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Journal Articles

R&D of digital technology on inverse estimation of radioactive source distributions and related source countermeasures; R&D status of digital platform including 3D-ADRES-indoor

Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Kim, M.; Okumura, Masahiko; Miyamura, Hiroko; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Sato, Tomoki*; Numata, Yoshiaki*; Tobita, Yasuhiro*; Yamaguchi, Takashi; et al.

RIST News, (69), p.2 - 18, 2023/09

The contamination of radioactive materials leaked from the reactor has resulted in numerous hot spots in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F) building, posing obstacles to its decommissioning. In order to solve this problem, JAEA has conducted research and development of the digital technique for inverse estimation of radiation source distribution and countermeasures against the estimated source in virtual space for two years from 2021 based on the subsidy program "Project of Decommissioning and Contaminated Water Management" performed by the funds from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. In this article, we introduce the results of the project and the plan of the renewal project started in April 2023. For the former project, we report the derivative method for LASSO method considering the complex structure inside the building and the character of the source and show the result of the inverse estimation using the method in the real reactor building. Moreover, we explain the platform software "3D-ADRES-Indoor" which integrates these achievements. Finally, we introduce the plan of the latter project.

Journal Articles

Level structures of $$^{56,58}$$Ca cast doubt on a doubly magic $$^{60}$$Ca

Chen, S.*; Browne, F.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Lee, J.*; Obertelli, A.*; Tsunoda, Yusuke*; Otsuka, Takaharu*; Chazono, Yoshiki*; Hagen, G.*; Holt, J. D.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 843, p.138025_1 - 138025_7, 2023/08

Gamma decays were observed in $$^{56}$$Ca and $$^{58}$$Ca following quasi-free one-proton knockout reactions from $$^{57,59}$$Sc. For $$^{56}$$Ca, a $$gamma$$ ray transition was measured to be 1456(12) keV, while for $$^{58}$$Ca an indication for a transition was observed at 1115(34) keV. Both transitions were tentatively assigned as the $$2^{+}_{1} rightarrow 0^{+}_{gs}$$ decays. A shell-model calculation in a wide model space with a marginally modified effective nucleon-nucleon interaction depicts excellent agreement with experiment for $$2^{+}_{1}$$ level energies, two-neutron separation energies, and reaction cross sections, corroborating the formation of a new nuclear shell above the N = 34 shell. Its constituents, the $$0_{f5/2}$$ and $$0_{g9/2}$$ orbitals, are almost degenerate. This degeneracy precludes the possibility for a doubly magic $$^{60}$$Ca and potentially drives the dripline of Ca isotopes to $$^{70}$$Ca or even beyond.

Journal Articles

Inverse estimation scheme of radioactive source distributions inside building rooms based on monitoring air dose rates using LASSO; Theory and demonstration

Shi, W.*; Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Okamoto, Koji*

Progress in Nuclear Energy, 162, p.104792_1 - 104792_19, 2023/08

Predicting radioactive source distributions inside reactor building rooms based on monitoring air dose rates is one of the most essential steps towards decommissioning of nuclear power plants. However, the attempt is rather a difficult task, because it can be generally mapped onto mathematically ill-posed problem. Then, in order to successfully perform the inverse estimations on radioactive source distributions even in such ill-posed conditions, we suggest that a machine learning method, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) minimizing the loss function, $$||CP-Q||_2^2+lambda||_1$$ is a promising scheme. For the purpose of its feasibility demonstrations in real building rooms, we employ PHITS code to make LASSO input as the above matrix C connecting the radioactive source vector P defined on surface meshes of structural materials with the air dose rate vector Q measured at internal positions inside the rooms. We develop a mathematical criterion on the number of monitoring points to correctly predict source distributions based on the theory of Candes and Tao. Then, we confirm that LASSO actually shows extremely high possibility for source distribution reconstructions as far as the number of detection points satisfies our criterion. Moreover, we verify that radioactive hot spots can be truly reconstructed in an experiment setup. At last, we examine an influence factor like detector-source distance to enhance the predicting possibility in the inverse estimation. From the above demonstrations, we propose that LASSO scheme is a quite useful way to explore hot spots as seen in damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

Journal Articles

LASSO reconstruction scheme for radioactive source distributions inside reactor building rooms with spectral information and multi-radionuclide contaminated situations

Shi, W.*; Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Okamoto, Koji*

Annals of Nuclear Energy, 184, p.109686_1 - 109686_12, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:82.84(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Multiple mechanisms in proton-induced nucleon removal at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon

Pohl, T.*; Sun, Y. L.*; Obertelli, A.*; Lee, J.*; G$'o$mez-Ramos, M.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Cai, B. S.*; Yuan, C. X.*; Brown, B. A.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 130(17), p.172501_1 - 172501_8, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:94.54(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We report on the first proton-induced single proton- and neutron-removal reactions from the neutron deficient $$^{14}$$O nucleus with large Fermi-surface asymmetry at $$sim$$100 MeV/nucleon. Our results provide the first quantitative contributions of multiple reaction mechanisms including the quasifree knockout, inelastic scattering, and nucleon transfer processes. It is shown that the inelastic scattering and nucleon transfer, usually neglected at such energy regime, contribute about 50% and 30% to the loosely bound proton and deeply bound neutron removal, respectively.

Journal Articles

LASSO reconstruction scheme to predict radioactive source distributions inside reactor building rooms; Theory & demonstration

Shi, W.*; Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Okamoto, Koji*

Proceedings of Waste Management Symposia 2023 (WM2023) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2023/02

Journal Articles

LASSO reconstruction scheme to predict radioactive source distributions inside reactor building rooms; Practical applications

Machida, Masahiko; Shi, W.*; Yamada, Susumu; Miyamura, Hiroko; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*; Okamoto, Koji; Aoki, Yuto; Ito, Rintaro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; et al.

Proceedings of Waste Management Symposia 2023 (WM2023) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2023/02

Journal Articles

"Southwestern" boundary of the $$N = 40$$ island of inversion; First study of low-lying bound excited states in $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V

Elekes, Z.*; Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Sohler, D.*; Sieja, K.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(6), p.064321_1 - 064321_10, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.02(Physics, Nuclear)

The low-lying level structure of $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V was investigated for the first time. The neutron knockout reaction and inelastic proton scattering were applied for $$^{61}$$V while the neutron knock-out reaction provided the data for $$^{59}$$V. Four and five new transitions were determined for $$^{59}$$V and $$^{61}$$V, respectively. Based on the comparison to our shell-model calculations using the Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja (LNPS) interaction, three of the observed $$gamma$$ rays for each isotope could be placed in the level scheme and assigned to the decay of the first 11/2$$^{-}$$ and 9/2$$^{-}$$ levels. The ($$p$$,$$p'$$) excitation cross sections for $$^{61}$$V were analyzed by the coupled-channels formalism assuming quadrupole plus hexadecapole deformations. Due to the role of the hexadecapole deformation, $$^{61}$$V could not be unambiguously placed on the island of inversion.

Journal Articles

Extended $$p_{3/2}$$ neutron orbital and the $$N = 32$$ shell closure in $$^{52}$$Ca

Enciu, M.*; Liu, H. N.*; Obertelli, A.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Nowacki, F.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Poves, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 129(26), p.262501_1 - 262501_7, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:35.17(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The one-neutron knockout from $$^{52}$$Ca was performed at $$sim$$230 MeV/nucleon combined with prompt $$gamma$$ spectroscopy. The momentum distributions corresponding to the removal of $$1f_{7/2}$$ and $$2p_{3/2}$$ neutrons were measured. The cross sections are consistent with a shell closure at the neutron number $$N = 32$$, found as strong as at $$N = 28$$ and $$N = 34$$ in Ca isotopes from the same observables. The analysis of the momentum distributions leads to a difference of the root-mean-square radii of the neutron $$1_{f7/2}$$ and $$2p_{3/2}$$ orbitals of 0.61(23) fm, in agreement with the modified-shell-model prediction of 0.7 fm suggesting that the large root-mean-square radius of the $$2p_{3/2}$$ orbital in neutron-rich Ca isotopes is responsible for the unexpected linear increase of the charge radius with the neutron number.

Journal Articles

$$alpha$$-clustering in atomic nuclei from first principles with statistical learning and the Hoyle state character

Otsuka, Takaharu; Abe, Takashi*; Yoshida, Toru*; Tsunoda, Yusuke*; Shimizu, Noritaka*; Itagaki, Naoyuki*; Utsuno, Yutaka; Vary, J. P.*; Maris, P.*; Ueno, Hideki*

Nature Communications (Internet), 13, p.2234_1 - 2234_10, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:93.64(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

A First glimpse at the shell structure beyond $$^{54}$$Ca; Spectroscopy of $$^{55}$$K, $$^{55}$$Ca, and $$^{57}$$Ca

Koiwai, Takuma*; Wimmer, K.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Barbieri, C.*; Duguet, T.*; Holt, J. D.*; Miyagi, Takayuki*; Navr$'a$til, P.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 827, p.136953_1 - 136953_7, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:61.15(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Single-crystal structure analysis of non-deuterated triglycine sulfate by neutron diffraction at 20 and 298 K; A New disorder model for the 298 K structure

Terasawa, Yukana*; Ohara, Takashi; Sato, Sota*; Yoshida, Satoshi*; Asahi, Toru*

Acta Crystallographica Section E; Crystallographic Communications (Internet), 78(3), p.306 - 312, 2022/03

Journal Articles

Dissolution and precipitation behaviors of zircon under the atmospheric environment

Kitagaki, Toru; Yoshida, Kenta*; Liu, P.*; Shobu, Takahisa

npj Materials Degradation (Internet), 6(1), p.13_1 - 13_8, 2022/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:21.52(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

PSTEP: Project for solar-terrestrial environment prediction

Kusano, Kanya*; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi*; Ishii, Mamoru*; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi*; Yoden, Shigeo*; Akiyoshi, Hideharu*; Asai, Ayumi*; Ebihara, Yusuke*; Fujiwara, Hitoshi*; Goto, Tadanori*; et al.

Earth, Planets and Space (Internet), 73(1), p.159_1 - 159_29, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:57.72(Geosciences, Multidisciplinary)

The PSTEP is a nationwide research collaboration in Japan and was conducted from April 2015 to March 2020, supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. It has made a significant progress in space weather research and operational forecasts, publishing over 500 refereed journal papers and organizing four international symposiums, various workshops and seminars, and summer school for graduate students at Rikubetsu in 2017. This paper is a summary report of the PSTEP and describes the major research achievements it produced.

Journal Articles

Present status and future perspective of R&D for 3D-ADRES (3-Dimensional Air Dose Rate Evaluation System); Evaluation scheme for air dose rate distributions in city and forest areas towards Fukushima's revitalization

Kim, M.; Malins, A.; Machida, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Saito, Kimiaki; Yoshida, Hiroko*; Yanagi, Hideaki*; Yoshida, Toru*; Hasegawa, Yukihiro*

RIST News, (67), p.3 - 15, 2021/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Characteristics of fault fracture zones of the activated Shionohira Fault and the non-activated Kuruma Fault of the 2011 Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake, Northeast Japan

Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Yukumo; Yoshida, Takumi; Shimada, Koji; Sakai, Toru*; Kametaka, Masao*; Seshimo, Kazuyoshi

Oyo Chishitsu, 62(2), p.64 - 81, 2021/06

Co-seismic surface ruptures in the Fukushima-ken Hamadori Earthquake of Mw 6.7 on April 11, 2011 exposed approximately 14 km trending NNW-SSE from Nameishi to northwest of Ishizumi Tsunaki of Tabito Town, Iwaki City and were newly named the Shionohira Fault. However, no surface ruptures appeared along an N-S trending active Kuruma fault extending 5 km south of the Shionohira Fault. Because of the proximity and similar strike, two locations in Shionohira Fault and one location in Kuruma fault were selected as the study area for the fault activity evaluation. The present study reports the results of a series of geological and drilling surveys, core observation, XRD, isotope, and fluid inclusion analyses, and water permeability test. The results obtained from the three locations offer a fundamental data base that can be utilized for fault activity evaluation by summarizing the geological, mineralogical, and fluid property characteristics of fault fracture zone.

Journal Articles

Pairing forces govern population of doubly magic $$^{54}$$Ca from direct reactions

Browne, F.*; Chen, S.*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Utsuno, Yutaka; Yoshida, Kazuki; Achouri, N. L.*; Baba, Hidetada*; Calvet, D.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(25), p.252501_1 - 252501_7, 2021/06

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:73.51(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

Direct proton-knockout reactions of $$^{55}$$Sc were studied at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Populated states of $$^{54}$$Ca were investigated through $$gamma$$-ray and invariant-mass spectroscopy. Level energies were calculated from the nuclear shell model employing a phenomenological inter-nucleon interaction. Theoretical cross sections to states were calculated from distorted-wave impulse approximation estimates multiplied by the shell model spectroscopic factors. Despite the calculations showing a significant amplitude of excited neutron configurations in the ground-state of $$^{55}$$Sc, valence proton removals populated predominantly the ground-state of $$^{54}$$Ca. This counter-intuitive result is attributed to pairing effects leading to a dominance of the ground-state spectroscopic factor. Owing to the ubiquity of the pairing interaction, this argument should be generally applicable to direct knockout reactions from odd-even to even-even nuclei.

Journal Articles

Thermally altered subsurface material of asteroid (162173) Ryugu

Kitazato, Kohei*; Milliken, R. E.*; Iwata, Takahiro*; Abe, Masanao*; Otake, Makiko*; Matsuura, Shuji*; Takagi, Yasuhiko*; Nakamura, Tomoki*; Hiroi, Takahiro*; Matsuoka, Moe*; et al.

Nature Astronomy (Internet), 5(3), p.246 - 250, 2021/03

 Times Cited Count:30 Percentile:96.42(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Here we report observations of Ryugu's subsurface material by the Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS3) on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. Reflectance spectra of excavated material exhibit a hydroxyl (OH) absorption feature that is slightly stronger and peak-shifted compared with that observed for the surface, indicating that space weathering and/or radiative heating have caused subtle spectral changes in the uppermost surface. However, the strength and shape of the OH feature still suggests that the subsurface material experienced heating above 300 $$^{circ}$$C, similar to the surface. In contrast, thermophysical modeling indicates that radiative heating does not increase the temperature above 200 $$^{circ}$$C at the estimated excavation depth of 1 m, even if the semimajor axis is reduced to 0.344 au. This supports the hypothesis that primary thermal alteration occurred due to radiogenic and/or impact heating on Ryugu's parent body.

Journal Articles

First spectroscopic study of $$^{51}$$Ar by the ($$p$$,2$$p$$) reaction

Juh$'a$sz, M. M.*; Elekes, Z.*; Sohler, D.*; Utsuno, Yutaka; Yoshida, Kazuki; Otsuka, Takaharu*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Doornenbal, P.*; Obertelli, A.*; Baba, Hidetada*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 814, p.136108_1 - 136108_8, 2021/03


 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:52.17(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

The nuclear structure of $$^{51}$$Ar was studied by the ($$p$$,2$$p$$) reaction using $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy for the bound and unbound states. Comparing the results to our shell-model calculations, two bound and six unbound states were established. The low cross sections populating the two bound states of $$^{51}$$Ar could be interpreted as a clear signature for the presence of significant sub-shell closures at neutron numbers 32 and 34 in argon isotopes.

Journal Articles

Quasifree neutron knockout reaction reveals a small $$s$$-Orbital component in the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B

Yang, Z. H.*; Kubota, Yuki*; Corsi, A.*; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sun, X.-X.*; Li, J. G.*; Kimura, Masaaki*; Michel, N.*; Ogata, Kazuyuki*; Yuan, C. X.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 126(8), p.082501_1 - 082501_8, 2021/02


 Times Cited Count:31 Percentile:96.51(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

A quasifree ($$p$$,$$pn$$) experiment was performed to study the structure of the Borromean nucleus $$^{17}$$B, which had long been considered to have a neutron halo. By analyzing the momentum distributions and exclusive cross sections, we obtained the spectroscopic factors for $$1s_{1/2}$$ and $$0d_{5/2}$$ orbitals, and a surprisingly small percentage of 9(2)% was determined for $$1s_{1/2}$$. Our finding of such a small $$1s_{1/2}$$ component and the halo features reported in prior experiments can be explained by the deformed relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov theory in continuum, revealing a definite but not dominant neutron halo in $$^{17}$$B. The present work gives the smallest $$s$$- or $$p$$-orbital component among known nuclei exhibiting halo features and implies that the dominant occupation of $$s$$ or $$p$$ orbitals is not a prerequisite for the occurrence of a neutron halo.

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