopy)

Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) in Ar$$_2$$, ArKr and Kr$$_2$$ following Ar 2p or Kr 3d Auger decay has been investigated by means of momentum-resolved electron-ion-ion-coincidence spectroscopy. This sequential decay leads to Coulombic dissociation into dication and monocation. Simultaneously determining the kinetic energy of the ICD electron and the kinetic energy release between the two atomic ions, we could unambiguously identify the ICD channels. We find that, in general, spin conserved ICD, in which the singlet (triplet) dicationic state produced via the atomic Auger decay preferentially decays to the singlet (triplet) state, transferring the energy to the other atom, is faster than the spin-flip ICD, in which the Auger final singlet (triplet) dicationic state decays to the triplet (singlet) state.

Journal Articles

(Nitrogen/vacancy)-complex formation in SiC; Experiment and theory

Pensl, G.*; Schmid, F.*; Reshanov, S.*; Weber, H. B.*; Bockstedte, M.*; Mattausch, A.*; Pankratov, O.*; Oshima, Takeshi; Ito, Hisayoshi

Materials Science Forum, 556-557, p.307 - 312, 2007/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Deactivation of nitrogen donors in silicon carbide

Schmid, F.*; Reshanov, S. A.*; Weber, H. B.*; Pensl, G.*; Bockstedte, M.*; Mattausch, A.*; Pankratov, O.*; Oshima, Takeshi; Ito, Hisayoshi

Physical Review B, 74(24), p.245212_1 - 245212_11, 2006/12

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:47.48(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Hexagonal SiC is co-implanted with silicon Si$$^{+}$$, carbon C$$^{+}$$, or neon Ne$$^{+}$$ ions along with nitrogen N$$^{+}$$ ions. Also hexagonal SiC irradiated with electrons e$$^{-}$$ of 200 keV energy. During the subsequent annealing step at temperatures above 1450 $$^{circ}$$C a deactivation of N donors and a reduction of the compensation are observed in the case of the Si$$^{+}$$/N$$^{+}$$ co-implantation and e$$^{-}$$ irradiation. Using Hall measurement, the N donor deactivation is studied as a function of the concentration of the co-implanted species and the annealing temperature. The formation of energetically deep defects is analyzed with deep level transient spectroscopy. A detailed theoretical analysis based on the density functional theory is conducted; it takes into account the kinetic mechanisms for the formation of N interstitial clusters and N-vacancy complexes. In accordance with all the experimental results, this analysis distinctly indicates that the (N$$ _{C}$$)$$_ {4}$$-V$$_{Si}$$ complex, which is thermally stable at high temperatures, is responsible for the N donor deactivation.

Journal Articles

Glass formation at the limit of insufficient network formers

Kohara, Shinji*; Suzuya, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Ken*; Loong, C.-K.*; Grimsditch, M.*; Weber, J. K. R.*; Tangeman, J. A.*; Key, T. S.*

Science, 303(5664), p.1649 - 1652, 2004/03

 Times Cited Count:149 Percentile:95.86(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Inorganic glasses normally exhibit a network of interconncted covalent-bonded structural elements that has no long-range order. In silicate glasses the network formers are based on SiO$$_4$$-tetrahedra interconnected via oxygen atoms at the corners. Conventional wisdom then implies that alkaline and alkaline-earth orthosilicate materials cannot be vitrified because they do not contain sufficient network forming SiO$$_2$$ to establish the needed interconnectivity. We have studied a bulk magnesium orthosilicate glass obtained by containerless melting-and-cooling. We find that the role of network former is largely taken on by corner- and edge-sharing of highly distorted ionic Mg-O species that adopt 4-, 5- and 6-coordination with oxygen. The results suggest that similar novel glassy phases may be found in the containerless environment of interstellar space.

Journal Articles

Neutron diffraction measurements of the structure of an orthosilicate glass: Mg$$_{2}$$SiO$$_{4}$$

Weber, J. K. R.*; Tangeman, J. A.*; Key, T. S.*; Loong, C.-K.*; Takeuchi, Ken*; Suzuya, Kentaro

Physics and Chemistry of Glasses, Vol.43C 2002, p.68 - 70, 2002/00

The structure of olivine-composition glasses is of considerable interest in both geology and glass-science. Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the Earth's upper mantle, and properties of olivine-rich melts are relevant to a variety of petrologic problems. Despite their prevalence and novelty, such glasses has not been studied thoroughly due to difficulties associated with their synthesis. Recently, Weber et al successfully prepared bulk olivine glass with the forsterite-composition Mg$$_{2}$$SiO$$_{4}$$ using a containerless technique and initiated a neutron-diffraction investigation of the short-range structure of the glass. In this study, we present a result of the pulsed neutron diffraction experiment on the forsterite-composition glass. The neutron diffraction analysis suggests that highly distorted MgO$$_{n}$$ polyhedra are the major networking structural units in the forsterite-composition glass.

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