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JAEA Reports

Activity median aerodynamic diameter relating to contamination at Plutonium Fuel Research Facility in Oarai Research and Development Center; Particle size analysis for plutonium particles using imaging plate

Takasaki, Koji; Yasumune, Takashi; Hashimoto, Makoto; Maeda, Koji; Kato, Masato; Yoshizawa, Michio; Momose, Takumaro

JAEA-Review 2019-003, 48 Pages, 2019/03

JAEA-Review-2019-003.pdf:3.81MB

June 6, 2017, at Plutonium Fuel Research Facility in Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA, when five workers were inspecting storage containers containing plutonium and uranium, resin bags in a storage container ruptured, and radioactive dust spread. Though they were wearing a half face mask respirator, they inhaled radioactive materials. In the evaluation of the internal exposure dose, the aerodynamic radioactive median diameter (AMAD) is an important parameter. We measured 14 smear samples and a dust filter paper with imaging plates, and estimated the AMAD by image analysis. As a result of estimating the AMAD, from the 14 smear samples, the AMADs are 4.3 to 11 $$mu$$m or more in the case of nitrate plutonium, and the AMADs are 5.6 to 14 $$mu$$m or more in the case of the oxidized plutonium. Also, from the dust filter paper, the AMAD is 3.0 $$mu$$m or more in the case of nitrate plutonium, and the AMAD is 3.9 $$mu$$m or more in the case of the oxidized plutonium.

Journal Articles

Development of a high-efficiency proton recoil telescope for D-T neutron fluence measurement

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Yoshizawa, Michio

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 180(1-4), p.417 - 421, 2018/08

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

A high efficiency proton recoil telescope (PRT), which consists of a radiator, a $$Delta$$E detector and an E detector, was developed to determine the neutron fluence in the 14.8 MeV mono-energetic neutron field at the FRS. A 2 mm thick plastic scintillation detector was employed as the radiator to increase the detection efficiency and compensate the energy loss of the recoil proton in the radiator. A thin and a thick silicon detectors with 150 $$mu$$m and 3 mm thick sensitive layers were employed as the $$Delta$$E and E detectors, respectively. The detection efficiency was evaluated by the neutron measurements in the 14.8 MeV field for the distances from the radiator to E detector of 50 mm, 100 mm and 150 mm. The detection efficiency increases up to 3.7 $$times$$ 10$$^{-3}$$ with the decrease in the distance, which is roughly a few orders of magnitude greater than those of common PRTs. These detection efficiencies are high enough to determine the neutron fluence at the 14.8 MeV field within a few hours.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of $$gamma$$-ray spectra measured inside and outside a house in Fukushima

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Jumpei; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Michio; Hakozaki, Ryozo*; Takahashi, Sohei*

Hoken Butsuri, 51(3), p.141 - 146, 2016/09

Photon spectra were measured inside and outside a house in Minami-Soma city by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The photons were categorized into three groups according to their energy. The groups were (1) scattered photons, which include low energy photons, (2) direct photons from $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs sources and (3) the other photons. Then the ratios of the ambient dose equivalents H$$^*$$(10) of the scattered photons to those of the direct photons from the $$^{134}$$Cs and $$^{137}$$Cs sources have been evaluated from the measured photon spectra. The ratios are high inside the house compared with those out of the house. It was found that the scattered photons contribute to the H$$^*$$(10) by more than 50$$%$$ inside the house. The ambient dose equivalent average energies of the scattered photons are around 0.25 MeV both inside and outside the house. These data is worthwhile to design the optimum shielding for the protection against the public radiation exposure.

Journal Articles

Development of the graphite-moderated neutron calibration fields using $$^{241}$$Am-Be sources in JAEA-FRS

Nishino, Sho; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Ebata, Yoshiaki*; Yoshizawa, Michio

Journal of Radiation Protection and Research, 41(3), p.211 - 215, 2016/09

We developed the graphite-moderated neutron calibration fields using $$^{241}$$Am-Be sources at the Facility of Radiation Standard in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The neutron spectra of the fields were evaluated by Monte-Carlo calculation and measurements using the Bonner Multi-sphere Spectrometer. Reference values of fluence rates and dose equivalent rates of H$$^{*}$$(10) and H$$_{rm p}$$(10) were determined from neutron spectra by measurements. Currently, our fields are available for calibration or performance test of neutron measuring instruments.

Journal Articles

2016 Professional Engineer (PE) test preparation course "Nuclear and Radiation Technical Disciplines"

Takahashi, Naoki; Yoshinaka, Kazuyuki; Harada, Akio; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Ueno, Takashi; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Soju; Takamatsu, Misao; Maeda, Shigetaka; Iseki, Atsushi; et al.

Nippon Genshiryoku Gakkai Homu Peji (Internet), 64 Pages, 2016/00

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Series studies on inter-comparison of radiation calibration fields and calibration techniques between KAERI and JAEA

Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Tanimura, Yoshihiko*; Tatebe, Yosuke; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Kawasaki, Katsuya; Kowatari, Munehiko; Yoshizawa, Michio; Shimizu, Shigeru*; Kim, J.-S.*; Lee, J.-G.*; et al.

Proceedings of 4th Asian and Oceanic Congress on Radiation Protection (AOCRP-4) (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2015/07

Journal Articles

Photon dose mixed in monoenergetic neutron calibration fields using $$^7$$Li(p,n)$$^7$$Be reaction

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Michio

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 161(1-4), p.149 - 152, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:100(Environmental Sciences)

Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been established in the energy range from 8 keV to 19 MeV using an accelerator at FRS. In the 144, 250 and 565 keV fields, mono-energetic neutrons are produced by bombarding a LiF target with accelerated protons in order to cause $$^7$$Li(p,n)$$^7$$Be reactions. Photons mixed in these neutron fields, which are produced by other nuclear reactions, can affect the calibration results. These mixed photon dose should be evaluated. In this paper the photons produced by the nuclear reactions between neutrons and target, its supporting materials and the constructional materials of the irradiation room such as the walls, floor and ceiling. were calculated using the MCNP-ANT code. Then the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) of the photons were evaluated and compared with that of the mono-energetic neutrons.

Journal Articles

Development of portable long counter with two different moderator materials

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Michio

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 161(1-4), p.144 - 148, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:51.92(Environmental Sciences)

A Long Counter (LC) is the most appropriate detector to measure neutron fluence due to flat response over a wide neutron energy range. Therefore, it is usually employed as a neutron fluence monitor. The weight of the LC used at FRS is 50 kg. It is too heavy to transfer it from one room to another room. Then we developed a new portable long counter whose weight is 15 kg. The portable LC consists of a $$^3$$He or BF$$_3$$ counter and a cylindrical moderator. It was designed to have an almost flat response from a few eV to a few MeV. While typical LCs have air gaps in the front surface, which allow lower-energy neutrons to penetrate deeper into the moderator, the portable LC has little space to make such air gaps due to the small size. Then we employed a polystyrene (PS) moderator instead of a polyethylene (PE) one as a front part of the moderator. As the hydrogen density of PS is nearly half that of PE, lower-energy neutrons can penetrate the PS moderator deeper than the PE moderator.

Journal Articles

An Attempt to decrease anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical $$^{241}$$Am-Be-encapsulation source

Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Yoshizawa, Michio

Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 161(1-4), p.166 - 170, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:88.23(Environmental Sciences)

An attempt to decrease the anisotropic emissions of neutrons from a cylindrical $$^{241}$$Am-Be encapsulated X3 source was conducted out by Monte Carlo calculations and experiments. Influence of metal materials and shapes of the external casing to the anisotropy factor were focused on. Results obtained by calculations using MCNP4C implied that a light and spherical-shaped casing decreases the anisotropic emission of neutrons. Experimental results using the spherical-shaped aluminum protection case also revealed that the anisotropy factor was close to 1.0 with wide zenith angle ranges.

Journal Articles

Mono-energetic neutron fields using 4 MV pelletron accelerator at FRS/JAEA

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Kowatari, Munehiko; Yoshitomi, Hiroshi; Nishino, Sho; Yoshizawa, Michio

IAEA-TECDOC-1743, Annex (CD-ROM), p.133 - 138, 2014/07

Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been developed in the energy range of 8 keV to 19 MeV using a 4 MV Pelletron accelerator at the FRS in the JAEA. Protons or deuterons are accelerated and transported to bombard various targets for neutron production. The targets are prepared by depositing Sc, LiF or TiT on the backing disks for $$^{45}$$Sc(p,n)$$^{45}$$Ti, $$^{7}$$Li(p,n)$$^{7}$$Be and, $$^{3}$$H(p,n)$$^{3}$$He and $$^{3}$$H(d,n)$$^{4}$$He reactions, respectively. For $$^{2}$$H(d,n)$$^{3}$$He reaction, a gas target is prepared by filling a target cell with D$$_{2}$$ gas. A pulsed beam with a minimum width of 2 ns can be derived with the pulsing system. Neutron fluence rates were measured with a Bonner sphere, a Li glass detector, a Si-SSD with a polyethylene radiator and a BC501A detector. Though the maximum fluence rates should not be high enough to obtain the nuclear data using an activation method, they can be available to obtain the nuclear data by using the prompt $$gamma$$ ray analysis.

Journal Articles

Neutron fluence monitoring system in mono-energetic neutron fields at FRS/JAEA

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Michio

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.388 - 391, 2014/04

Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been developed at Facility of Radiation Standards (FRS) using a 4 MV Pelletron accelerator. The neutron energies are available between 8 keV and 19 MeV for determining the energy responses of neutron dosemeters. The neutron energies are well adjusted to the energy points specified in the international standard (ISO 8529-1) and Japanese standard (JIS Z4521). Precise neutron fluence is the most important parameter for the calibration. In order to determine the fluence a Long Counter (hereinafter LC) is installed in the field for monitoring the neutron emission rate from the target. The fluence can be precisely determined using the output counts of the LC, the distance from the target, calibration coefficient of the LC and the air attenuation factor. This presentation describes the neutron monitors, outline of our monitoring system, determination of the air attenuation factor and procedure to determine the neutron fluence.

Journal Articles

Determination of neutron fluence in 1.2 and 2.5 MeV mono-energetic neutron calibration fields at FRS/JAEA

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Michio

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 4, p.392 - 395, 2014/04

1.2 and 2.5 MeV Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been developed at Facility of Radiation Standards (FRS) by using a 4MV Pelletron accelerator and employing $$^3$$H(p,n)$$^3$$He reaction. For the calibration, neutron fluence should be precisely evaluated. A silicon semiconductor detector with a polyethylene converter (hereinafter CH$$_2$$-SSD) was developed to determine the neutron fluence. The detection efficiency of a common CH$$_2$$-SSD is not large enough to determine the neutron fluence. Then we developed a CH$$_2$$-SSD with high efficiency by using a large silicon semiconductor detector with 3,000 mm$$^2$$ sensitive area. This makes it possible to determine the neutron fluence with satisfactory accuracy. The detection efficiency of the CH$$_2$$-SSD was calculated with NRESP-ANT code and PHITS code. The maximum neutron fluence at 1 m from the target were evaluated to be about 1,000 and 2,000 cm$$^{-2}$$s$$^{-1}$$ in the 1.2 and 2.5 MeV neutron fields, especially.

JAEA Reports

Survey of radiation protection creiteria following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

Yamada, Katsunori; Fujii, Katsutoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi; Higashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Fukami, Tomoyo; Yoshida, Keisuke; Ueno, Yumi; Nakajima, Junya; et al.

JAEA-Review 2013-033, 51 Pages, 2013/12

JAEA-Review-2013-033.pdf:2.73MB

After the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant, various numerical criteria relevant to radiation protection were defined. We surveyed these criteria through internet. As a result of survey, the following 13 items were identified: (1) criteria for taking stable iodine tablets, (2) criteria for the screening of surface contamination, (3) evacuation area, sheltering area, etc., (4) activity concentrations in food, drinking water, etc., (5) dose limit for radiation workers engaged in emergency work, (6) guideline levels of radioactive substances in bathing areas, (7) criteria for use of school buildings and schoolyards, (8) restriction on planting rice, (9) acceptable activity concentrations in feedstuff, (10) acceptable activity concentrations in compost, (11) criteria for export containers and ships, (12) criteria for contaminated waste, (13) standards for radiation workers engaged in decontamination work. In this report, the basis of and issues on these criteria are summarized.

Journal Articles

Chapter 2 "Radiation measurement" and Chapter 3 "Measurement and estimation of exposed dose"

Yoshizawa, Michio; Suzuki, Takashi; Noguchi, Masayasu*

Hoshasen Anzen Kanri No Jissai 3-Han, p.39_90 - 91_120, 2013/10

It was decided to revise the book of "Actual Radiation Safety Management", which has been used as a main text for the radiation protection supervisors, in order to reflect the latest amendment of the Radiation Hazards Prevention Act. Then, we revised Chapter 2 "Radiation measurement" and Chapter 3 "Measurement and estimation of exposed dose" of the book, which were the writing parts of the current version, so as to incorporate the most up-to-date information. Main subjects of these revises were the change of radiation and tissue weighting factors in the 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), update of the information about survey meters and personal dosimeters, clarification of sentences and so on.

Journal Articles

Development of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron calibration fields of several tens of MeV at TIARA

Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Saegusa, Jun; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Uchita, Yoshiaki; Yoshizawa, Michio

Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology (Internet), 1, p.166 - 169, 2011/02

For the reliable dose evaluation in high intensity proton accelerator facilities such as J-PARC, high energy neutron calibration fields above 20 MeV to evaluate energy response of both the monitors and the dosimeters used there, are required. Therefore, development of three neutron calibration fields of 45, 60 and 75 MeV has been in progress at TIARA of JAEA-Takasaki. Evaluation of the neutron fluence and establishment of the monitoring technique are important for the development of the calibration fields. Here, results of the fluence evaluation in the absolute measurement by using proton recoil counter telescope with high detection efficiency, a transmission type neutron fluence monitor newly developed to monitor neutron beam directly and its performance will be reported.

Journal Articles

Establishment of neutron fluence monitoring techniques for quasi-monoenergetic neutron calibration fields of high energy at TIARA

Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Saegusa, Jun; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Uchida, Yoshiaki*; Yoshizawa, Michio; Harano, Hideki*; Matsumoto, Tetsuro*; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi

JAEA-Review 2010-065, JAEA Takasaki Annual Report 2009, P. 158, 2011/01

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of target photon dose mixed in mono-energetic neutron fields using $$^7$$Li(p,n)$$^7$$Be reaction

Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Saegusa, Jun; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Yoshizawa, Michio

Radiation Measurements, 45(10), p.1163 - 1166, 2010/12

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:72.46(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Mono-energetic neutron calibration fields have been developed at the Facility of Radiation Standards of Japan Atomic Energy Agency using a 4MV Pelletron accelerator. The fields of 8, 27, 144, 250, 565 keV and 1.2, 2.5, 5.0, 14.8 MeV neutrons were established using scandium, lithium, deuterium and tritium targets. The nuclear reactions between the accelerated particles and the target materials produce not only the mono-energetic neutrons but also unwanted photons. As the photons can affect the readings of dosemeters, their effects should be evaluated. In this work the photons in the 144, 250 and 565 keV neutron fields from a lithium fluoride target were measured using a cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector with 7.62 cm both in diameter and in length. The ambient dose equivalent H*(10) for the photons was evaluated by applying the "G(E) function" to the measured pulse height spectrum.

Journal Articles

Operational quantities for exposure dose monitoring

Yoshizawa, Michio

Hoken Butsuri, 44(1), p.36 - 45, 2009/03

The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU, has recommended "operational quantities", such as ambient, directional and personal dose equivalent, for external radiation monitoring. Many discussions have been made on the operational quantities, including necessity of these quantities. The operational quantities have a long history, and ICRU published many reports on this issue. This paper reviews the evolution of operational quantities in the relevant ICRU reports and the ICRP 2007 recommendations.

Journal Articles

Up-to-date information on the UNSCEAR

Yoshizawa, Michio

NL Dayori, (371), P. 1, 2008/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development of the neutron calibration fields using accelerators at FRS and TIARA of JAEA

Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Saegusa, Jun; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Michio; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 45(Suppl.5), p.209 - 212, 2008/06

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:46.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The neutron calibration fields is necessary to evaluate the energy response of the neutron monitors and dosimeters used in the facility such as J-PARC. The neutron calibration fields using accelerators, for the purpose, have been developed at the Facility of Radiation Standards (FRS) of JAEA-Tokai for neutrons below 20MeV and at Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) of JAEA-Takasaki for those over 20 MeV. At FRS, a 4 MV Van-de-Graaff (Pelletron) accelerator is used. Up until the present, developments of the 8, 144, 250, 565 keV, 5.0 and 14.8 MeV fields have been completed. At TIARA, an AVF cyclotron is used, and three neutron fields of 45, 60 and 75 MeV are planned to be established. For the development, evaluation of the characteristics of the field have been in process.

123 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)