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Journal Articles

Nuclear spin conversion of hydrogen and methane molecules inside low-temperature condensed layers

Yamakawa, Koichiro

Bunko Kenkyu, 72(5), p.187 - 198, 2023/10

Molecules including hydrogen nuclei in the rotationally symmetric positions are classified into the nuclear spin isomers, according to their resultant spin. Owing to the symmetry restriction originating from the indistinguishability of the identical particles, each isomer occupies only specific rotational levels. The conversion between the isomers is promoted in condensed systems, where the excess rotational energy of a converting molecule is dissipated. In this review, I focus on the fundamental molecules of hydrogen and methane, and expound studies on their nuclear spin conversion inside condensed layers at low temperatures.

Journal Articles

Fast ortho-to-para conversion of molecular hydrogen in chemisorption and matrix-isolation systems

Ueta, Hirokazu; Fukutani, Katsuyuki*; Yamakawa, Koichiro

Frontiers in Chemistry (Internet), 11, p.1258035_1 - 1258035_7, 2023/08

Molecular hydrogen has two nuclear-spin modifications called ${it ortho}$ and ${it para}$. Because of the symmetry restriction with respect to permutation of the two protons, the ${it ortho}$ and ${it para}$ isomers take only odd and even values of the rotational quantum number, respectively. The ${it ortho}$-to-${it para}$ conversion is promoted in condensed systems, to which the excess rotational energy and spin angular momentum are transferred. We review recent studies on fast ${it ortho}$-to-${it para}$ conversion of hydrogen in molecular chemisorption and matrix isolation systems, discussing the conversion mechanism as well as rotational-relaxation pathways.

Journal Articles

An Isotope-labeling study of CO$$_2$$ formation pathways in molecular clouds; Ultraviolet photolysis of CO-H$$_2$$O ice

Hirayama, Akemi*; Arakawa, Ichiro*; Yamakawa, Koichiro

Astrophysical Journal, 951(2), p.132_1 - 132_12, 2023/07

With use of reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, we investigated the binary ice of CO and H$$_2$$O at 10 K under ultraviolet irradiation as an analogue of interstellar ice mantle. We employed H$$_2$$$$^{18}$$O instead of H$$_2$$$$^{16}$$O to distinguish the formation pathways of CO$$_2$$, and prepared mixed-ice samples under CO- and H$$_2$$O-rich conditions as well as bilayered one, where CO was condensed on H$$_2$$O ice. After the ultraviolet irradiation onto any sample, we detected infrared absorption bands of C$$^{16}$$O$$_2$$ and C$$^{18}$$O$$^{16}$$O, which were generated through the CO-CO and CO-H$$_2$$O reactions, respectively. We analyzed the irradiation-time dependence of the C$$^{16}$$O$$_2$$ and C$$^{18}$$O$$^{16}$$O column densities in CO-rich ice to determine the effective cross sections of the CO$$_2$$ formation through the CO-CO and CO-H$$_2$$O reactions simultaneously.

Journal Articles

Fast nuclear-spin conversion of H$$_{2}$$ trapped and polarized in a CO$$_{2}$$ matrix

Yamakawa, Koichiro; Ishibashi, Atsuki*; Namiyoshi, Toshinobu*; Azuma, Yuichi*; Arakawa, Ichiro*

Physical Review B, 102(4), p.041401_1 - 041401_5, 2020/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:13.29(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Development of apparatus for in-situ terahertz and infrared spectroscopy

Yamakawa, Koichiro; Nasu, Hirokazu*; Shimizu, Genki*

Bunko Kenkyu, 69(3), p.105 - 106, 2020/06

Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy is one of the powerful ways to elucidate the structures and vibrational modes of molecular clusters. We review an experimental apparatus for absorption spectroscopy in an ultra-high vacuum covering the wavenumber range of 60-7000 cm$$^{-1}$$, from the viewpoints of vacuum-, low-temperature-, and spectroscopy-techniques. We also introduce the terahertz and infrared spectrum of D$$_{2}$$O clusters isolated in an Ar matrix measured with this apparatus.

Journal Articles

Terahertz and mid-infrared spectroscopy of matrix-isolated clusters and matrix-sublimation ice of D$$_2$$O

Yamakawa, Koichiro; Nasu, Hirokazu*; Suzuki, Natsumi*; Shimizu, Genki*; Arakawa, Ichiro*

Journal of Chemical Physics, 152(17), p.174310_1 - 174310_13, 2020/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:11.8(Chemistry, Physical)

We have established an apparatus for terahertz and mid-infrared spectroscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum and have measured absorption spectra of D$$_2$$O clusters trapped in solid Ar. To assign terahertz absorption peaks due to the D$$_2$$O dimer, trimer, and tetramer, the dependence of the spectrum on the annealing temperature and D$$_2$$O dilution was analyzed. The assignment was also examined by ab initio calculations with use of the ONIOM method, where flexibility of surrounding Ar atoms was systematically incorporated. We identified all of the intermolecular fundamentals of the dimer and those with significant intensities of the trimer and tetramer, whose structural symmetries were revealed to be broken down. After isolating the D$$_2$$O clusters in solid Ar, we sublimated only Ar atoms to leave behind matrix-sublimation ice, which was found to be amorphous- or crystal-like depending on the formation conditions: the dilution and sublimation-temperature. Since the crystallinity got higher with raising the dilution and sublimation-temperature, the diffusion of the D$$_2$$O monomer on the surface of sublimating solid Ar was found to be crucial to the crystallization of the sublimation ice.

Journal Articles

Nuclear spin conversion of H$$_2$$, H$$_2$$O, and CH$$_4$$ interacting with diamagnetic insulators

Yamakawa, Koichiro; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 89(5), p.051016_1 - 051016_12, 2020/02

A molecule including two or more hydrogen nuclei in the rotationally symmetric positions exists in nuclear spin isomers according to their resultant spin. Owing to the quantum statistics, the isomers occupy specific rotational states, which enables us to distinguish them by rotationally-resolved spectroscopy. Whereas the interconversion between the isomers are strictly forbidden in the isolated state, it is highly promoted in condensed systems. Focusing on simple and astronomically important molecules of H$$_2$$, H$$_2$$O, and CH$$_4$$, we review recent theoretical and experimental studies on the nuclear spin conversion proceeding on or in diamagnetic insulators. The fundamental difference between the conversion models of diatomic and polyatomic molecules is also clarified.

Journal Articles

Spectroscopic determination of interconversion rates among three nuclear spin isomers of methane in crystalline II

Sugimoto, Takeru*; Nasu, Hirokazu*; Arakawa, Ichiro*; Yamakawa, Koichiro

Journal of Chemical Physics, 150(18), p.184302_1 - 184302_5, 2019/05

We measured infrared absorption spectra of crystalline II of methane and succeeded in detecting a prominent Q(2) peak by rapid cooling after annealing as well as previously reported rovibrational and librational-vibrational peaks. The integral intensities of the R(0), R(1), and Q(2) peaks were found to show biexponential dependence on time. This clearly demonstrates the interconversion among the three nuclear-spin isomers occupying low-lying rotational levels.

Journal Articles

Stabilization of a high-order harmonic generation seeded extreme ultraviolet free electron laser by time-synchronization control with electro-optic sampling

Tomizawa, Hiromitsu*; Sato, Takahiro*; Ogawa, Kanade*; Togawa, Kazuaki*; Tanaka, Takatsugu*; Hara, Toru*; Yabashi, Makina*; Tanaka, Hitoshi*; Ishikawa, Tetsuya*; Togashi, Tadashi*; et al.

High Power Laser Science and Engineering, 3, p.e14_1 - e14_10, 2015/04

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:34.58(Optics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Experimental study for the production cross sections of positron emitters induced from $$^{12}$$C and $$^{16}$$O nuclei by low-energy proton beams

Akagi, Takashi*; Yagi, Masashi*; Yamashita, Tomohiro*; Murakami, Masao*; Yamakawa, Yoshiyuki*; Kitamura, Keiji*; Ogura, Koichi; Kondo, Kiminori; Kawanishi, Shunichi*

Radiation Measurements, 59, p.262 - 269, 2013/12

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:74.64(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In proton therapy, positron emitters are induced from $$^{12}$$C and$$^{16}$$O nuclei by protons on the beam path in the patient. Many studies for monitoring positron emitters with beam-induced PET technique have been performed by various groups to verify the proton beam range and the dose in the patient for quality assurance. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring the production cross sections of positron emitters using standard equipment for proton therapy. The time-activity curve was then obtained with a high-sensitivity PET scanner to extract the number of positron emitters produced in the target. The production cross sections for four reaction channels: $$^{16}$$O(p,pn)$$^{15}$$O, $$^{16}$$O(p,3p3n)$$^{11}$$C, $$^{16}$$O(p,2p2n)$$^{13}$$N, and $$^{12}$$C(p,pn)$$^{11}$$C were then measured. The cross sections for the $$^{16}$$O(p,pn)$$^{15}$$O reaction channel were consistent with data of previous experiments within the uncertainties, while those of $$^{12}$$C(p,pn)$$^{11}$$C were generally lower than data of previous experiments.

Journal Articles

Full-coherent free electron laser seeded by 13th- and 15th-order harmonics of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses

Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Owada, Shigeki*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Togashi, Tadashi*; Fukami, Kenji*; et al.

Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 46(16), p.164006_1 - 164006_6, 2013/08

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:19.12(Optics)

By introducing 13th- (61.7 nm) and 15th-order harmonics (53.4 nm) of femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm into an undulator of SCSS (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source) test accelerator at RIKEN, these harmonic pulses were amplified by a factor of more than 10$$^{2}$$ with a high contrast ratio through the interaction between accelerated electron bunches and the harmonic pulses. From numerical simulations of the amplification processes of high-order harmonic pulses in the undulator, optimum conditions of the electron bunch duration interacting with the high-order harmonic pulses were investigated for generating full-coherent and intense pulses in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region.

Journal Articles

Full-coherent HHG-seeded EUV-FEL locked by EOS timing feedback

Ogawa, Kanade*; Sato, Takahiro*; Matsubara, Shinichi*; Okayasu, Yuichi*; Togashi, Tadashi*; Watanabe, Takahiro*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; et al.

Proceedings of 10th Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim and 18th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference and Photonics in Switching 2013 (CLEO-PR & OECC/PS 2013) (USB Flash Drive), 2 Pages, 2013/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

High intense full-coherent radiation of free electron laser seeded by high-order harmonics in extreme-ultraviolet region

Togashi, Tadashi*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Owada, Shigeki*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Hara, Toru*; et al.

Proceedings of Ultrafast Optics IX (CD-ROM), 2 Pages, 2013/03

We have demonstrated free-electron laser radiation seeded by high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region. Strong enhancement of the radiation intensity by a factor of 104 was observed with timing control of an electro-optical sampling technique.

Journal Articles

Photoionization of atoms and molecules by intense EUV-FEL pulses and FEL seeded by high-order harmonic of ultrashort laser pulses

Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Sato, Takahiro*; Owada, Shigeki*; Togashi, Tadashi*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Kannari, Fumihiko*; Yagishita, Akira*; et al.

Reza Kenkyu, 40(9), p.687 - 690, 2012/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Synchronization of FEL and high-order harmonics of ultrashort-pulsed laser for generating intense full-coherent EUV light pulses

Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Sato, Takahiro*; Owada, Shigeki*; Togashi, Tadashi*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Matsubara, Shinichi*; Okayasu, Yuichi*; et al.

Proceedings of International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena 2012 (UP 2012) (Internet), 3 Pages, 2012/07

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Extreme ultraviolet free electron laser seeded by high-order harmonic

Togashi, Tadashi*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Owada, Shigeki*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Hara, Toru*; et al.

Proceedings of 11th International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Science (ISSRNS 2012), p.1 - 21, 2012/05

The 13th harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser has been significantly amplified with the SCSS test accelerator. The temporal and spatial overlap of the electron beam and the high harmonic radiation were precisely tuned for achieving the seeded free electron laser operation. With numerical simulation the present HH-seeded FEL scheme could readily be applied to the wavelength region down to 10 nm.

Journal Articles

XUV-FEL spectroscopy; He two-photon ionization cross-sections

Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Ishibashi, Kazuki*; Okino, Tomoya*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Adachi, Junichi*; Yagishita, Akira*; Yazawa, Hiroki*; Kannari, Fumihiko*; Aoyama, Makoto; et al.

Europhysics News, 42(5), P. 10, 2011/09

The resonant and non-resonant two-photon single ionization processes of He were investigated using intense free electron laser light in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region (53.4-61.4 nm) covering the 1s-2p and 1s-3p resonant transitions of He. On the basis of the dependences of the yield of He$$^{+}$$ on the XUV light-field intensity at 53.4, 58.4, 56.0 and 61.4 nm, the absolute values of the two-photon ionization cross sections of He at the four different wavelengths and their dependence on the light-field intensity were determined for the first time.

Journal Articles

Determination of the absolute two-photon ionization cross section of He by an XUV free electron laser

Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Ishibashi, Kazuki*; Okino, Tomoya*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Adachi, Junichi*; Yagishita, Akira*; Yazawa, Hiroki*; Kannari, Fumihiko*; Aoyama, Makoto; et al.

Journal of Physics B; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 44(16), p.161001_1 - 161001_5, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:35 Percentile:82.86(Optics)

The resonant and non-resonant two-photon single ionization processes of He were investigated using intense free electron laser light in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region (53.4-61.4 nm) covering the 1s-2p and 1s-3p resonant transitions of He. On the basis of the dependences of the yield of He$$^{+}$$ on the XUV light-field intensity at 53.4, 58.4, 56.0 and 61.4 nm, the absolute values of the two-photon ionization cross sections of He at the four different wavelengths and their dependence on the light-field intensity were determined for the first time.

Journal Articles

Extreme ultraviolet free electron laser seeded by high-order harmonic

Togashi, Tadashi*; Takahashi, Eiji*; Midorikawa, Katsumi*; Aoyama, Makoto; Yamakawa, Koichi; Sato, Takahiro*; Iwasaki, Atsushi*; Okino, Tomoya*; Yamanouchi, Kaoru*; Hara, Toru*; et al.

Proceedings of 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO 2011) (CD-ROM), p.1527 - 1528, 2011/05

We succeeded in generating the seeded free electron laser (FEL) with wavelengths of 61 nm at the SCSS test accelerator. The 13th (61 nm) harmonics generated by focusing the high peak power Ti:Sapphire laser to the Xe gas cell was directed to the undulator. This is first realization of the seeded FEL in extreme ultraviolet region.

216 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)