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JAEA Reports

Spatial distribution of desaturation around the tunnel predicted by three-dimensional two-phase flow modeling of the degassing process of dissolved gases in groundwater

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Research 2022-003, 40 Pages, 2022/05


The excavation of large-scale underground facilities, such as geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, creates an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) with cracks around the tunnel. In the EDZ, oxygen invades the bedrock through unsaturated cracks and affects environmental conditions for nuclide migration. When a tunnel is excavated in a geological formation containing a high concentration of dissolved CH$$_{4}$$, such as the Neogene marine sediments, degassed CH$$_{4}$$ prevents oxygen intrusion. However, it may be promoted through gas-phase diffusion through desaturation. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the method of estimating the spatial distribution of desaturation associated with the construction and operation of underground facilities in a stratum that contains a large amount of dissolved CH$$_{4}$$. A sequential excavation analysis that reflected the actual process of 10-year excavation of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was carried out along with gas-water two-phase flow analysis. The analysis results of the amount of groundwater and gas discharged from the URL were about 100 to 300 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$ and 250 to 350 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$, respectively, as of January 2017. These results showed values close to the observations (100 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$ and 300 m$$^{3}$$ d$$^{-1}$$, respectively). The analysis results of the saturation distribution were relatively high around the 250 m gallery and relatively low around the 350 m gallery, confirming that they are consistent with the in-situ observations. Although there were still technical issues of analysis regarding the conditions for groundwater drainage from the tunnel wall and the method of handling grout effects, the numerical calculation was generally appropriate. Although the results of the saturation distribution associated with the excavation were insufficient as the quantitative evaluation, they were almost correct from a qualitative point of view.

JAEA Reports

A Numerical simulation study of the desaturation and oxygen infusion into the sedimentary rock around the tunnel in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Data/Code 2021-002, 26 Pages, 2021/05


Investigations employing numerical simulation have been conducted to study the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into sedimentary formations. By mimicking the conditions of the Horonobe underground research laboratory, numerical simulations aided geoscientific investigation of the effects of dissolved gas content and rock permeability on the desaturation (Miyakawa et al., 2019) and mechanisms of oxygen intrusion into the host rock (Miyakawa et al., 2021). These simulations calculated multi-phase flow, including flows of groundwater and exsolved gas, and conducted sensitivity analysis changing the dissolved gas content, rock permeability, and humidity at the gallery wall. Only the most important results from these simulations have been reported previously, because of publishers' space limitations. Hence, in order to provide basic data for understanding the mechanisms of desaturation and oxygen infusion into rock, all data for 27 output parameters (e.g., advective fluxes of heat, gas, and water, diffusive fluxes of water, CH$$_{4}$$, CO$$_{2}$$, O$$_{2}$$, and N$$_{2}$$, saturation degree, water pressure, and mass fraction of each component) over a modeling period of 100 years are presented here.

Journal Articles

Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:96.42(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 $$^{circ}$$C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 $$^{circ}$$C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

Numerical simulation of oxygen infusion into desaturation resulting from artificial openings in sedimentary formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Dai-15-Kai Iwa No Rikigaku Kokunai Shimpojiumu Koen Rombunshu (Internet), p.609 - 614, 2021/01

Desaturation is expected due to excavation of an underground repository, especially in the newly created fractures zone (EDZ). During the construction and operation of facilities, the air in the gallery infuses into the rock around the gallery though the excavation affected area and causes oxidation of host rock and groundwater, which increase nuclide mobilities. In the Horonobe underground research laboratory (HURL), which is excavated in the Neogene sedimentary formations, no pyrite dissolution or precipitation of calcium sulfates was found from the cores drilled in the rock around the gallery. The reason for no oxidation is estimated that the release of dissolved gases from groundwater due to pressure decrease flows against the air infusion. In this research, the mechanism of O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the rock was investigated by numerical multiphase flow simulation considering advection and diffusion of groundwater and gases. In the simulation, only Darcy's and Henry's laws were considered, that is, chemical reaction related to oxidation was not handled. The effects of dissolved gas and rock permeability on O$$_{2}$$ infusion into the rock were almost identical. Decreasing humidity with relatively low permeability leads to extensive accumulation of O$$_{2}$$ into the EDZ even though with a relatively large amount of dissolved gas. In the HURL, the shotcrete attenuates O$$_{2}$$ concentration and keeps 100% humidity at the boundary of the gallery wall, which inhibits O$$_{2}$$ infusion. Without the shotcrete, humidity at the gallery wall decreases according to seasonal changes and ventilation, which promotes O$$_{2}$$ intrusion into the EDZ but the chemical reaction related to O$$_{2}$$ buffering such as pyrite oxidation consumes O$$_{2}$$.

Journal Articles

The Effect of dissolved gas on rock desaturation in artificial openings in geological formations

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Akaki, Toshifumi*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

Proceedings of 5th ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics and International Symposium on Rock Engineering for Innovative Future (YSRM 2019 and REIF 2019) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2019/12

The construction and operation of geological repositories require excavation and ventilation of galleries, with significant groundwater drainage. Desaturation of rock around galleries is unavoidable and may affect hydraulic properties and redox conditions. This study used numerical modeling to assess the influence of dissolved gas on the degree of saturation of rock surrounding excavated galleries, focusing on siliceous mudstone rock in the 140 m, 250 m, and 350-m-deep galleries of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan. Based on previous ${it in situ}$ electrical survey, the degree of saturation in the 250 m gallery was higher than that in the 140 m and 350 m galleries. In the Horonobe area, deep groundwater contains high concentrations of dissolved methane, and exsolution of this methane from pore water can affect desaturation. Simple numerical modeling, including simulation of multiphase flows, was undertaken for each gallery to confirm the effect of dissolved gas and rock permeability on desaturation. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying dissolved gas contents and permeability. Results indicate that the dissolved gas content affects both the degree of saturation and its spatial extent, whereas rock permeability affects only the latter. Higher dissolved gas concentrations result in lower degrees of saturation with a greater spatial extent of desaturation, and higher permeability leads to greater extents of desaturation. It is therefore likely that gas content, rather than rock permeability, caused the observed variations in the saturation degree.

Journal Articles

Preparation of polymer gel dosimeters based on less toxic monomers and gellan gum

Hiroki, Akihiro; Sato, Yuichi*; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Ota, Akio*; Seito, Hajime; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi*; Yamamoto, Takayoshi*; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Tamada, Masao; Kojima, Takuji

Physics in Medicine & Biology, 58(20), p.7131 - 7141, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:55.28(Engineering, Biomedical)

Journal Articles

Composition analysis of high-stable transparent conductive zinc oxide by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy

Kuchiyama, Takashi*; Hasegawa, Shigehiko*; Yamamoto, Kenji*; Teraoka, Yuden; Asahi, Hajime*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 50(12), p.121101_1 - 121101_4, 2011/12

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:4.84(Physics, Applied)

JAEA Reports

Groundwater/porewater hydrochemistry at Horonobe URL; Data freeze II; Preliminary data quality evaluation for boreholes HDB-1 to 8

Kunimaru, Takanori; Ota, Kunio; Alexander, W. R.*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Research 2011-010, 52 Pages, 2011/06


Work has been currently ongoing to establish an appropriate quality management system (QMS), which is applicable to all aspects of the site characterisation process, in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project. A quality assurance (QA) audit of hydrochemical datasets for JAEA's deep boreholes HDB-1 to HDB-8 was carried out, along similar lines to that of the previous study for boreholes HDB-9 to HDB-11, by applying both the groundwater QA methodology employed in the recent site assessments in Sweden and a porewater QA regime proposed in this study. The results of the QA audit indicated that data were classified into low QA categories because mainly of a lack of relevant information, such as the records of groundwater sampling, which are necessary for more fully assessing the data quality. As such, a formalised field manual for hydrochemical sampling was developed. In addition, work to further improve the site characterisation QMS progressed.

JAEA Reports

Groundwater/porewater hydrochemistry at Horonobe URL: Data Freeze I; Preliminary data quality evaluation for boreholes HDB-9, 10 and 11

Kunimaru, Takanori; Ota, Kunio; Alexander, W. R.*; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Research 2010-035, 109 Pages, 2010/11


A quality management system (QMS) will save on effort by reducing errors and the requirement to re-sample and re-analysis and eventually lead to ensuring the reliability of the investigation results. In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory project, work has been ongoing to develop an appropriate QMS which is applicable to surface-based investigations. A quality assurance (QA) audit of hydrochemical datasets for boreholes HDB-9 - 11 has been carried out by applying both the groundwater QA methodology employed in the recent site assessments in Sweden and the porewater QA regime newly proposed for assigning the QA categories. This QA audit exercise indicates that the HDB-9 - 11 hydrochemical data are classified into lower categories because mainly of contamination of waters by drilling fluids, poor time-series data coverage and oxidation of core materials and also clarifies areas where additional information/work would be required to the ongoing programme.

Journal Articles

29th report of ITPA topical group meeting

Isayama, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Satoru*; Furukawa, Masaru*; Matsunaga, Go; Yamazaki, Kozo*; Watanabe, Kiyomasa*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Kenji*; Tamura, Naoki*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 86(6), p.374 - 377, 2010/06

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

27th report of ITPA topical group meeting

Osakabe, Masaki*; Shinohara, Koji; Toi, Kazuo*; Todo, Yasushi*; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Murakami, Sadayoshi*; Yamamoto, Satoshi*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Kenji*; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 85(12), p.839 - 842, 2009/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

EUV spectra from highly charged tin ions observed in low density plasma in LHD

Suzuki, Chihiro*; Kato, Takako*; Sato, Kuninori*; Tamura, Naoki*; Kato, Daiji*; Sudo, Shigeru*; Yamamoto, Norimasa*; Tanuma, Hajime*; Ohashi, Hayato*; Suda, Shintaro*; et al.

Journal of Physics; Conference Series, 163, p.012019_1 - 012019_4, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:93.72

We have measured EUV spectra from highly charged tin ions in low density plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The well known dense spectral structure around 13.5 nm is measured when the plasma is rapidly cooled and approaching radioactive collapse, while the sparse spectrum with several unidentified discrete lines from 13.8-14.6 nm is observed if the plasma is cooled more slowly. The dominant charge states in the former case are Sn$$^{11+}$$ -Sn$$^{14+}$$. The latter case may be explained by considering the spectral lines from charge states higher than Sn$$^{19+}$$.

Journal Articles

Status of JT-60SA tokamak under the EU-JA broader approach agreement

Matsukawa, Makoto; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Fujita, Takaaki; Hayashi, Takao; Higashijima, Satoru; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Ide, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shinichi; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(7-9), p.795 - 803, 2008/12

 Times Cited Count:17 Percentile:73.32(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Report on ITPA meetings, 24

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Maiko; Yagi, Masatoshi*; Tanaka, Kenji*; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tamura, Naoki*; Oyama, Naoyuki; Urano, Hajime; Aiba, Nobuyuki; et al.

Purazuma, Kaku Yugo Gakkai-Shi, 84(12), p.952 - 955, 2008/12

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The H-Invitational Database (H-InvDB); A Comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts

Yamasaki, Chisato*; Murakami, Katsuhiko*; Fujii, Yasuyuki*; Sato, Yoshiharu*; Harada, Erimi*; Takeda, Junichi*; Taniya, Takayuki*; Sakate, Ryuichi*; Kikugawa, Shingo*; Shimada, Makoto*; et al.

Nucleic Acids Research, 36(Database), p.D793 - D799, 2008/01

 Times Cited Count:51 Percentile:71.65(Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Here we report the new features and improvements in our latest release of the H-Invitational Database, a comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts. H-InvDB, originally developed as an integrated database of the human transcriptome based on extensive annotation of large sets of fulllength cDNA (FLcDNA) clones, now provides annotation for 120 558 human mRNAs extracted from the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD), in addition to 54 978 human FLcDNAs, in the latest release H-InvDB. We mapped those human transcripts onto the human genome sequences (NCBI build 36.1) and determined 34 699 human gene clusters, which could define 34 057 protein-coding and 642 non-protein-coding loci; 858 transcribed loci overlapped with predicted pseudogenes.

JAEA Reports

Analysis of ground water from boreholes, river water and precipitation in the Underground Research Laboratory Project

Kunimaru, Takanori; Shibano, Kazunori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Tomura, Goji; Hara, Minoru; Yamamoto, Hajime*

JAEA-Data/Code 2007-015, 113 Pages, 2007/11


In the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, ground water from boreholes, river water and precipitation have been preiodically analyzed for the environmental monitoring since the fiscal year 2001. This report shows the data set of water chemistry since the fiscal year 2001 to the fiscal year 2006.

Journal Articles

Long-term simulation of ambient groundwater chemistry at Horonobe underground research laboratory, Japan; Application of coupled hydro-geochemical model

Yamamoto, Hajime*; Kunimaru, Takanori; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Shimo, Michito*; Xu, T.*

Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Coupled T-H-M-C Processes in Geo-systems; Fundamentals, Modeling, Experiments and Applications (GeoProc 2006), p.382 - 387, 2006/05

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

Shimo, Michito*; Yamamoto, Hajime*; Kumamoto, So*; Fujiwara, Yasushi*; Ono, Makoto*

JNC TJ5400 2004-004, 120 Pages, 2005/02


The Horonobe underground research project has been carried out by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate current findings and latest data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area.

JAEA Reports

Hydrogeological Modeling and Groundwater Flow Analysis of the Underground Research Laboratory Site Using the Various Conceptual Model (Phase 2)

Ijiri, Yuji*; Ono, Makoto*; Sugihara, Yutaka*; Shimo, Michito*; Yamamoto, Hajime*; Fumimura, Kenichi*

JNC TJ7400 2004-015, 732 Pages, 2003/10


In order to establish the most effective procedures for groundwater flow characterization in order to reduce the uncertainty this study, the identidication of essential uncertainty factors for the groundwater flow characterization has been attempted using various conceptual model. In this study, an integrated data flow on the groundwater flow simuration was developed for previously applied various conceptural models. The data flow consists of five steps in order: (1) field investigation, (2) raw / conditioned data, (3) interpretation / data set, (4) conceptualization / modeling / simulation, and (5) results / applications. These are uncertainties in each work and assumption in every step, and the uncertainties have an influence on the modeling methods and simulation resuls. Following the data flow, the uncertain factors affecting the groundwater flow simulation were extracted based on the simulation resuls. Investigation data, methods of investigation and modeling, and analysis technique were examined to solve the problems due to the uncertainties. Acquired information is summarized in the following. As for each work process in the data flow, the uncertainty factors that are considered to affect the results of simulations are extracted by two kinds of comparison methods as follows: (1) comparison of data flow among analysis cases for each conceptual model, and (2) comparison of data flow among conceptual models for each case. The uncertainty factors include hydrogeological mechanism of fault and effective porosity, and the likes. The development of each data flow for four modeling methods was additionally used to clarify the data interpretation technique, the modeling procedure, and the uncertainty factor in each data flow along with the data flow from investigation through evaluation. Extensive through information without bias is, therefore, reflected in groundwater flow analysis by defining the data flow. Establishment of data flow...

Journal Articles

High performance tokamak experiments with a ferritic steel wall on JFT-2M

Tsuzuki, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Haruyuki; Kawashima, Hisato; Sato, Masayasu; Kamiya, Kensaku; Shinohara, Koji; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Bakhtiari, M.; Kasai, Satoshi; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 43(10), p.1288 - 1293, 2003/10

 Times Cited Count:39 Percentile:74.57(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

no abstracts in English

54 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)