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Journal Articles

Experimental plan for displacement damage cross sections using 120-GeV protons at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Yonehara, Katsuya*; Ishida, Taku*; Nakano, Keita; Abe, Shinichiro; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Spina, T.*; Ammigan, K.*; et al.

JAEA-Conf 2021-001, p.138 - 143, 2022/03

To predict the operating lifetime of materials in high-energy radiation environments at proton accelerator facilities, Monte Carlo code are used to calculate the number of displacements per atom (dpa). However, there is no experimental data in the energy region above 30 GeV. In this presentation, we introduce our experimental plan for displacement cross sections with 120-GeV protons at Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Experiments will be performed for the US fiscal year 2022. We developed the sample assembly with four wire sample of Al, Cu, Nb and W with 250-$$mu$$m diameter and 4-cm length. The sample assembly will be maintained at around 4 K by using a cryocooler in a vacuum chamber. Then, changes in the electrical resistivity of samples will be obtained under 120-GeV proton irradiation. Recovery of the accumulated defects through isochronal annealing, which is related to the defect concentration in the sample, will also be measured after the cryogenic irradiation.

Journal Articles

Measurement of displacement cross sections of aluminum and copper at 5 K by using 200 MeV protons

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Satoh, Daiki; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Shima, Tatsushi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 508, p.195 - 202, 2018/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:81.13(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To validate the displacement damage model in radiation transport codes used for the estimation of radiation damages at accelerator facilities, we measured electrical resistance increase of aluminum and copper induced by radiation defects under the cryogenic 200 MeV proton irradiation. The irradiation device had the structure to cool two irradiation samples at same time using thermal conductance. The aluminum and copper wire with 250 $$mu$$m diameter was sandwiched between two AlN plates with excellent thermal conductivity and electrical insulation. As a result, temperature of irradiation samples was kept at below 5 K under proton irradiation with beam intensity below 3 nA. The experimental displacement cross section agreed with calculated results with defect production efficiency.

Journal Articles

Radiation damage calculation in PHITS and benchmarking experiment for cryogenic-sample high-energy proton irradiation

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Yoshida, Makoto*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

Proceedings of 61st ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High-Intensity and High-Brightness Hadron Beams (HB 2018) (Internet), p.116 - 121, 2018/07

The radiation damage model in the radiation transport code PHITS has been developed to calculate the basic data of the radiation damage including the energy of the target Primary Knock on Atom (PKA). For the high-energy proton incident reactions, a target PKA created by the secondary particles was more dominant than a target PKA created by the projectile. To validate the radiation damage model in metals irradiated by $$>$$100 MeV protons, we developed a proton irradiation device with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to cryogenically cool wire samples. By using this device, the defect-induced electrical resistivity changes related to the DPA cross section of copper and aluminum were measured under irradiation with 125 and 200 MeV protons at cryogenic temperature. A comparison of the experimental data with the calculated results indicates that the DPA cross section with defect production efficiencies provide better quantitative descriptions.

Journal Articles

Radiation enhanced precipitation of solute atoms in AlCu binary alloys; Energetic ion irradiation experiment and computer simulation

Mayumi, Ren*; Semboshi, Satoshi*; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yuichi*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Iwase, Akihiro*

Transactions of the Materials Research Society of Japan, 42(1), p.9 - 14, 2017/02

AlCu binary alloys were irradiated with 16 MeV Au, 4.5 MeV Ni or 4.5 MeV Al ions at room temperature. Changes in surface hardness and the local atomic structure around Cu atoms were examined by using the Vickers hardness measurement and the EXAFS measurements, respectively. Some specimens were aged at 453 K and Vickers hardness was measured. The computer simulation was also performed by using the rate equation method. The hardness of irradiated specimens increased much faster than that of the aged specimens and it became larger than the maximum value of the hardness for the aged specimens. The comparison of the experimental EXAFS result with that of FEFF simulation suggests that the ion irradiation produced small Cu precipitates in the specimens. The computer simulation visualized the growth process of Cu precipitates during the irradiation, and the result qualitatively corresponds to the experimental result.

Journal Articles

Measurement of the displacement cross-section of copper irradiated with 125 MeV protons at 12 K

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Yoshida, Makoto*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Sakamoto, Masaaki*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Xu, Q.*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 458, p.369 - 375, 2015/03

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:60.95(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

To validate Monte Carlo codes for the prediction of radiation damage in metals irradiated by $$>$$100 MeV protons, defect-induced electrical resistivity changes of copper related to the displacement cross-section were measured with 125 MeV proton irradiation at 12 K. The cryogenic irradiation system was developed with a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to cool the sample via an oxygen-free high-conductivity copper plate by conduction cooling. The sample was a copper wire with a 250$$mu$$m diameter and 99.999% purity sandwiched between two aluminum nitride ceramic sheets. The resistivity increase did not change during annealing after irradiation below 15 K. The experimental displacement cross-section for 125 MeV irradiation shows similar results to the experimental data for 1.1 and 1.94 GeV. Comparison with the calculated results indicated that the defect production efficiency in Monte Carlo codes gives a good quantitative description of the displacement cross-section in the energy region $$>$$ 100 MeV.

Journal Articles

Pitting damage in metals by mercury cavitation with MIMTM

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Komatsu, Masao*; Sato, Koichi*; Xu, Q.*; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Materia, 52(8), p.390 - 394, 2013/08

In the liquid mercury target for the spallation neutron source, pressure waves occurs owing to the high-intense proton beam bombardment. The pressure waves induces the cavitation in the interface between the mercury and the target vessel through the propagation process. Erosion damage composed of micro-pits clusters is formed by the micro-jets and shock waves emitted from cavitation bubble collapse. In this paper, researches for damage structure of the material that was examined using the electroMagnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) form the viewpoint of high-speed deformation. The result showed that the 200$$sim$$300 m/s of collision velocity for micro-jet impacting which was estimated from the numerical simulation is reasonable value.

Journal Articles

Effects of chemical composition and dose on microstructure evolution and hardening of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Kuramoto, Akira*; Kameda, Jun*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*; Hasegawa, Masayuki*; Okubo, Tadakatsu*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 402(2-3), p.93 - 101, 2010/07

 Times Cited Count:51 Percentile:96.11(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

This study reports the effects of the composition and dose on microstructure evolution and hardening in high- and low-impurity A533B-1 steels neutron-irradiated in a wide range from 0.32 to 9.9 $$times$$ 10$$^{19}$$ n cm$$^{-2}$$ (E $$>$$ 1 MeV) under a constant high flux at JMTR. The early hardening was found to be caused by mainly matrix defects. The gradual hardening after middle stage of irradiation was found to be caused by the formation of Cu rich clusters (CRCs) and Mn-Ni-Si rich clusters (MNSCs), respectively, in the high- and low-impurity steels. By applying a RB model, it was found that the dislocation-pinning strength of the CRCs and MNSCs is almost the same. Moreover, the high-impurity steel subjected to the highest dose revealed the formation of MNSCs.

Journal Articles

Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of vanadium alloy and F82H irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons

Sato, Koichi*; Inoue, Kazuya*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Xu, Q.*; Wakai, Eiichi; Kutsukake, Chuzo; Ochiai, Kentaro

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 386-388, p.203 - 205, 2009/04

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:19.23(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

V-4Cr-4Ti F82H, Ni and Cu were irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons at room temperature and 473 K. Defect structures were analyzed and compared using positron annihilation lifetime measurement, and microstructural evolution was discussed. The mean lifetime of positrons (the total amount of residual defects) increased with the irradiation dose. The effect of cascade impact was detected in Ni at room temperature. The size and the number of vacancy clusters were not affected by the displacement rate in the fission neutron irradiation at 473 K for the metals studied. The vacancy clusters were not formed in V Cr Ti irradiated at 473 K in the range of 10$$^{-6}$$-10$$^{-3}$$ dpa. In F82H irradiated at 473 K, the defect evolution was prevented by pre-existing defects. The mean lifetime of positrons in fission neutron irradiation was longer than that in fusion neutron irradiation in V Cr Ti at 473 K. It was interpreted that more closely situated subcascades were formed in the fusion neutron irradiation and subcascades interacted with each other, and consequently the vacancy clusters did not grow larger.

Journal Articles

Reaction kinetics analysis of damage evolution in accelerator driven system beam windows

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Xu, Q.*; Sato, Koichi*; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*

Journal of Nuclear Materials, 377(1), p.132 - 135, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:59.39(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Reaction kinetic analysis was used to estimate the damage evolution in window materials of 800 MWth ADS. Parameters were fitted to F82H of the STIP-II experiment and EC316LN of the STIP-I experiment. In F82H, the concentration of bubbles was almost constant and the bubble size increased, while the concentration of interstitial type dislocation loops increased and their size was constant between 3$$times$$10$$^{-3}$$ and 300 dpa. EC316LN showed almost the same behavior. Swelling increased almost linearly with irradiation dose above 3 dpa between 673 K and 773 K.

Oral presentation

Progress in development of intense materials against radiation and beam impact, 8; Reaction kinetics analysis of damage evolution in ADS beam windows employing PSI experimental data

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Xu, Q.*; Sato, Koichi*; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kawai, Masayoshi*

no journal, , 

The growth of defect structures in intensified proton irradiation condition austenitic stainless steel and ferritic stainless steels is investigated using reaction kinetics analysis. Parameters involved in the theory were determined by the results of irradiation experiment at PSI. Reaction kinetics considered interstitials, vacancies, helium, interstitial type dislocation loops, voids, bubbles. Irradiation temperature ranges 673-773K. Concludingly it is found that a void welling increases almost linearly with irradiation dose over 2.1DPA.

Oral presentation

Intergranular embrittlement and effect of phosphorus on hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Nishiyama, Yutaka

no journal, , 

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Defect structure of pitting damage of mercury cavitation by MIMTM

Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Sato, Koichi*; Xu, Q.*; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Naoe, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi*

no journal, , 

A mercury target in high-power spallation neutron sources is subjected to the pressure wave caused by proton beam. Subsequent formation and collapse of cavitation bubbles lead to cavitation damage on the target vessel, especially the beam window. The cavitation damage in Ni and austenitic stainless steel SUS304SS were studied by using MIMTM (electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine) developed to simulate the damage. The existence of dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedra and vacancies was detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurement in Ni and non-cellar dislocation structures were observed by transmission electron microscopy in Ni and SUS316SS. High density of twins was also observed in SUS304SS. These results were compared with those of high speed compression test by using high speed projectile and proved that the cavitation damage by MIMTM corresponded to high speed deformation.

Oral presentation

Effects of chemical composition and dose on microstructural evolution and hardening of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

Takeuchi, Tomoaki; Kuramoto, Akira*; Toyama, Takeshi*; Nagai, Yasuyoshi*; Hasegawa, Masayuki*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Katsuyama, Jinya; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Onizawa, Kunio

no journal, , 

The dose dependence of the micro structural evolution and its correlation with hardening of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel irradiated with neutrons is investigated. The two kinds of A533B-1 steels of different chemical compositions irradiated at JMTR with the almost same flux from 1.6 to 1.9$$times$$10$$^{13}$$n cm$$^{-2}$$ s$$^{-1}$$ and the wide range of dose from 0.32 to 9.9$$times$$10$$^{19}$$n cm$$^{-2}$$ are studied using the Vickers micro hardness, the positron annihilation, and the three-dimensional local electrode atom probe (LEAP) techniques. Results indicate that the gradual hardening of the high impurities steel from the middle to the late stage is caused by the solute nano-clusters enriched with Cu, Si, Mn, Ni, and P. It is also suggested the rapid hardening of both steels at the early stage of irradiation is caused by mainly matrix defects, especially small size vacancies and/or dislocations.

Oral presentation

Study of measurement of displacement cross section for copper irradiated with 125 MeV proton

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Ogitsu, Toru*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Sakamoto, Masaaki*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Mori, Yoshiharu*

no journal, , 

We measured the electrical resistivity under irradiation of 125 MeV proton in copper sample (0.2 um thickness) at cryogenic temperature at the FFAG accelerator facility in Kyoto university. Resistivity was measured by the four-terminal method. As a result, we measured the resistivity of copper at 7.3 K within 20 micro-ohm and temperature of sample. We measured the electrical resistivity under irradiation of 125 MeV proton in copper sample (0.2 um thickness) at cryogenic temperature at the FFAG accelerator facility in Kyoto university. Resistivity was measured by the four-terminal method. As a result, we measured the resistivity of copper at 7.3 K within 20 micro-ohm and temperature of sample.

Oral presentation

Development of the device for electrical resistivity measurements for proton irradiation under cryogenic condition

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Yoshida, Makoto*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Sakamoto, Masaaki*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Xu, Q.*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

To validate the radiation damage calculation in the PHITS code for proton irradiation over 100 MeV, we have developed the device for electrical resistance measurement under cryogenic condition. A copper wire with 99.999% purity in a diameter of 250-$$mu$$m was set with a serpentine-shaped line on the AlN sheet which has high thermal conductivity and electric insulation. The sample was annealed for 1 h at 1,000$$^{circ}$$C before irradiation. After annealing, the sample was cooled with an oxygen-free high-conductivity copper plate by conduction cooling. The electrical resistivity changes in the sample were measured using the four-probe technique. As a result, the residual resistivity ratio of the sample was about 1,800 between room temperature and 11 K. After 125 MeV proton irradiation with 1.45$$times$$10$$^{14}$$(proton/cm$$^{2}$$) at 11 K, the total resistance increase was 1.53$$mu$$ $$Omega$$, while the resistivity of copper before irradiation was 29.41$$mu$$ $$Omega$$.

Oral presentation

Measurement of the damage rate of copper irradiated with 125 MeV protons at 12 K and comparison with calculated result with the PHITS code

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Yoshida, Makoto*; Nakamoto, Tatsushi*; Sakamoto, Masaaki*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Xu, Q.*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

no journal, , 

To validate Monte Carlo code PHITS for the prediction of radiation damage in metals, the damage rate (defect-induced electrical resistivity changes / particle fluence) related to the displacement cross-section of copper were measured with 125 MeV proton irradiation under 12 K at the FFAG facility in the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. The sample was a copper wire with a 250-$$mu$$m diameter and 99.999% purity and was cooled by conduction cooling. After 125 MeV proton irradiation with 1.45$$times$$10$$^{18}$$ protons/m$$^{2}$$ at 12 K, the total resistivity increase was 4.94$$times$$10$$^{-13}$$$$Omega$$m (resistance increase: 1.53$$mu$$$$Omega$$), while the resistivity of copper before irradiation was 9.49 $$times$$10$$^{-12}$$$$Omega$$m (resistance: 29.41$$mu$$$$Omega$$). Comparison with other experimental results indicated that the damage rate by 125 MeV protons is almost same with those by 1.1 GeV protons and is higher than the damage rate by 14 MeV neutrons by a factor of 1.4. For the comparison with the PHITS results, the experimental data is smaller than the calculated result without the defect production efficiency by a factor of about 2.5 and that with the defect production efficiency by a factor of about 1.4, respectively. It indicates that the defect production efficiency in PHITS gives a good quantitative description of the displacement cross-section.

Oral presentation

Development of cryogenic high-energy proton irradiation device and measurement of displacement cross sections with 200 MeV protons

Iwamoto, Yosuke; Yoshida, Makoto*; Yoshiie, Toshimasa*; Satoh, Daiki; Yashima, Hiroshi*; Matsuda, Hiroki; Meigo, Shinichiro; Shima, Tatsushi*

no journal, , 

To validate the displacement damage model in PHITS used for the estimation of radiation damages at accelerator facilities, we measured electrical resistance increase of aluminum and copper induced by radiation defects under the cryogenic 200 MeV proton irradiation. The irradiation device had the structure to cool two irradiation samples at same time using thermal conductance. The aluminum and copper wire with 250 $$mu$$m diameter was sandwiched between two AlN plates with excellent thermal conductivity and electrical insulation. As a result, temperature of irradiation samples was kept at below 5 K under proton irradiation with beam intensity below 3 nA. The experimental displacement cross section was 353 (b) for aluminum and 1640 (b) for copper, respectively, and the experimental data agreed with calculated results with defect production efficiency.

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