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Journal Articles

CH$$_3$$Cl dissociation, CH$$_3$$ abstraction, and Cl adsorption from the dissociative scattering of supersonic CH$$_3$$Cl on Cu(111) and Cu(410)

Makino, Takamasa*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Di$~n$o, W. A.*; Okada, Michio*

Applied Surface Science, 642, p.158568_1 - 158568_6, 2024/01

Journal Articles

Work function lowering of LaB$$_{6}$$ by monolayer hexagonal boron nitride coating for improved photo- and thermionic-cathodes

Yamaguchi, Hisato*; Yusa, Ryunosuke*; Wang, G.*; Pettes, M. T.*; Liu, F.*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abukawa, Tadashi*; Moody, N. A.*; Ogawa, Shuichi*

Applied Physics Letters, 122(14), p.141901_1 - 141901_7, 2023/04

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:64.13(Physics, Applied)

A lowering of work function for LaB$$_{6}$$ by monolayer hexagonal BN coating is reported. Photoemission electron microcopy (PEEM) and thermionic emission electron microscopy (TEEM) both revealed that the hBN coated region of a LaB$$_{6}$$(100) single crystal has lower work function compared to the bare (i.e., non-coated) and graphene coated regions. A larger decrease of work function for the hBN coated LaB$$_{6}$$(100) compared to graphene coated LaB$$_{6}$$(100) was qualitatively supported by our density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adding an oxide layer in the calculations improved consistency between the calculation and experimental results. We followed up our calculations with synchrotron-radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and confirmed the presence of an oxide layer on our LaB$$_{6}$$.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of doped potassium concentrations in stacked two-Layer graphene using real-time XPS

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Okigawa, Yuki*; Masuzawa, Tomoaki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abukawa, Tadashi*; Yamada, Takatoshi*

Applied Surface Science, 605, p.154748_1 - 154748_6, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:54.52(Chemistry, Physical)

Immersion of graphene in KOH solution improves its mobility on SiO$$_{2}$$/Si wafers. This is thought to be due to electron doping by modification with K atoms, but the K atom concentration C$$_{K}$$ in the graphene has not been clarified yet. In this study, the C$$_{K}$$ was determined by XPS analysis using high-brilliance synchrotron radiation. The time evolution of C$$_{K}$$ was determined by real-time observation, and the C$$_{K}$$ before irradiation of synchrotron radiation was estimated to be 0.94%. The C 1s spectrum shifted to the low binding energy side with the desorption of K atoms. This indicates that the electron doping concentration into graphene is decreasing, and it is experimentally confirmed that K atoms inject electrons into graphene.

Journal Articles

Roles of excess minority carrier recombination and chemisorbed O$$_{2}$$ species at SiO$$_{2}$$/Si interfaces in Si dry oxidation; Comparison between p-Si(001) and n-Si(001) surfaces

Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Yamamoto, Yoshiki*; Yamamoto, Yukio*; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Journal of Chemical Physics, 157(23), p.234705_1 - 234705_21, 2022/12

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Chemistry, Physical)

Journal Articles

Restoration of oxygen vacancies on an anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) surface with supersonic seeded oxygen molecular beam

Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Inami, Eiichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abe, Masayuki*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 65(11), p.526 - 530, 2022/11

The oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$ (001) was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and supersonic O$$_{2}$$ beam (SSMB). The oxygen vacancies at the top surface and subsurface could be eliminated by the supply of hyperthermal oxygen molecules. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the ambient condition, could also be effectively eliminated by using oxygen SSMB. This result is promising as a surface processing for various functional oxides.

Journal Articles

Observation of chemisorbed O$$_2$$ molecule at SiO$$_2$$/Si(001) interface during Si dry oxidation

Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Sakamoto, Tetsuya*; Takakuwa, Yuji*

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology (Internet), 21(1), p.30 - 39, 2022/11

Journal Articles

Electrical properties and energy band alignment of SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures fabricated on N-polar GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) substrates

Mizobata, Hidetoshi*; Tomigahara, Kazuki*; Nozaki, Mikito*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji*; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*

Applied Physics Letters, 121(6), p.062104_1 - 062104_6, 2022/08

The interface properties and energy band alignment of SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures fabricated on N-polar GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) substrates were investigated by electrical measurements and synchrotron-radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They were then compared with those of SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN MOS structures on Ga-polar GaN(0001). Although the SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) structure was found to be more thermally unstable than that on the GaN(0001) substrate, excellent electrical properties were obtained for the SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) structure by optimizing conditions for post-deposition annealing. However, the conduction band offset for SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) was smaller than that for SiO$$_{2}$$/GaN(0001), leading to increased gate leakage current. Therefore, caution is needed when using N-polar GaN(000$$bar{1}$$) substrates for MOS device fabrication.

Journal Articles

Impact of post-nitridation annealing in CO$$_{2}$$ ambient on threshold voltage stability in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

Hosoi, Takuji*; Osako, Momoe*; Moges, K.*; Ito, Koji*; Kimoto, Tsunenobu*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*

Applied Physics Express, 15(6), p.061003_1 - 061003_5, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:40.04(Physics, Applied)

The combination of NO annealing and subsequent post-nitridation annealing (PNA) in CO$$_{2}$$ ambient for SiO$$_{2}$$/SiC structures has been demonstrated to be effective in obtaining both high channel mobility and superior threshold voltage stability in SiC-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). N atoms on the SiO$$_{2}$$ side of the SiO$$_{2}$$/SiC interface incorporated by NO annealing, which are plausible cause of charge trapping sites, could be selectively removed by CO$$_{2}$$-PNA at 1300$$^{circ}$$C without oxidizing the SiC. CO$$_{2}$$-PNA was also effective in compensating oxygen vacancies in SiO$$_{2}$$, resulting high immunity against both positive and negative bias-temperature stresses.

Journal Articles

Hydrogen absorption and diffusion behaviors in cube-shaped palladium nanoparticles revealed by ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Tang, J.*; Seo, O.*; Rivera Rocabado, D. S.*; Koitaya, Takanori*; Yamamoto, Susumu*; Namba, Yusuke*; Song, C.*; Kim, J.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Koyama, Michihisa*; et al.

Applied Surface Science, 587, p.152797_1 - 152797_8, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:77.85(Chemistry, Physical)

The hydrogen absorption and diffusion mechanisms on cube-shaped Pd nanoparticles (NPs) which are important hydrogen-storage materials were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and DFT calculations. In the surface region, hydrogen absorption showed almost similar behavior regardless of the NPs size. It was found that the octahedral sites are more favorable than the tetrahedral sites for hydrogen occupation. We also clarified that the hydrogen atoms absorbing on the smaller-sized Pd NPs diffuse to the subsurface more actively because of the weakened Pd-H bond by the surface disordering, which plays an important role in hydrogen adsorption at a low H$$_{2}$$ pressure.

Journal Articles

Preface for the special issue "Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for ${it in situ}$ observation of surface reactions; Present status and future prospects"

Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Hoshako, 35(3), P. 157, 2022/05

Ambient Pressure-XPS [AP-XPS] has been in operation at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world since around 2000 to study gas-surface reactions. Furthermore, it is also applied to observe liquid and solid-liquid interfaces. Development and utilization research is underway as a tool to take the true picture of surface phenomena. A special issue on AP-XPS for the Journal of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research was designed and its purpose is explained.

Journal Articles

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for ${it in situ}$ observation of surface reactions under the gas atmosphere; History, applications, issues, and future prospect

Takakuwa, Yuji*; Ogawa, Shuichi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Hoshako, 35(3), p.158 - 171, 2022/05

Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for in situ observation of surface reactions using high-brightness synchrotron radiation shows a rapid progress in the number of endstations since about 2005 and is applied to various practical research field for clarifying reactions at solid/gas interfaces of e.g. catalyst, solid/liquid interfaces of e.g. fuel cell, and gas/liquid interfaces of e.g. ion liquid. In this review, a history of the development of APXPS, real-time observation of the surface reactions for Si chemical vapor deposition and Si dry oxidation, issues of APXPS, and future prospects are described.

Journal Articles

Depth profile analysis of multi-layer laminated thin film interface by spatiotemporal angle-resolved APXPS method

Toyoda, Satoshi*; Yoshimura, Masashi*; Sumida, Hirosuke*; Mineoi, Susumu*; Machida, Masatake*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Yoshikawa, Akira*; Suzuki, Satoru*; Yokoyama, Kazushi*

Hoshako, 35(3), p.200 - 206, 2022/05

The present status of spatiotemporal depth profiling analysis of the multilayer stacked film interface based on Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS) is presented. To begin with, depth profiles of the multilayer stacked film interfaces have been achieved by time-division Near Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Angle-Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy data. We then have promoted our methods to quickly perform peak fittings and depth profiling from time-division angle resolved AP-XPS data including spatial resolution, which enables us to realize spatiotemporal depth profiles of the interfaces under reaction conditions such as oxidation and reduction. In addition, it is found that the traditional maximum entropy method (MEM) combined with Jackknife averaging of sparse modeling is effective to perform dynamic measurement of depth profiles with high precision.

Journal Articles

Comprehensive physical and electrical characterizations of NO nitrided SiO$$_{2}$$/4H-SiC(11$$overline{2}$$0) interfaces

Nakanuma, Takato*; Iwakata, Yu*; Watanabe, Arisa*; Hosoi, Takuji*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(SC), p.SC1065_1 - SC1065_8, 2022/05

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:81.83(Physics, Applied)

Nitridation of SiO$$_{2}$$/4H-SiC(11$$overline{2}$$0) interfaces with post-oxidation annealing in an NO ambient (NO-POA) and its impact on the electrical properties were investigated. Sub-nm-resolution nitrogen depth profiling at the interfaces was conducted by using a scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microprobe. The results showed that nitrogen atoms were incorporated just at the interface and that interface nitridation proceeded much faster than at SiO$$_{2}$$/SiC(0001) interfaces, resulting in a 2.3 times higher nitrogen concentration. Electrical characterizations of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were conducted through capacitance-voltage ($$C-V$$) measurements in the dark and under illumination with ultraviolet light to evaluate the electrical defects near the conduction and valence band edges and those causing hysteresis and shifting of the $$C-V$$ curves. While all of these defects were passivated with the progress of the interface nitridation, excessive nitridation resulted in degradation of the MOS capacitors. The optimal conditions for NO-POA are discussed on the basis of these experimental findings.

Journal Articles

Impact of nitridation on the reliability of 4H-SiC(11$$bar{2}$$0) MOS devices

Nakanuma, Takato*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Hosoi, Takuji*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*

Applied Physics Express, 15(4), p.041002_1 - 041002_4, 2022/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:54.52(Physics, Applied)

The leakage current and flat-band voltage (VFB) instability of NO-nitrided SiC (11$$bar{2}$$0) (a-face) MOS devices were systematically investigated. Although NO nitridation is effective in improving the interface properties, we found that it reduces the onset field of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) current by about 1 MVcm$$^{-1}$$, leading to pronounced leakage current. Synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitridation reduces the conduction band offset at the SiO$$_{2}$$/SiC interface, corroborating the above finding. Furthermore, systematical positive and negative bias stress tests clearly indicated the VFB instability of nitrided a-face MOS devices against electron and hole injection.

Journal Articles

Oxidation mechanisms of hafnium overlayers deposited on an Si(111) substrate

Kakiuchi, Takuhiro*; Matoba, Tomoki*; Koyama, Daisuke*; Yamamoto, Yuki*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Langmuir, 38(8), p.2642 - 2650, 2022/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:18.08(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

0xidation processes at the interface and the surface of Si(111) substrate with thin Hf films were studied using photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with supersonic oxygen molecular beams (SOMB). The oxidation starts at the outermost Hf layers and produces stoichiometric HfO$$_{2}$$. Hf silicates (Hf-O-Si configuration) were generated in the vicinity of the HfO$$_{2}$$/Si interface in the case of the irradiation of 2.2 eV SOMB. The oxidation of the Si substrate takes place to generate SiO$$_{2}$$ compounds. Si atoms were emitted from the SiO$$_{2}$$/Si interface region underneath the HfO$$_{2}$$ overlayers to release the stress generated within the strained Si layers. The emitted Si atoms can pass through the HfO$$_{2}$$ overlayers and react with the impinging O$$_{2}$$ gas.

Journal Articles

High reactivity of H$$_{2}$$O vapor on GaN surfaces

Sumiya, Masatomo*; Sumita, Masato*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sang, L.*; Harada, Yoshitomo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 23(1), p.189 - 198, 2022/00

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:57.93(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

GaN is an attracting material for power-electronic devices. Understanding the oxidation at GaN surface is important for improving metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. In this study, the oxidation at GaN surfaces depending on the GaN crystal planes (+c, -c, and m-plane) was investigated by real time XPS and DFT-MD simulation. We found that H$$_{2}$$O vapor has the highest reactivity due to the spin interaction between H$$_{2}$$O and GaN surfaces. The bond length between the Ga and N on the -c GaN surface was increased by OH attacking the back side of three-fold Ga atom. The chemisorption on the m-plane was dominant. The intense reactions of oxidation and Al$$_{x}$$Ga$$_{1-x}$$N formation for p-GaN were observed at the interface of the Al$$_{2}$$O$$_{3}$$ layer deposited by ALD using H$$_{2}$$O vapor. This study suggests that an oxidant gas other than H$$_{2}$$O and O$$_{2}$$ should be used to avoid unintentional oxidation during Al$$_{x}$$Ga$$_{1-x}$$N atomi layer deposition.

Journal Articles

Revisit of XPS studies of supersonic O$$_{2}$$ molecular adsorption on Cu(111); Copper oxides

Hayashida, Koki*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yamada, Takashi*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Okada, Michio*

ACS Omega (Internet), 6(40), p.26814 - 26820, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:33.58(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We report the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) characterization of the bulk Cu$$_{2}$$O(111) surface and 8-type and 29-type oxide structures on Cu(111) prepared by using 0.5 eV O$$_{2}$$ supersonic molecular beam (SSMB) source. We propose a new structural model for the 8-type oxide structure and also confirmed the previously proposed model for the [29] oxide structure on Cu(111), based on the O1s XPS spectra. The detection-angle dependence of the O 1s spectra supports that the nanopyramidal model is more preferable for the ($$sqrt{3}$$X$$sqrt{3}$$)R30$$^{circ}$$ Cu$$_{2}$$O(111). We also report the electronic excitations which O1s electrons suffer.

Journal Articles

Oxidation of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) surface using supersonic seeded oxygen molecular beam

Katsube, Daiki*; Ono, Shinya*; Takayanagi, Shuhei*; Ojima, Shoki*; Maeda, Motoyasu*; Origuchi, Naoki*; Ogawa, Arata*; Ikeda, Natsuki*; Aoyagi, Yoshihide*; Kabutoya, Yuito*; et al.

Langmuir, 37(42), p.12313 - 12317, 2021/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:7.58(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

We investigated the oxidation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) using supersonic seeded molecular beam (SSMB) of oxygen. The oxygen vacancies at the top-surface and sub-surface could be eliminated by the supply of oxygen using an SSMB. These results indicate that the interstitial vacancies can be mostly assigned to oxygen vacancies, which can be effectively eliminated by using an oxygen SSMB. Oxygen vacancies are present on the surface of anatase TiO$$_{2}$$(001) when it is untreated before transfer to a vacuum chamber. These vacancies, which are stable in the as-grown condition, could also be effectively eliminated using the oxygen SSMB.

Journal Articles

Two-step model for reduction reaction of ultrathin nickel oxide by hydrogen

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Taga, Ryo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, 39(4), p.043207_1 - 043207_9, 2021/07

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:8.72(Materials Science, Coatings & Films)

Nickel (Ni) is used as a catalyst for nitric oxide decomposition and ammonia production but it is easily oxidized and deactivated. Clarification of the reduction process of oxidized Ni is essential to promote more efficient use of Ni catalysts. In this study, the reduction processes were investigated by in situ time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. We propose a two-step reduction reaction model. The rate-limiting process for the first step is surface precipitation of O atoms and that of the second step is dissociation of H$$_{2}$$ molecules.

Journal Articles

Oxidation reaction kinetics on transition metal surfaces observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy

Ogawa, Shuichi*; Zhang, B.*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Takakuwa, Yuji*

Vacuum and Surface Science, 64(5), p.218 - 223, 2021/05

The oxidation reaction kinetics on Ti(0001) and Ni(111) surfaces were observed by real-time photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation to measure the oxidation state and oxide thickness. After the Ti(0001) surface was wholly covered by TiO with a thickness of 1.2 nm, the rapid growth of n-type TiO$$_{2}$$ proceeded through the diffusion of Ti$$^{4+}$$ ions to the TiO$$_{2}$$ surface at 400$$^{circ}$$C. A saturation of oxygen uptake on the TiO surface indicates that the O$$_{2}$$ sticking coefficient on the TiO surface is negligibly small and the segregation of Ti to the TiO surface is a trigger to initiate the TiO$$_{2}$$ growth. On the Ni(111) surface at 350$$^{circ}$$C, a thermally stable NiO$$_{x}$$ proceeded preferentially and then the growth of p-type NiO was initiated. The time evolution of NiO thickness was represented by a logarithmic growth model, where the NiO growth is governed by the electron tunneling to the NiO surface.

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