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Journal Articles

Radon measurements with a compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer

Morishita, Yuki; Ye, Y.*; Mata, L.*; Pozzi, S. A.*; Kearfott, K. J.*

Radiation Measurements, 137, p.106428_1 - 106428_7, 2020/09

 Times Cited Count:0

We have developed a compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer for radon measurements and have characterized it using a unique, small radon chamber. The spectrometer is composed of a through-silicon via (TSV) silicon photomultiplier (or SiPM) and a 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm stilbene crystal cube. Analog signals from the SiPM are sent to a digitizer. The detector is housed in a light-tight box, with a stacked air filter installed in one side of the box to enable $$^{222}$$Rn gas to diffuse to the inside. We conducted one experiment with the spectrometer and an AlphaGUARD detector placed in a basement at the University of Michigan, and we conducted other experiments with both detectors placed in a small radon chamber together with $$^{226}$$Ra sources. By applying a pulse-shape-discrimination technique, we were able to separate the alpha and beta spectra simultaneously and clearly and to measure them quantitatively. We found two peaks in the measured alpha spectrum: a lower-energy peak due to $$^{218}$$Po and a higher-energy peak due to $$^{214}$$Po. We found a linear relation between the radon concentration y from AlphaGUARD and the counting rates from the stilbene-SiPM detector. The alpha/beta spectrometer is less than 10 mm thick, and we expect that it will be easy to increase the sensitivity with future device construction. Thus, this compact, organic-scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer shows promise for use in novel radon-detection systems.

Journal Articles

Spallation and fragmentation cross sections for 168 MeV/nucleon $$^{136}$$Xe ions on proton, deuteron, and carbon targets

Sun, X. H.*; Wang, H.*; Otsu, Hideaki*; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi*; Ahn, D. S.*; Aikawa, Masayuki*; Fukuda, Naoki*; Isobe, Tadaaki*; Kawakami, Shunsuke*; Koyama, Shumpei*; et al.

Physical Review C, 101(6), p.064623_1 - 064623_12, 2020/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Physics, Nuclear)

The spallation and fragmentation reactions of $$^{136}$$Xe induced by proton, deuteron and carbon at 168 MeV/nucleon were studied at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory via the inverse kinematics technique. The cross sections of the lighter products are larger in the carbon-induced reactions due to the higher total kinetic energy of carbon. The energy dependence was investigated by comparing the newly obtained data with previous results obtained at higher reaction energies. The experimental data were compared with the results of SPACS, EPAX, PHITS and DEURACS calculations. These data serve as benchmarks for the model calculations.

Journal Articles

Momentum transport studies from multi-machine comparisons

Yoshida, Maiko; Kaye, S.*; Rice, J.*; Solomon, W.*; Tala, T.*; Bell, R. E.*; Burrell, K. H.*; Ferreira, J.*; Kamada, Yutaka; McDonald, D. C.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 52(12), p.123005_1 - 123005_11, 2012/11

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:36.5(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The purpose of this study is to find a common feature on momentum transport coefficients including diffusive and non-diffusive terms in all machines. The momentum database enables us to assess a parametric dependency of momentum transport in a wider range of dimensionless parameters related to transport. Such observation will contribute to make a scaling/modeling on momentum transport for future devices like ITER and DEMO. On the other hand, the investigation of a difference in observation by comparing the experimental conditions will give a useful information to realize what plasma parameter is the key for the momentum transport coefficients.

Journal Articles

ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

Schaffer, M. J.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Gohil, P.*; de Vries, P.*; Evans, T. E.*; Fenstermacher, M. E.*; Gao, X.*; Garofalo, A. M.*; Gates, D. A.*; Greenfield, C. M.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 51(10), p.103028_1 - 103028_11, 2011/10

 Times Cited Count:32 Percentile:15.37(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of ferromagnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking; confinement; L-H transition; edge localized mode (ELM) suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations; ELMs and the H-mode pedestal; energetic particle losses; and more. The experiments used a 3-coil mock-up of 2 magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The experiments did not reveal any effect likely to preclude ITER operations with a TBM-like error field. The largest effect was slowed plasma toroidal rotation v across the entire radial profile by as much as $$Delta v/v_{0} sim 50%$$ via non-resonant braking. Changes to global $$Delta n/n_{0}$$, $$Delta v/v_{0}$$ and $$Delta H_{98}/H_{98,0}$$ were $$sim$$3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher $$beta$$ and lower $$v_{0}$$. Other effects were smaller.

Journal Articles

Identified charged hadron production in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(6), p.064903_1 - 064903_29, 2011/06

 Times Cited Count:141 Percentile:0.63(Physics, Nuclear)

Transverse momentum distributions and yields for $$pi^{pm}, K^{pm}, p$$, and $$bar{p}$$ in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 and 62.4 GeV at midrapidity are measured by the PHENIX experiment at the RHIC. We present the inverse slope parameter, mean transverse momentum, and yield per unit rapidity at each energy, and compare them to other measurements at different $$sqrt{s}$$ collisions. We also present the scaling properties such as $$m_T$$ and $$x_T$$ scaling and discuss the mechanism of the particle production in $$p + p$$ collisions. The measured spectra are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations.

Journal Articles

Azimuthal correlations of electrons from heavy-flavor decay with hadrons in $$p+p$$ and Au+Au collisions at $$sqrt{s_{NN}}$$ = 200 GeV

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Yasuyuki*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, Kazuya*; Aphecetche, L.*; Aramaki, Y.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 83(4), p.044912_1 - 044912_16, 2011/04

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:49.49(Physics, Nuclear)

Measurements of electrons from the decay of open-heavy-flavor mesons have shown that the yields are suppressed in Au+Au collisions compared to expectations from binary-scaled $$p+p$$ collisions. Here we extend these studies to two particle correlations where one particle is an electron from the decay of a heavy flavor meson and the other is a charged hadron from either the decay of the heavy meson or from jet fragmentation. These measurements provide more detailed information about the interaction between heavy quarks and the quark-gluon matter. We find the away-side-jet shape and yield to be modified in Au+Au collisions compared to $$p+p$$ collisions.

Journal Articles

Measurement of neutral mesons in $$p$$ + $$p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV and scaling properties of hadron production

Adare, A.*; Afanasiev, S.*; Aidala, C.*; Ajitanand, N. N.*; Akiba, Y.*; Al-Bataineh, H.*; Alexander, J.*; Aoki, K.*; Aphecetche, L.*; Armendariz, R.*; et al.

Physical Review D, 83(5), p.052004_1 - 052004_26, 2011/03

 Times Cited Count:137 Percentile:1.6(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

The PHENIX experiment at RHIC has measured the invariant differential cross section for production of $$K^0_s$$, $$omega$$, $$eta'$$ and $$phi$$ mesons in $$p + p$$ collisions at $$sqrt{s}$$ = 200 GeV. The spectral shapes of all hadron transverse momentum distributions are well described by a Tsallis distribution functional form with only two parameters, $$n$$ and $$T$$, determining the high $$p_T$$ and characterizing the low $$p_T$$ regions for the spectra, respectively. The integrated invariant cross sections calculated from the fitted distributions are found to be consistent with existing measurements and with statistical model predictions.

Journal Articles

Plasma models for real-time control of advanced tokamak scenarios

Moreau, D.*; Mazon, D.*; Walker, M. L.*; Ferron, J. R.*; Flanagan, S. M.*; Gohil, P.*; Groebner, R. J.*; La Haye, R. J.*; Schuster, E.*; Ou, Y.*; et al.

Proceedings of 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2010/10

Journal Articles

Recent progress on the development and analysis of the ITPA global H-mode confinement database

McDonald, D. C.*; Cordey, J. G.*; Thomsen, K.*; Kardaun, O. J. W. F.*; Snipes, J. A.*; Greenwald, M.*; Sugiyama, L.*; Ryter, F.*; Kus, A.*; Stober, J.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(3), p.147 - 174, 2007/03

 Times Cited Count:39 Percentile:73.68(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

This paper describes the updates to and analysis of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Global H-node Confinement Database version 3 (DB3) over the period 1994-2004. Global data, for the energy confinement time and its controlling parameters, have now been collected from 18 machines of different sizes and shapes: ASDEX, ASDEX Upgrade, C-Mod CoMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M, JT-60U, MAST, NSTX, PBX-M, PDX, START, T-10, TCV, TdeV, TFTR and TUMAN-3M. A wide range of physics studies has been performed on DB3 with particular progress made in the separation of core and edge behavior, dimensionless parameter analyses and the comparison of the database with one-dimensional transport code. A key aim of the database has always been to provide a basis for estimating the energy confinement properties of next step machines such as ITER, and so the impact of the database and its analysis on such machines is also discussed.

Journal Articles

Scaling of the energy confinement time with $$beta$$ and collisionality approaching ITER conditions

Cordey, J. G.*; Thomsen, K.*; Chudnovskiy, A.*; Kardaun, O. J. W. F.*; Takizuka, Tomonori; Snipes, J. A.*; Greenwald, M.*; Sugiyama, L.*; Ryter, F.*; Kus, A.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 45(9), p.1078 - 1084, 2005/09

 Times Cited Count:47 Percentile:15.78(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

The condition of the latest version of the ELMy H-mode database has been re-examined. It is shown that there is bias in the ordinary least squares regression for some of the variables. To address these shortcomings three different techniques are employed: (a)principal component regression, (b)an error in variables technique and (c)the selection of a better conditioned dataset with fewer variables. Scalings in terms of the dimensionless physics valiables, as well as the standard set of engineering variables, are derived. The new scalings give a very similar performance for existing scalings for ITER at the standard beta, but a much improvement performance at higher beta.

Oral presentation

Radon measurements in a small chamber using compact organic scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer

Morishita, Yuki; Ye, Y.*; Mata, L.*; Pozzi, S.*; Kearfott, K.*

no journal, , 

A compact organic scintillator-based $$alpha beta$$ spectrometer was developed and tested for radon measurements. The spectrometer was composed of a Through Silicon Via (TSV) silicon photomultiplier or SiPM and a 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm $$times$$ 6 mm stilbene cube crystal. Analog signals from the SiPM were sent to a digitizer. The detector was placed in a light-tight box and a stacked air filter was embedded on the side surface of the light-tight box. A continuous radon monitor, the AlphaGUARD, and $$^{226}$$Ra sources were placed in a small radon chamber constructed using a cylindrical 0.57 m diameter, 0.88 m tall steel drum. By applying a pulse shape discrimination technique, alpha and beta spectra were simultaneously clearly separated and quantitatively measured. Two peaks were registered in the measured alpha spectrum: $$^{218}$$Po was registered in the lower peak and $$^{214}$$Po was registered in the higher peak. A linear relationship was observed between radon counts from the AlphaGUARD and count-rates from the stilbene-SiPM detector. The thickness of the stilbene-SiPM detector was less than 10 mm, thus easy increases insensitivity should be possible with future construction. Thus, the compact organic scintillator-based alpha/beta spectrometer shows promise for use in novel radon detection systems.

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