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JAEA Reports

Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant FY2020

Nakada, Akira; Nakano, Masanao; Kanai, Katsuta; Seya, Natsumi; Nishimura, Shusaku; Nemoto, Masashi; Tobita, Keiji; Futagawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Ryohei; Uchiyama, Rei; et al.

JAEA-Review 2021-062, 163 Pages, 2022/02


Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on "Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring". This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant to the atmosphere and the sea during April 2020 to March 2021. In this report, some data include the influence of the accidental release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (the trade name was changed to Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc. on April 1, 2016) in March 2011. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring programs, monitoring methods, monitoring results and their trends, meteorological data and discharged radioactive wastes. In addition, the data which were influenced by the accidental release and exceeded the normal range of fluctuation in the monitoring, were evaluated.

Journal Articles

General overview of the research project investigating the radionuclide solution behavior in mock mortar matrix modeled after conditions at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Igarashi, Go*; Haga, Kazuko*; Yamada, Kazuo*; Aihara, Haruka; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Koma, Yoshikazu; Maruyama, Ippei*

Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 19(9), p.950 - 976, 2021/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:69.43(Construction & Building Technology)

Journal Articles

A Project focusing on the contamination mechanism of concrete after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Yamada, Kazuo*; Maruyama, Ippei*; Haga, Kazuko*; Igarashi, Go*; Aihara, Haruka; Tomita, Sayuri*; Kiran, R.*; Osawa, Norihisa*; Shibata, Atsuhiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi*; et al.

Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposia 2021 (WM 2021) (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2021/03

Journal Articles

The Surface composition of asteroid 162173 Ryugu from Hayabusa2 near-infrared spectroscopy

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Arai, Takehiko*; Nakauchi, Yusuke*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Science, 364(6437), p.272 - 275, 2019/04

 Times Cited Count:170 Percentile:99.77(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

The near-Earth asteroid 162173 Ryugu, the target of Hayabusa2 sample return mission, is believed to be a primitive carbonaceous object. The Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on Hayabusa2 acquired reflectance spectra of Ryugu's surface to provide direct measurements of the surface composition and geological context for the returned samples. A weak, narrow absorption feature centered at 2.72 micron was detected across the entire observed surface, indicating that hydroxyl (OH)-bearing minerals are ubiquitous there. The intensity of the OH feature and low albedo are similar to thermally- and/or shock-metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. There are few variations in the OH-band position, consistent with Ryugu being a compositionally homogeneous rubble-pile object generated from impact fragments of an undifferentiated aqueously altered parent body.

Journal Articles

New project on the analysis of contamination mechanisms of concrete at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

Yamada, Kazuo*; Maruyama, Ippei*; Koma, Yoshikazu; Haga, Kazuko*; Igarashi, Go*; Shibuya, Kazutoshi*; Aihara, Haruka

Proceedings of International Waste Management Symposia 2019 (WM 2019) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2019/03

Journal Articles

Decontamination of radioactive concrete waste and reuse of aggregate using pulsed power technology

Sakamoto, Hiroyuki*; Akagi, Yosuke*; Yamada, Kazuo*; Tachi, Yukio; Fukuda, Daisuke*; Ishimatsu, Koichi*; Matsuda, Mikiya*; Saito, Nozomi*; Uemura, Jitsuya*; Namihira, Takao*; et al.

Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkai Wabun Rombunshi, 17(2), p.57 - 66, 2018/05

Concrete debris contaminated with radioactive cesium and other nuclides have been generated from the accident in the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant and there will be generated due to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the future. Although conventional decontamination techniques are effective for flat concrete surfaces such as floors and walls, it is not clear what techniques to apply for decontaminating radioactive concrete debris. In this study, focusing on a pulsed power discharge technique, fundamental experimental works were carried out. Decontamination of concrete by applying the aggregate recycling technique using the pulsed power discharge technique was evaluated by measuring radioactivity of aggregate and sludge separated from the contaminated concrete. The results suggest that the separation into aggregate and sludge of the contaminated concrete debris could achieve decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive concrete debris.

Journal Articles

Angle-resolved photoemission analysis of electronic structures for thermoelectric properties of off-stoichiometric Fe$$_{2-x}$$V$$_{1+x}$$Al alloys

Soda, Kazuo*; Harada, Shota*; Hayashi, Toshimitsu*; Kato, Masahiko*; Ishikawa, Fumihiro*; Yamada, Yu*; Fujimori, Shinichi; Saito, Yuji

Materials Transactions, 57(7), p.1040 - 1044, 2016/06

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:14.84(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Evaluation of performance for IBARAKI biological crystal diffractometer iBIX with new detectors

Kusaka, Katsuhiro*; Hosoya, Takaaki*; Yamada, Taro*; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Ohara, Takashi; Katagiri, Masaki*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Niimura, Nobuo*

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 20(6), p.994 - 998, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:85.22(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The IBARAKI biological crystal diffractometer, iBIX, is a high-performance time-of-flight neutron single-crystal diffractometer for elucidating mainly the hydrogen, protonation and hydration structures of biological macromolecules in various life processes. Since the end of 2008, iBIX has been available to user's experiments supported by Ibaraki University. Since August 2012, an upgrade of the 14-existing detectors has begun and 16 new detectors have been installed for iBIX. The total measurement efficiency of the present diffractometer has been impoved by one order of magnitude from the previous one with the increasing of accelerator power. In December 2012, commissioning of the new detectors was successful, and collection of the diffraction dataset of ribonucrease A as a standard protein was attempted in order to estimate the performance of the upgraded iBIX in comparison with previous results. The resolution of diffraction data, equivalence among intensities of symmetry-related reflections and reliability of the refined structure have been improved dramatically. iBIX is expected to be one of the highest-performance neutron single-crystal diffractometers for biological macromolecules in the world.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen-bond network and pH sensitivity in human transthyretin

Yokoyama, Takeshi*; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki*; Nabeshima, Yuko*; Kusaka, Katsuhiro*; Yamada, Taro*; Hosoya, Takaaki*; Ohara, Takashi; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Niimura, Nobuo*

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 20(6), p.834 - 837, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:26.18(Instruments & Instrumentation)

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein. TTR misfolding and aggregation are associated with human amyloid diseases. Dissociation of the TTR tetramer is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the amyloid fibril formation cascade. Low pH is known to promote dissociation into monomer and the formation of amyloid fibrils. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying pH sensitivity and structural stabilities of TTR, neutron diffraction studies were conducted using the IBARAKI Biological Crystal Diffractometer with the time-of-flight method. Crystals for the neutron diffraction experiments were grown up to 2.5 mm$$^{3}$$ for four months. The neutron crystal structure solved at 2.0 ${AA}$ revealed the protonation states of His88 and the detailed hydrogen-bond network depending on the protonation states of His88. This hydrogen-bond network is involved in monomer-monomer and dimer-dimer interactions, suggesting that the double protonation of His88 by acidification breaks the hydrogen-bond network and causes the destabilization of the TTR tetramer. Structural comparison with the X-ray crystal structure at acidic pH identified the three amino acid residues responsible for the pH sensitivity of TTR. Our neutron model provides insights into the molecular stability related to amyloidosis.

Journal Articles

Report of the Special Symposium on the Transport and Diffusion of Contaminants from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant; Present status and future directions

Kondo, Hiroaki*; Yamada, Tetsuji*; Chino, Masamichi; Iwasaki, Toshiki*; Katata, Genki; Maki, Takashi*; Saito, Kazuo*; Terada, Hiroaki; Tsuruta, Haruo*

Tenki, 60(9), p.723 - 729, 2013/09


no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Neutron and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human $$alpha$$-thrombin-bivalirubin complex at pD 5.0; Protonation states and hydration structure of the enzyme-product complex

Yamada, Taro*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Onishi, Yuki*; Tamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Masumi, Kenji*; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Kuroki, Ryota; Niimura, Nobuo*

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta; Proteins and Proteomics, 1834(8), p.1532 - 1538, 2013/08

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:48.25(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

The protonation states and hydration structures of the $$alpha$$-thrombin-bivalirubin complex were studied by joint XN refinement of the single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction data at resolutions of 1.6 and 2.8 ${AA}$, respectively. The atomic distances were estimated by carrying out X-ray crystallographic analysis at 1.25 ${AA}$ resolution. The complex represents a model of the enzyme-product (EP) complex of $$alpha$$-thrombin. The neutron scattering length maps around the active site suggest that the side chain of H57/H was deuterated. The joint XN refinement showed that occupancies for D$$delta$$1 and D$$epsilon$$2 of H57/H were 1.0 and 0.7, respectively. However, no significant neutron scattering length density was observed around the hydroxyl oxygen O$$gamma$$ of S195/H, which was close to the carboxylic carbon atom of dFPR-COOH. These observations suggest that the O$$gamma$$ atom of S195/H is deprotonated and maintains its nucleophilicity in the EP complex. In addition to the active site, the hydration structures of the S1 subsite and the Exosite I, which are involved in the recognition of bivalirudin, are presented.

Journal Articles

Neutron and X-ray crystallographic analysis of ${it Achromobacter}$ protease I at pD 8.0; Protonation states and hydration structure in the free-form

Onishi, Yuki*; Yamada, Taro*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Sakiyama, Fumio*; Masaki, Takeharu*; Niimura, Nobuo*

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta; Proteins and Proteomics, 1834(8), p.1642 - 1647, 2013/08

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:23.5(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

The structure of the free-form of ${it Achromobacter}$ protease I (API) at pD 8.0 was refined by simultaneous use of single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction data sets to investigate the protonation states of key catalytic residues of the serine protease. Occupancy refinement of the catalytic triad in the active site of API free-form showed that ca. 30% of the imidazole ring of H57 and ca. 70% of the hydroxyl group of S194 were deuterated. This observation indicates that a major fraction of S194 is protonated in the absence of a substrate. The protonation state of the catalytic triad in API was compared with the bovine $$beta$$-trypsin-BPTI complex. The comparison led to the hypothesis that close contact of a substrate with S194 could lower the acidity of its hydroxyl group, thereby allowing H57 to extract the hydrogen from the hydroxyl group of S194. H210, which is a residue specific to API, does not form a hydrogen bond with the catalytic triad residue D113. Instead, H210 forms a hydrogen bond network with S176, H177 and a water molecule. The close proximity of the bulky, hydrophobic residue W169 may protect this hydrogen bond network, and this protection may stabilize the function of API over a wide pH range.

Journal Articles

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of tetrathionate hydrolase from ${it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans}$

Kanao, Tadayoshi*; Kosaka, Megumi*; Yoshida, Kyoya*; Nakayama, Hisayuki*; Tamada, Taro; Kuroki, Ryota; Yamada, Hidenori; Takada, Jun*; Kamimura, Kazuo*

Acta Crystallographica Section F, 69(6), p.692 - 694, 2013/06

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:59.42(Biochemical Research Methods)

Tetrathionate hydrolase (4THase) from the iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium ${it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans}$ catalyses the disproportionate hydrolysis of tetrathionate to elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfate. The gene encoding 4THase (${it Af-tth}$) was expressed as inclusion bodies in recombinant ${it Escherichia coli}$. Recombinant ${it Af}$-Tth was activated by refolding under acidic conditions and was then purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein was crystallized in 20 m${it M}$ glycine buffer pH 10 containing 50 m${it M}$ sodium chloride and 33%(${it v/v}$) PEG 1000 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal was a hexagonal cylinder with dimensions of 0.2 $$times$$ 0.05 $$times$$ 0.05 mm. X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystal diffracted to 2.15 ${AA}$ resolution and belongs to space group ${it P}$3$$_{1}$$ or ${it P}$3$$_{2}$$, with unit-cell parameters ${it a}$ = ${it b}$ = 92.1, ${it c}$ = 232.6 ${AA}$.

Journal Articles

Structure of morpholinium tribromoplumbate C$$_{4}$$H$$_{8}$$ONH$$_{2}$$PbBr$$_{3}$$ studied using single-crystal neutron diffraction

Kawasaki, Takuro; Takahashi, Miwako*; Ohara, Takashi*; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Kusaka, Katsuhiro*; Hosoya, Takaaki*; Yamada, Taro*; Kurihara, Kazuo

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 81(9), p.094602_1 - 094602_6, 2012/09

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:44.66(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Hydrogen-bond network and pH sensitivity in transthyretin; Neutron crystal structure of human transthyretin

Yokoyama, Takeshi*; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki*; Nabeshima, Yuko*; Kusaka, Katsuhiro*; Yamada, Taro*; Hosoya, Takaaki*; Ohara, Takashi*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tomoyori, Katsuaki*; Tanaka, Ichiro*; et al.

Journal of Structural Biology, 177(2), p.283 - 290, 2012/02

 Times Cited Count:43 Percentile:83.49(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Journal Articles

X-ray and neutron protein crystallographic analysis of the trypsin-BPTI complex

Kawamura, Kenji*; Yamada, Taro*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Tamada, Taro; Kuroki, Ryota; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Takahashi, Haruyuki*; Niimura, Nobuo*

Acta Crystallographica Section D, 67(2), p.140 - 148, 2011/02

 Times Cited Count:26 Percentile:88.47(Biochemical Research Methods)

Journal Articles

Neutron structure analysis using the IBARAKI biological crystal diffractometer (iBIX) at J-PARC

Tanaka, Ichiro*; Kusaka, Katsuhiro*; Hosoya, Takaaki*; Niimura, Nobuo*; Ohara, Takashi*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Yamada, Taro*; Onishi, Yuki*; Tomoyori, Katsuaki*; Yokoyama, Takeshi*

Acta Crystallographica Section D, 66(11), p.1194 - 1197, 2010/11

 Times Cited Count:46 Percentile:94.58(Biochemical Research Methods)

The IBARAKI Biological Crystal Diffractometer (iBIX), a new diffractometer for protein crystallography at the next-generation neutron source at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex), has been constructed and has been operational since December 2008. Preliminary structure analyses of organic crystals showed that iBIX has high performance even at 120 kW operation and the first full data set is being collected from a protein crystal.

Journal Articles

A Neutron crystallographic analysis of phosphate-free ribonuclease A at 1.7 ${AA}$ resolution

Yagi, Daichi*; Yamada, Taro*; Kurihara, Kazuo; Onishi, Yuki*; Yamashita, Masahiro*; Tamada, Taro; Tanaka, Ichiro*; Kuroki, Ryota; Niimura, Nobuo*

Acta Crystallographica Section D, 65(9), p.892 - 899, 2009/09

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:80.49(Biochemical Research Methods)

A neutron crystallographic analysis of phosphate-free bovine pancreatic RNase A has been carried out at 1.7 $$AA$$ resolution using the BIX-4 single-crystal diffractometer at the JRR-3 reactor of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The high resolution structural model allowed us to determine that His12 acts mainly as a general base in the catalytic process of RNase A. Numerous other distinctive structural features such as the hydrogen positions of methyl groups, hydroxyl groups, prolines, asparagines and glutamines were also determined at 1.7$$AA$$ resolution. The protonation and deprotonation states of all of the charged amino-acid residues allowed us to provide a definitive description of the hydrogen-bonding network around the active site and the H atoms of the key His48 residue. Differences in hydrogen-bond strengths for the $$alpha$$-helices and $$beta$$-sheets were inferred from determination of the hydrogen-bond lengths and the H/D-exchange ratios of the backbone amide H atoms. The correlation between the B factors and hydrogen-bond lengths of the hydration water molecules was also determined.

Journal Articles

Experimental investigation of particle pinch associated with turbulence in LHD heliotron and JT-60U tokamak plasmas

Tanaka, Kenji*; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Muraoka, Katsunori*; Michael, C.*; Vyacheslavov, L. N.*; Yokoyama, Masayuki*; Yamada, Hiroshi*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Urano, Hajime; Kamada, Yutaka; et al.

Proceedings of 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2008) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2008/10

Comparative studies were carried out in LHD heliotron and JT-60U tokamak plasmas to elucidate the most essential parameter(s) for control of density profiles in toroidal systems. A difference in the collisionality dependence was found between the two devices. In LHD, the density peaking factor decreased with decrease of the collisionality at the magnetic axis position (R$$_{rm au}$$) 3.6 m, while the density peaking factor gradually increased with a decreased of collisionality at R$$_{rm au}$$ = 3.5 m. On the other hand, in JT-60U, the density peaking factor clearly increased with a decrease of the collisionality. The difference in the collisionality dependence between R$$_{rm au}$$ = 3.5 and R$$_{rm au}$$ = 3.6 m is likely due to the contribution of the anomalous transport. At R$$_{rm au}$$ = 3.5 m, larger anomalous transport caused a similar collisionality dependence. Change of the fluctuation property was observed with different density profiles in the plasma core region on both devices. In JT-60U, the increase of the radial coherence was observed with higher density peaking profile suggesting enhanced diffusion and inward directed pinch. For a magnetic axis positions (R$$_{rm au}$$) at 3.6 m in LHD, the increase of the fluctuation power with an increase in P$$_{rm NB}$$ was observed for a hollow density profile suggesting an increase on diffusion due to anomalous processes. Change of density profiles from peaked to hollow indicates change in the convection direction. This is due to increase in neoclassical processes. The reduction of the density peaking factor with increase of P$$_{rm NB}$$ in LHD is partly due to the neoclassical effect and partly due to the anomalous effect.

Journal Articles

Particle transport and fluctuation characteristics around the neoclassically optimized configurations in LHD

Tanaka, Kenji*; Michael, C.*; Vyacheslavov, L. N.*; Yokoyama, Masayuki*; Murakami, Sadayoshi*; Wakasa, Arimitsu*; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Muraoka, Katsunori*; Kawahata, Kazuo*; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko*; et al.

Plasma and Fusion Research (Internet), 3, p.S1069_1 - S1069_7, 2008/08

Density profiles in LHD were measured and particle transport coefficients were estimated from density modulation experiments in LHD. The dataset of different magnetic axis, toroidal magnetic filed and heating power provided data set of widely scanned neoclassical transport. At minimized neoclassical transport configuration ($$R$$$$_{rm ax}$$ = 3.5 m, $$B$$$$_{rm t}$$ = 2.8 T) showed peaked density profile. Its peaking factor increased gradually with decrease of collisional frequency. This is a similar result observed in JT-60U. At other configuration, peaking factor reduced with decrease of collsional frequency. Data set showed that larger contribution of neoclassical transport produced hollowed density profile. Comparison between neoclassical and estimated particle diffusivity showed different minimum condition. Clear difference of spatial profile of turbulence was observed between hollowed and peaked density profiles. Major part of fluctuation existed in the unstable region of ion temperature gradient mode.

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