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Journal Articles

A Colossal barocaloric effect induced by the creation of a high-pressure phase

Jiang, X.*; Hattori, Takanori; Xu, X.*; Li, M.*; Yu, C.*; Yu, D.*; Mole, R.*; Yano, Shinichiro*; Chen, J.*; He, L.*; et al.

Materials Horizons, 10(3), p.977 - 982, 2023/03

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:84.83(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

As a promising environment-friendly alternative to current vapor-compression refrigeration, solid-state refrigeration based on the barocaloric effect has been attracting world wide attention. Generally, both phases in which a barocaloric effect occurs are present at ambient pressure. Here, instead, we demonstrate that KPF$$_{6}$$ exhibits a colossal barocaloric effect due to the creation of a high-pressure rhombohedral phase. The phase diagram is constructed based on pressure-dependent calorimetric, Raman scattering, and neutron diffraction measurements. The present study is expected to provide an alternative routine to colossal barocaloric effects through the creation of a high-pressure phase.

Journal Articles

Hybridized propagation of spin waves and surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic-ferromagnetic heterostructure

Chen, J.*; Yamamoto, Kei; Zhang, J.*; Ma, J.*; Wang, H.*; Sun, Y.*; Chen, M.*; Ma, J.*; Liu, S.*; Gao, P.*; et al.

Physical Review Applied (Internet), 19(2), p.024046_1 - 024046_9, 2023/02

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:86.97(Physics, Applied)

Journal Articles

Assessment of radioactive contamination and effectiveness of remedial measures in urban environments, Report of Working Group 2, Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments (MODARIA) Programme

Boznar, M. Z.*; Charnock, T. W.*; Chouhan, S. L.*; Grsic, Z.*; Halsall, C.*; Heinrich, G.*; Helebrant, J.*; Hettrich, S.*; Ku$v{c}$a, P.*; Mancini, F.*; et al.

IAEA-TECDOC-2001, 226 Pages, 2022/06

The IAEA organized a programme from 2012 to 2015 entitled Modelling and Data for Radiological Impact Assessments (MODARIA), which aimed to improve capabilities in the field of environmental radiation dose assessment by acquiring improved data, model testing and comparison of model inputs, assumptions and outputs, reaching a consensus on modelling philosophies, aligning approaches and parameter values, developing improved methods and exchanging information. This publication describes the activities of Working Group 2, Exposures in Contaminated Urban Environments and Effect of Remedial Measures.

Journal Articles

Urban Working Groups in the IAEA's model testing programmes; Overview from the MODARIA I and MODARIA II programmes

Thiessen, K. M.*; Boznar, M. Z.*; Charnock, T. W.*; Chouhan, S. L.*; Federspiel, L.; Gra$v{s}$i$v{c}$, B.*; Grsic, Z.*; Helebrant, J.*; Hettrich, S.*; Hulka, J.*; et al.

Journal of Radiological Protection, 42(2), p.020502_1 - 020502_8, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:85.55(Environmental Sciences)

Journal Articles

Assessment of doses in contaminated urban areas; Modelling exercise based on Fukushima data

Takahara, Shogo; Charnock, T. W.*; Silva, K.*; Hwang, W. T.*; Lee, J.*; Yu, C.*; Kamboj, S.*; Yankovich, T.*; Thiessen, K. M.*

Journal of Radiological Protection, 42(2), p.020517_1 - 020517_13, 2022/06

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.01(Environmental Sciences)

State-of-the-art dose assessment models were applied to estimate doses to the population in urban areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Assessment results were compared among five models, and comparisons of model predictions with actual measurements were also made. Assessments were performed using both probabilistic and deterministic approaches. Predicted dose distributions in indoor and outdoor workers from a probabilistic approach were in good agreement with the actual measurements. In addition, when the models were applied to assess the doses to a representative person, based on a concept suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), it was evident that doses to the representative person obtained with a deterministic approach were always higher than those obtained with a probabilistic approach.

Journal Articles

The $$omega^{3}$$ scaling of the vibrational density of states in quasi-2D nanoconfined solids

Yu, Y.*; Yang, C.*; Baggioli, M.*; Phillips, A. E.*; Zaccone, A.*; Zhang, L.*; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Yu, D.*; Hong, L.*

Nature Communications (Internet), 13, p.3649_1 - 3649_10, 2022/06

Journal Articles

Effect of particle size on the colonization of biofilms and the potential of biofilm-covered microplastics as metal carriers

Wu, C.*; Tanaka, Kazuya; Tani, Yukinori*; Bi, X.*; Liu, J.*; Yu, Q.*

Science of the Total Environment, 821, p.153265_1 - 153265_9, 2022/05

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:92.99(Environmental Sciences)

Microplastics (MPs) with different particle sizes were co-cultured with a model freshwater fungus, ${it Acremonium strictum}$ strain KR21-2, to form biofilms on their surface. We also determined the changes in surface physicochemical properties of the biofilm-covered MPs (BMPs) and the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the original MPs and BMPs. The results revealed that the biofilms improve the adsorption of heavy metals on MPs, and the particle size of MPs plays a crucial role in biofilm colonization and adsorption of heavy metals by BMPs.

Journal Articles

Long decay length of magnon-polarons in BiFeO$$_{3}$$/La$$_{0.67}$$Sr$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ heterostructures

Zhang, J.*; Chen, M.*; Chen, J.*; Yamamoto, Kei; Wang, H.*; Hamdi, M.*; Sun, Y.*; Wagner, K.*; He, W.*; Zhang, Y.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.7258_1 - 7258_8, 2021/12

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:77.26(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Journal Articles

Fine structure in the $$alpha$$ decay of $$^{223}$$U

Sun, M. D.*; Liu, Z.*; Huang, T. H.*; Zhang, W. Q.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ding, B.*; Wang, J. G.*; Liu, X. Y.*; Lu, H. Y.*; Hou, D. S.*; et al.

Physics Letters B, 800, p.135096_1 - 135096_5, 2020/01

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:82.01(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Journal Articles

Second-order structural transition in the superconductor La$$_3$$Co$$_4$$Sn$$_{13}$$

Cheung, Y. W.*; Zhang, J. Z.*; Zhu, J. Y.*; Yu, W. C.*; Hu, Y. J.*; Wang, D. G.*; Otomo, Yuka*; Iwasa, Kazuaki*; Kaneko, Koji; Imai, Masaki*; et al.

Physical Review B, 93(24), p.241112_1 - 241112_5, 2016/06


 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:56.05(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Projection imaging with directional electron and proton beams emitted from an ultrashort intense laser-driven thin foil target

Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Choi, I. W.*; Daido, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tatsufumi*; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Yogo, Akifumi*; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Orimo, Satoshi; Daito, Izuru*; et al.

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 57(2), p.025001_1 - 025001_9, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:9.27(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Projection images of a metal mesh produced by directional MeV electron beam together with directional proton beam, emitted simultaneously from a thin foil target irradiated by an ultrashort intense laser. The mesh patterns are projected to each detector by the electron beam and the proton beam originated from tiny virtual sources of $$sim$$ 20 micron meter and $$sim$$10 micron meter diameters, respectively. Based on the observed quality and magnification of the projection images, we estimate sizes and locations of the virtual sources for both beams and characterize their directionalities. To carry out physical interpretation of the directional electron beam qualitatively, we perform 2D particle-in-cell simulation which reproduces a directional escaping electron component, together with a non-directional dragged-back electron component, the latter mainly contributes to building a sheath electric field for proton acceleration.

Journal Articles

Origin of dramatic oxygen solute strengthening effect in titanium

Yu, Q.*; Qi, L.*; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, R.*; Rugg, D.*; Morris, J. W. Jr.*; Asta, M.*; Chrzan, D. C.*; Minor, A. M.*

Science, 347(6222), p.635 - 639, 2015/02

 Times Cited Count:223 Percentile:98.33(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Given that solute atoms interact weakly with the long-range elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. This accepted wisdom has recently been questioned by first-principles calculations suggesting that solutes may interact much more strongly with the screw dislocation core. We report here the results of a combined experimental and computational study undertaken to elucidate the profound hardening effect of oxygen in pure hexagonally-close-packed structured $$alpha$$-Ti. High resolution and in situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical characterization establish that the strengthening is due to the strong interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations of the screw dislocation core reveal a simple crystallographic source for the oxygen-dislocation interaction that is consistent with experimental observations. The distortion of the interstitial sites at the dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen atoms. These mechanisms effectively pin the dislocation near the oxygen interstitial. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes that, contrary to prior understanding, may be significant in many structural alloys.

Journal Articles

Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)P with decoupled charge and spin doping

Deng, Z.*; Zhao, K.*; Gu, B.; Han, W.*; Zhu, J. L.*; Wang, X. C.*; Li, X.*; Liu, Q. Q.*; Yu, R. C.*; Goko, Tatsuo*; et al.

Physical Review B, 88(8), p.081203_1 - 081203_5, 2013/08

 Times Cited Count:71 Percentile:92.09(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Journal Articles

Benchmarking of mechanical test facilities related to ITER CICC steel jackets

Vostner, A.*; Pong, I.*; Bessette, D.*; Devred, A.*; Sgobba, S.*; Jung, A.*; Weiss, K.-P.*; Jewell, M. C.*; Liu, S.*; Yu, W.*; et al.

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 23(3), p.9500705_1 - 9500705_5, 2013/06

 Times Cited Count:11 Percentile:50.97(Engineering, Electrical & Electronic)

The ITER Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) used in the superconducting magnet system consists of a cable made of 300 to 1440 strands housed in a stainless steel tube (a.k.a. jacket or conduit). There are circular, square, as well as circle-in-square jackets, made of either a very low carbon AISI 316LN grade stainless steel or a high Mn austenitic stainless steel developed for ITER called JK2LB. Selected mechanical properties of the base material and weld joint were tested at room temperature and/or cryogenic temperatures ($$<$$ 7 K). The Domestic Agencies (DAs) reference laboratories and the ITER-IO appointed reference laboratories, CERN and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) performed mechanical tests. This paper will compare the test results (e.g. elongation to failure) from different laboratories.

Journal Articles

Simultaneous generation of ions and high-order harmonics from thin conjugated polymer foil irradiated with ultrahigh contrast laser

Choi, I. W.*; Kim, I. J.*; Pae, K. H.*; Nam, K. H.*; Lee, C.-L.*; Yun, H.*; Kim, H. T.*; Lee, S. K.*; Yu, T. J.*; Sung, J. H.*; et al.

Applied Physics Letters, 99(18), p.181501_1 - 181501_3, 2011/11

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:58.11(Physics, Applied)

We report the manufacturing of a thin foil target made of conjugated polymer, and the simultaneous observation of laser accelerated ions and second harmonic radiation, when irradiated with ultrahigh-contrast laser pulse at a maximum intensity of 4$$times$$10$$^{19}$$ W/cm$$^{2}$$. Maximum proton energy of 8 MeV is achieved along the target normal direction. Strong second harmonic with over 6% energy ratio compared to fundamental is emitted along the specular direction. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirm the simultaneous generation of protons and high-order harmonics, which demonstrates the feasibility of applications requiring particle and radiation sources at once, effectively using the same laser and target.

Journal Articles

Li(Zn,Mn)As as a new generation ferromagnet based on a I-II-V semiconductor

Deng, Z.*; Jin, C. Q.*; Liu, Q. Q.*; Wang, X. C.*; Zhu, J. L.*; Feng, S. M.*; Chen, L. C.*; Yu, R. C.*; Arguello, C.*; Goko, Tatsuo*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 2, p.1425_1 - 1425_5, 2011/08

 Times Cited Count:150 Percentile:93.66(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

In a prototypical ferromagnet (Ga,Mn)As based on a III-V semiconductor, substitution of divalent Mn atoms into trivalent Ga sites leads to severely limited chemical solubility and metastable specimens available only as thin films. The doping of hole carriers via (Ga,Mn) substitution also prohibits electron doping. To overcome these difficulties, Masek et al. theoretically proposed systems based on a I-II-V semiconductor LiZnAs, where isovalent (Zn,Mn) substitution is decoupled from carrier doping with excess/deficient Li concentrations. Here we show successful synthesis of Li$$_{1+y}$$(Zn$$_{1-x}$$Mn$$_x$$)As in bulk materials. We reported that ferromagnetism with a critical temperature of up to 50 K is observed in nominally Li-excess compounds, which have p-type carriers.

Journal Articles

Validation of on- and off-axis neutral beam current drive against experiment in DIII-D

Park, J. M.*; Murakami, Masanori*; Petty, C. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Holcomb, C. T.*; Van Zeeland, M. A.*; Prater, R.*; Luce, T. C.*; Wade, M. R.*; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 16(9), p.092508_1 - 092508_10, 2009/09

 Times Cited Count:23 Percentile:65.08(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Neutral beam current drive (NBCD) experiments in DIII-D using vertically shifted plasmas to move the current drive away from the axis have clearly demonstrated robust off-axis NBCD. Time-dependent measurements of magnetic pitch angles by the motional Stark effect diagnostic are used to obtain the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux, which indicates a broad off-axis NBCD profile with a peak at about half the plasma radius. In most cases, the measured off-axis NBCD profile is consistent with calculations using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code for the beam ion slowing down including finite-orbit effects, provided there is no large-scale MHD activity such as Alfv$'e$n eigenmodes modes or sawteeth. Good agreement is found between the measured pitch angles and those from simulations using transport-equilibrium codes. Two-dimensional image of Doppler-shifted fast ion D$$alpha$$ light emitted by neutralized energetic ions shows clear evidence for a hollow profile of beam ion density, consistent with classical beam ion slowing down. The magnitude of off-axis NBCD is sensitive to the alignment of the beam injection relative to the helical pitch of the magnetic field lines. If the signs of B and I yield the proper helicity, both measurement and calculation indicate that the efficiency is as good as on-axis NBCD because the increased fraction of trapped electrons reduces the electron shielding of the injected ion current, in contrast with electron current drive schemes where the trapping of electrons degrades the efficiency. The measured off-axis NBCD increases approximately linearly with the injection power, although a modest amount of fast ion diffusion is needed to explain an observed difference in the NBCD profile between the measurement and the calculation at high injection power.

Journal Articles

Off-axis neutral beam current drive for advanced scenario development in DIII-D

Murakami, Masanori*; Park, J. M.*; Petty, C. C.*; Luce, T. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Prater, R.*; Wade, M. R.*; Anderson, P. M.*; Austin, M. E.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 49(6), p.065031_1 - 065031_8, 2009/06

 Times Cited Count:43 Percentile:83.24(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beam lines is planned to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) peaked as far off-axis as half the plasma minor radius. New calculations for a downward-steered beam indicate strong current drive with good localization off-axis so long as the toroidal magnetic field, BT, and the plasma current, Ip, point in the same direction. This is due to good alignment of neutral beam injection (NBI) with the local pitch of the magnetic field lines. This model has been tested experimentally on DIII-D by an injecting equatorially-mounted NBs into reduced size plasmas that are vertically displaced with respect to the vessel midplane. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in the changes seen in sawtooth behavior in the internal inductance. By shifting the plasma upward or downward, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, measured off-axis NBCD profiles measured with motional Stark effect data and internal loop voltage show a difference in amplitude (40%-45%) consistent with predicted differences predicted by the changed NBI alignment with respect to the helicity of the magnetic field lines. The effects of NB injection direction relative to field line helicity can be large even in ITER: off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 20% if the BT direction is reversed. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as providing flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.

Journal Articles

ITER vacuum vessel, in-vessel components and plasma facing materials

Ioki, Kimihiro*; Barabash, V.*; Cordier, J.*; Enoeda, Mikio; Federici, G.*; Kim, B. C.*; Mazul, I.*; Merola, M.*; Morimoto, Masaaki*; Nakahira, Masataka*; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 83(7-9), p.787 - 794, 2008/12

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:76.55(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This paper presents recent results of ITER activities on Vacuum Vessel (VV), blanket, limiter, and divertor. Major results can be summarized as follows. (1) The VV design is being developed in more details considering manufacturing and assembly methods, and cost. Incorporating manufacturing studies being performed in cooperation with parties, the regular VV sector design has been nearly finalized. (2) The procurement allocation of blanket modules among 6 parties was fixed and the blanket module design has progressed in cooperation with parties. Fabrication of mock-ups for prequalification testing is under way and the tests will be performed in 2007-2008. (3) The divertor activities have progressed with the aim of launching the procurement according to the ITER project schedule.

Journal Articles

Efficient production of a collimated MeV proton beam from a Polyimide target driven by an intense femtosecond laser pulse

Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Daido, Hiroyuki; Yogo, Akifumi; Orimo, Satoshi; Ogura, Koichi; Ma, J.-L.; Sagisaka, Akito; Mori, Michiaki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.

Physics of Plasmas, 15(5), p.053104_1 - 053104_10, 2008/05

 Times Cited Count:44 Percentile:84.21(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

High-flux energetic protons whose maximum energies are up to 4 MeV are generated by an intense femtosecond Titanium Sapphire laser pulse interacting with a 7.5, 12.5, and 25$$mu$$m thick Polyimide tape targets. The laser pulse energy is 1.7 J, duration is 34 fs, and intensity is 3$$times$$10$$^{19}$$Wcm$$^{-2}$$. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has the intensity contrast ratio of 4$$times$$10$$^{-8}$$. The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energies of $$sim$$3% is achieved, which is comparable or even higher than those achieved in the previous works with nanometer-thick targets and the ultrahigh contrast laser pulses ($$sim$$10$$^{-10}$$).

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