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Journal Articles

Iterative methods with mixed-precision preconditioning for ill-conditioned linear systems in multiphase CFD simulations

Ina, Takuya*; Idomura, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Toshiyuki*; Yamashita, Susumu; Onodera, Naoyuki

Proceedings of 12th Workshop on Latest Advances in Scalable Algorithms for Large-Scale Systems ScalA21) (Internet) , 8 Pages, 2021/11

A new mixed-precision preconditioner based on the iterative refinement (IR) method is developed for preconditioned conjugate gradient (P-CG) and multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient (MGCG) solvers in a multi-phase thermal-hydraulic CFD code JUPITER. In the IR preconditioner, all data is stored in FP16 to reduce memory access, while all computation is performed in FP32. The hybrid FP16/32 implementation keeps the similar convergence property as FP32, while the computational performance is close to FP16. The developed solvers are optimized on Fugaku (A64FX), and applied to ill-conditioned matrices in JUPITER. The P-CG and MGCG solvers with the new IR preconditioner show excellent strong scaling up to 8,000 nodes, and at 8,000 nodes, they are respectively accelerated up to 4.86$$times$$ and 2.39$$times$$ from the conventional ones on Oakforest-PACS (KNL).

Journal Articles

Communication avoiding multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method for extreme scale multiphase CFD simulations

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Onodera, Naoyuki; Yamada, Susumu; Yamashita, Susumu; Ina, Takuya*; Imamura, Toshiyuki*

Supa Kompyuteingu Nyusu, 22(5), p.18 - 29, 2020/09

A communication avoiding multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CAMGCG) is applied to the pressure Poisson equation in a multiphase CFD code JUPITER, and its computational performance and convergence property are compared against the conventional Krylov methods. The CAMGCG solver has robust convergence properties regardless of the problem size, and shows both communication reduction and convergence improvement, leading to higher performance gain than CA Krylov solvers, which achieve only the former. The CAMGCG solver is applied to extreme scale multiphase CFD simulations with 90 billion DOFs, and its performance is compared against the preconditioned CG solver. In this benchmark, the number of iterations is reduced to $$sim 1/800$$, and $$sim 11.6times$$ speedup is achieved with keeping excellent strong scaling up to 8,000 nodes on the Oakforest-PACS.

Journal Articles

Communication avoiding multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method for extreme scale multiphase CFD simulations

Idomura, Yasuhiro; Ina, Takuya*; Yamashita, Susumu; Onodera, Naoyuki; Yamada, Susumu; Imamura, Toshiyuki*

Proceedings of 9th Workshop on Latest Advances in Scalable Algorithms for Large-Scale Systems (ScalA 2018) (Internet), p.17 - 24, 2018/11

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:77.41

A communication avoiding (CA) multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method (CAMGCG) is applied to the pressure Poisson equation in a multiphase CFD code JUPITER, and its computational performance and convergence property are compared against CA Krylov methods. In the JUPITER code, the CAMGCG solver has robust convergence properties regardless of the problem size, and shows both communication reduction and convergence improvement, leading to higher performance gain than CA Krylov solvers, which achieve only the former. The CAMGCG solver is applied to extreme scale multiphase CFD simulations with $$sim 90$$ billion DOFs, and it is shown that compared with a preconditioned CG solver, the number of iterations is reduced to $$sim 1/800$$, and $$sim 11.6times$$ speedup is achieved with keeping excellent strong scaling up to 8,000 nodes on the Oakforest-PACS.

JAEA Reports

Development of geological structure modeling technology based on regional tectonic process (Joint research)

Tagami, Masahiko*; Yamada, Yasuhiro*; Yamashita, Yoshihiko*; Miyakawa, Ayumu*; Matsuoka, Toshifumi*; Xue, Z.*; Tsuji, Takeshi*; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Amano, Kenji; et al.

JAEA-Research 2012-036, 110 Pages, 2013/02

JAEA-Research-2012-036.pdf:44.93MB

Northeast strike faults developed in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) control groundwater flow. These faults were possibly formed as a part of pull-apart structure by the right lateral movement of the Tsukiyoshi fault distributed in the north of MIU site. But the formational mechanism of these faults is still uncertain. In this joint research, the analog experiment and the numerical simulation were used to restore the geological structures around MIU site. The paleo-stress analysis were exposed an ancient deformation mechanism, and the formation timing was presumed in the regional tectonics. The results are adopted for the design of the analog experiment and the numerical simulation. The results of obtained analog experiment and numerical simulation are verified three-dimensionally, and then compared to the current geological structure model. Then the geological structure in the uninvestigated area is estimated.

Journal Articles

Consideration of the tectonic and the geological structure evolution; Application to analogue model experiment and numerical simulation

Tagami, Masahiko; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Yasuhiro*; Matsuoka, Toshifumi*; Yamashita, Yoshihiko*; Miyakawa, Ayumu*

JAEA-Review 2010-069, p.125 - 126, 2011/02

no abstracts in English

JAEA Reports

Annual report of Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (April 1, 2009 - March 31, 2010)

Kanamori, Masashi; Shirakawa, Yusuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Takeshi; Sato, Sohei; Terakado, Naoya; Nagakura, Tomohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro; et al.

JAEA-Review 2010-037, 60 Pages, 2010/09

JAEA-Review-2010-037.pdf:3.11MB

When a nuclear emergency occurs in Japan, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) provides technical support to the National government, local governments, police, fire station and license holder etc. They are designated public organizations conforming to the basic law on emergency preparedness and the basic plan for disaster countermeasures. The Nuclear Emergency Assistance & Training Center (NEAT) of JAEA provides a comprehensive range of technical support activities to an off-site center in case of a nuclear emergency. Specifically, NEAT gives technical advice and information, provides for the dispatch of specialist as required, supplies emergency equipments and materials to the national government and municipal office. NEAT provide various lectures and training course concerning nuclear disaster prevention for those personnel taking an active part in emergency response organizations at normal time. And NEAT researches on nuclear disaster prevention and also cooperate with international organizations. This annual report summarized the activities of JAEA/NEAT in the fiscal year 2009.

JAEA Reports

Long term treatment of waste TBP/n-dodecane with steam reforming system

Sone, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Akinori; Koyama, Hayato; Gunji, Kiyoshi; Nonaka, Kazuharu; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tashiro, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

JAEA-Technology 2009-023, 33 Pages, 2009/06

JAEA-Technology-2009-023.pdf:8.11MB

Steam reforming (SR) method consists of the gasification process in which organics are vaporized and decomposed with superheated steam and the oxidation process in which vaporized organics are decomposed by oxidizing reaction with heated air. 2,500L of waste TBP/n-dodecane contaminated with uranium was treated using the demonstration scale steam reforming system to examine the performance of the system. Results obtained in this study show that the temperature in the SR system was controlled under the self-regulation temperature, the concentration of CO and NOx in the off-gas were controlled less than 100ppm and 250ppm respectively, the distribution ratio of uranium to off-gas treatment system was under 0.12% and the gasification ratio of waste TBP was more than 99%. This long-term waste treatment test has demonstrated that the SR system can safely and effectively reduce the volume of the waste.

JAEA Reports

Thermal treatment for TRU waste sorting

Sasaki, Toshiki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

JAEA-Technology 2009-001, 33 Pages, 2009/03

JAEA-Technology-2009-001.pdf:2.92MB

A thermal treatment that can automatically unpack TRU waste and remove hazardous materials has been developed to reduce the risk of radiation exposure and save operation cost. The thermal treatment is a process of removing plastic wrapping and hazardous material from TRU waste by heating waste at 500 to 700 $$^{circ}$$C. Plastic wrappings of simulated wastes were removed using a laboratory scale thermal treatment system. Celluloses and isoprene rubbers that must be removed from waste for disposal were pyrolyzed by the treatment. Although the thermal treatment can separate lead and aluminum from the waste, a further technical development is needed to separate lead and aluminum. Future technology development subjects for the TRU waste thermal treatment system are summarized.

Journal Articles

Fuel performance evaluation of rock-like oxide fuels

Shirasu, Noriko; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Nihei, Yasuo; Ogawa, Toru

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 376(1), p.88 - 97, 2008/05

 Times Cited Count:13 Percentile:68.01(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

The concept of the rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel has been developed for the annihilation of excess plutonium in light water reactors. Irradiation tests and post-irradiation examinations were carried out on candidate ROX fuels. The ternary fuel of YSZ-spinel-corundum system, the single-phase fuels of YSZ, the particle dispersed fuels of YSZ in spinel or corundum matrix, and the blended fuels of YSZ and spinel or corundum matrix were fabricated and submitted to irradiation tests. The fuels containing spinel showed chemical instabilities with the vaporization of MgO component, which caused fuel restructuring. The swelling behavior was improved with the particle-dispersed fuels. However, the particle-dispersed fuels showed higher fractional gas release (FGR) than blended type fuels. The FGR of YSZ single-phase fuels were comparable to what would be expected for UO$$_{2}$$ fuels. The YSZ single-phase fuel showed the best irradiation performance among the ROX fuels investigated.

Journal Articles

Study of rock-like oxide fuels under irradiation

Shirasu, Noriko; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Toru

Journal of Power and Energy Systems (Internet), 2(1), p.145 - 152, 2008/00

To evaluate the irradiation behavior of the rock-like oxide fuel, irradiation experiments were carried out. Three fuels were prepared; a single phase fuel of yttria-stabilized zirconia containing UO$$_{2}$$ (U-YSZ) and two types of particle-dispersed fuels of U-YSZ particles in spinel or corundum matrix. These fuels were irradiated in JRR-3 for about 280 days. The burnups were about 11% FIMA. The fission gas release rate (FGR) was determined by puncture test and gas analysis. Corundum-based fuel showed extremely high FGR (88%). The temperature of U-YSZ single-phase fuel pellets was highest among the fuels, because of its low thermal conductivity. Nevertheless the U-YSZ single-phase fuel showed very low FGR (5%). Microstructure analyses of irradiated fuel pellets were carried out by ceramography and EPMA. The restructuring of fuel pellet was not observed in the spinel-based fuel irradiated below 1400 K.

Journal Articles

Study of rock-like oxide fuels under irradiation

Shirasu, Noriko; Kuramoto, Kenichi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Toru

Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-15) (CD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2007/04

To evaluate the irradiation behavior of the rock-like oxide fuel, irradiation experiments were carried out. Three fuels were prepared; a single phase fuel of yttria-stabilized zirconia containing UO$$_{2}$$ (U-YSZ) and two particle-dispersed fuels of U-YSZ particles in spinel or corundum matrix. These fuels were irradiated in JRR-3 for about 280 days. The burnups were about 11% FIMA. The fission gas release rate (FGR) was determined by puncture test and gas analysis. Corundum-based fuel showed extremely high FGR (88%). On the other hand, the U-YSZ single-phase fuel showed very low FGR (5%). Microstructure analyses for irradiated fuel pellets were carried out by ceramography and EPMA. The restructuring of fuel pellet was not observed in the spinel-based fuel irradiated below 1400 K. Significant appearance changes were not also observed for corundum-based fuel.

Journal Articles

Post-irradiation examination on particle dispersed rock-like oxide fuel

Shirasu, Noriko; Kuramoto, Kenichi*; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Ichise, Kenichi; Ono, Katsuto; Nihei, Yasuo

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 352(1-3), p.365 - 371, 2006/06

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:32.55(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To evaluate irradiation behavior of the ROX fuel, irradiation experiment was carried out using 20% enriched U instead of Pu. Three fuels were prepared; a single phase fuel of YSZ containing UO$$_{2}$$ (U-YSZ), two particle-dispersed fuels of U-YSZ particle in spinel or corundum matrix. The U-YSZ particles were prepared by crashing presintered U-YSZ pellets and by sieving them. These fuels were irradiated in Japan Research Reactor No.3 for 13 cycles, about 300 days. Though many cracks were observed in the pellets by X-ray photographs, significant appearance changes were not observed for all fuel pins. Distribution of typical FPs was analyzed by the $$gamma$$ scanning over the fuel pin. Non-volatile nuclide remained in the fuel pellet. On the other hand, a part of Cs moved to the gaps between the pellets and to the insulators. $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs showed different distributions at the plenum. Fuel pellets were taken out from fuel pins without bonding. Spinel decomposition and subsequent restructuring were not observed probably due to low irradiation temperature.

JAEA Reports

Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on JAERI's Reimei Research Program; June 28-29, 2005

Yamashita, Toshiyuki

JAERI-Conf 2005-011, 205 Pages, 2005/09

JAERI-Conf-2005-011.pdf:39.4MB

The Reimei (Dawn) Research Program is a research project based on public application to be conducted within the framework of the Reimei Research Promotion project of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to encourage original and/or unique ideas in the field of fundamental nuclear science and nuclear energy. The Symposium on JAERI's Reimei Research Program carried out in the 2004 fiscal year was held at Tokai Research Establishment on 28th and 29th of June 2005. 38 papers were reported through the short presentation followed by the poster presentation. These presented papers were compiled in the proceedings. We hope that new researches will be grown and developed by the help of Reimei Research Promotion project.

Journal Articles

Phase equilibria and thermal expansion of CaTiO$$_{3}$$ doped with neptunium

Sato, Tsuyoshi*; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Tsuneo*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 344(1-3), p.67 - 72, 2005/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:18.81(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Phase relationships between NpO$$_{2}$$ and CaTiO$$_{3}$$ or Ca(Ti, Al)O$$_{3}$$ were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, using specimens prepared at 1773 K in Ar-8%H$$_{2}$$. Single phase solid solutions were formed 0-7.5 mol%Np and 1-10 mol%Np for CaTiO$$_{3}$$ and Ca(Ti, Al)O$$_{3}$$, respectively. By substituting Al for Ti in CaTiO$$_{3}$$, Np solubility in Ca(Ti, Al)O$$_{3}$$ increased. Solubility of Np was compared with those of U and Pu, and was discussed with oxidation states and ionic radii of dopants. Thermal expansions of (Ca,Np)TiO$$_{3}$$ were measured from room temperature to 1273 K in Ar-8%H$$_{2}$$ using high-temperature XRD technique. These specimens showed nearly the same value of volumetric thermal expansion coefficients, suggesting that the incorporation of tetravalent Np into CaTiO$$_{3}$$ had practically no effect on stabilization of the crystal lattice. This finding was in a marked contrast to that of Pu doped CaTiO$$_{3}$$, where pronounced stabilization in the crystal was observed by incorporating Pu into CaTiO$$_{3}$$.

Journal Articles

Oxygen potential measurements of fluorite-type Zr$$_{0.5}$$Pu$$_{0.5}$$O$$_{2-y}$$ by EMF method

Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nakamura, Akio; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Minato, Kazuo

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 344(1-3), p.219 - 222, 2005/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:25.79(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Actinides-bearing zirconias are prominent candidate materials for various nuclear applications: targets for actinide transmutation, inert material fuels, radioactive waste forms, etc. In this study, the oxygen potential (g(O$$_{2}$$)) behavior of fluorite-type (F-type) Zr$$_{0.5}$$Pu$$_{0.5}$$O$$_{2-y}$$ has been measured by EMF method using the zirconia oxygen sensor. It was found that the g(O$$_{2}$$) values of F-type Zr$$_{0.5}$$Pu$$_{0.5}$$O$$_{2-y}$$ were about 150 kJ/mol higher than those of F-type PuO$$_{2-y}$$ at the same oxygen-nonstoichiometric (O/M) values. The g(O$$_{2}$$) values of F-type Zr$$_{0.5}$$Pu$$_{0.5}$$O$$_{2-y}$$ were 50 kJ/mol lower than those of pyrochlore Zr$$_{2}$$Pu$$_{2}$$O$$_{7+x}$$ at the same O/M values. These results suggest that the g(O$$_{2}$$) behavior depends on the cation and anion ordering/disordering, in addition to the cation composition ratio (Zr/Pu).

Journal Articles

Mass-spectrometric study of PuCd$$_{2}$$

Nakajima, Kunihisa; Arai, Yasuo; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 66(2-4), p.639 - 642, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:13.16(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

PuCd$$_{2}$$ intermetallic compound was prepared by heating pure Pu and Cd metals at about 950K. PuCd$$_{2}$$ was found to be a prototype of CdI$$_{2}$$ by means of powder X-ray diffractometry. Mass-spectrometric experiment was performed in the temperature range of 650-770K. It was found that the vapor pressures of Cd over PuCd$$_{2}$$+Pu were three to five orders of magnitude lower than those over Cd in this temperature range. From these vapor pressures, Gibbs free energy of formation of PuCd$$_{2}$$ was evaluated.

Journal Articles

Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

Shirai, Osamu; Kato, Tetsuya*; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo; Yamashita, Toshiyuki

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 66(2-4), p.456 - 460, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:38.49(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing UCl$$_{3}$$ and PuCl$$_{3}$$ at 773 K were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical dissolution of PuN and (U, Pu)N began nearly at -1.0 V vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The rest potentials of PuN and (U, Pu)N were observed at about 0.15 V more negative potential than that of UN since the equilibrium potential of UN is about 0.15 V more positive than that of PuN. In the cyclic voltammogram measured by using (U, Pu)N as the working electrode, a steep rise of the positive current was observed at more positive potential than -0.4 V in analogy with the cyclic voltammogram measured by using UN as the working electrode. In addition, there were two anodic current waves in the voltammogram with (U, Pu)N, though the wave form was not clear. This indicates that UN and PuN would be dissolved independently irrespective of formation of the solid solution, (U, Pu)N.

Journal Articles

Oxygen potential and defect structure of oxygen-excess pyrochlore Ce$$_{2}$$Zr$$_{2}$$O$$_{7+x}$$

Otobe, Haruyoshi; Nakamura, Akio; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Minato, Kazuo

Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 66(2-4), p.329 - 334, 2005/02

 Times Cited Count:22 Percentile:65.2(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Pyrochlore-type (P-type) zirconias have been attracting significant research interest as disposable forms of high-level radioactive waste. In this work, we have clarified the oxygen potentials (g(O$$_{2}$$)) vs. oxygen nonstoichiometry (x) and temperature relations of P-type Ce$$_{2}$$Zr$$_{2}$$O$$_{7+x}$$ by the emf method and determined the lattice parameters (a0) with respect to x by XRD method.

Journal Articles

Development of Rock-like Oxide Fuel, an innovative nuclear fuel for burning plutonium

Yamashita, Toshiyuki

Seramikkusu, 39(10), p.817 - 821, 2004/10

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A New type of neptunyl(VI) hydroxide which is topologically similar to $$alpha$$-UO$$_{2}$$(OH)$$_{2}$$

Nakada, Masami; Kitazawa, Takafumi*; Saito, Takashi*; Wang, J.*; Takeda, Masuo*; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Saeki, Masakatsu

Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 76(7), p.1375 - 1378, 2003/07

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:23.45(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

no abstracts in English

92 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)