Fujihara, Masayoshi*; Morita, Katsuhiro*; Mole, R.*; Mitsuda, Setsuo*; Toyama, Takami*; Yano, Shinichiro*; Yu, D.*; Sota, Shigetoshi*; Kuwai, Tomohiko*; Koda, Akihiro*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 11(1), p.3429_1 - 3429_7, 2020/07
Cai, Z.*; Bao, S.*; Wang, W.*; Ma, Z.*; Dong, Z.-Y.*; Shangguan, Y.*; Wang, J.*; Ran, K.*; Li, S.*; Kamazawa, Kazuya*; et al.
Physical Review B, 101(13), p.134408_1 - 134408_10, 2020/04
Dirac matters provide a platform for exploring the interplay of their carriers with other quantum phenomena. SrMnSb has been proposed to be a magnetic Weyl semimetal and provides an excellent platform to study the coupling between Weyl fermions and magnons. We performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on single crystals of SrMnSb, and found The dispersion in the magnetic Mn layer extends up to about 76 meV, while that between the layers has a narrow band width of 6 meV. Despite the coexistence of Weyl fermions and magnons, we find no clear evidence that the magnetic dynamics are influenced by the Weyl fermions in SrMnSb, possibly because that the Weyl fermions and magnons reside in the Sb and Mn layers separately, and the interlayer coupling is weak due to the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the material.
Sun, M. D.*; Liu, Z.*; Huang, T. H.*; Zhang, W. Q.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Ding, B.*; Wang, J. G.*; Liu, X. Y.*; Lu, H. Y.*; Hou, D. S.*; et al.
Physics Letters B, 800, p.135096_1 - 135096_5, 2020/01
Li, B.*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Kawamura, Seiko; Sugahara, Takeshi*; Wang, H.*; Wang, J.*; Chen, Y.*; Kawaguchi, Saori*; Kawaguchi, Shogo*; Ohara, Koji*; et al.
Nature, 567(7749), p.506 - 510, 2019/03
Refrigeration is of vital importance for modern society for example, for food storage and air conditioning- and 25 to 30% of the world's electricity is consumed for refrigeration. Current refrigeration technology mostly involves the conventional vapour compression cycle, but the materials used in this technology are of growing environmental concern because of their large global warming potential. As a promising alternative, refrigeration technologies based on solid-state caloric effects have been attracting attention in recent decades. However, their application is restricted by the limited performance of current caloric materials, owing to small isothermal entropy changes and large driving magnetic fields. Here we report colossal barocaloric effects (CBCEs) (barocaloric effects are cooling effects of pressure-induced phase transitions) in a class of disordered solids called plastic crystals. The obtained entropy changes in a representative plastic crystal, neopentylglycol, are about 389 joules per kilogram per kelvin near room temperature. Pressure-dependent neutron scattering measurements reveal that CBCEs in plastic crystals can be attributed to the combination of extensive molecular orientational disorder, giant compressibility and highly anharmonic lattice dynamics of these materials. Our study establishes the microscopic mechanism of CBCEs in plastic crystals and paves the way to next-generation solid-state refrigeration technologies.
Li, B.; Wang, H.*; Kawakita, Yukinobu; Zhang, Q.*; Feygenson, M.*; Yu, H. L.*; Wu, D.*; Ohara, Koji*; Kikuchi, Tatsuya*; Shibata, Kaoru; et al.
Nature Materials, 17(3), p.226 - 230, 2018/03
Cheung, Y. W.*; Zhang, J. Z.*; Zhu, J. Y.*; Yu, W. C.*; Hu, Y. J.*; Wang, D. G.*; Otomo, Yuka*; Iwasa, Kazuaki*; Kaneko, Koji; Imai, Masaki*; et al.
Physical Review B, 93(24), p.241112_1 - 241112_5, 2016/06
Yu, Q.*; Qi, L.*; Tsuru, Tomohito; Traylor, R.*; Rugg, D.*; Morris, J. W. Jr.*; Asta, M.*; Chrzan, D. C.*; Minor, A. M.*
Science, 347(6222), p.635 - 639, 2015/02
Given that solute atoms interact weakly with the long-range elastic fields of screw dislocations, it has long been accepted that solution hardening is only marginally effective in materials with mobile screw dislocations. This accepted wisdom has recently been questioned by first-principles calculations suggesting that solutes may interact much more strongly with the screw dislocation core. We report here the results of a combined experimental and computational study undertaken to elucidate the profound hardening effect of oxygen in pure hexagonally-close-packed structured -Ti. High resolution and in situ transmission electron microscopy nanomechanical characterization establish that the strengthening is due to the strong interaction between oxygen and the core of screw dislocations that mainly glide on prismatic planes. First-principles calculations of the screw dislocation core reveal a simple crystallographic source for the oxygen-dislocation interaction that is consistent with experimental observations. The distortion of the interstitial sites at the dislocation core creates a very strong but short-range repulsion for oxygen atoms. These mechanisms effectively pin the dislocation near the oxygen interstitial. These results establish a highly effective mechanism for strengthening by interstitial solutes that, contrary to prior understanding, may be significant in many structural alloys.
Vostner, A.*; Pong, I.*; Bessette, D.*; Devred, A.*; Sgobba, S.*; Jung, A.*; Weiss, K.-P.*; Jewell, M. C.*; Liu, S.*; Yu, W.*; et al.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 23(3), p.9500705_1 - 9500705_5, 2013/06
The ITER Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) used in the superconducting magnet system consists of a cable made of 300 to 1440 strands housed in a stainless steel tube (a.k.a. jacket or conduit). There are circular, square, as well as circle-in-square jackets, made of either a very low carbon AISI 316LN grade stainless steel or a high Mn austenitic stainless steel developed for ITER called JK2LB. Selected mechanical properties of the base material and weld joint were tested at room temperature and/or cryogenic temperatures ( 7 K). The Domestic Agencies (DAs) reference laboratories and the ITER-IO appointed reference laboratories, CERN and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) performed mechanical tests. This paper will compare the test results (e.g. elongation to failure) from different laboratories.
Deng, Z.*; Jin, C. Q.*; Liu, Q. Q.*; Wang, X. C.*; Zhu, J. L.*; Feng, S. M.*; Chen, L. C.*; Yu, R. C.*; Arguello, C.*; Goko, Tatsuo*; et al.
Nature Communications (Internet), 2, p.1425_1 - 1425_5, 2011/08
In a prototypical ferromagnet (Ga,Mn)As based on a III-V semiconductor, substitution of divalent Mn atoms into trivalent Ga sites leads to severely limited chemical solubility and metastable specimens available only as thin films. The doping of hole carriers via (Ga,Mn) substitution also prohibits electron doping. To overcome these difficulties, Masek et al. theoretically proposed systems based on a I-II-V semiconductor LiZnAs, where isovalent (Zn,Mn) substitution is decoupled from carrier doping with excess/deficient Li concentrations. Here we show successful synthesis of Li(ZnMn)As in bulk materials. We reported that ferromagnetism with a critical temperature of up to 50 K is observed in nominally Li-excess compounds, which have p-type carriers.
Park, J. M.*; Murakami, Masanori*; Petty, C. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Holcomb, C. T.*; Van Zeeland, M. A.*; Prater, R.*; Luce, T. C.*; Wade, M. R.*; et al.
Physics of Plasmas, 16(9), p.092508_1 - 092508_10, 2009/09
Neutral beam current drive (NBCD) experiments in DIII-D using vertically shifted plasmas to move the current drive away from the axis have clearly demonstrated robust off-axis NBCD. Time-dependent measurements of magnetic pitch angles by the motional Stark effect diagnostic are used to obtain the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux, which indicates a broad off-axis NBCD profile with a peak at about half the plasma radius. In most cases, the measured off-axis NBCD profile is consistent with calculations using an orbit-following Monte-Carlo code for the beam ion slowing down including finite-orbit effects, provided there is no large-scale MHD activity such as Alfvn eigenmodes modes or sawteeth. Good agreement is found between the measured pitch angles and those from simulations using transport-equilibrium codes. Two-dimensional image of Doppler-shifted fast ion D light emitted by neutralized energetic ions shows clear evidence for a hollow profile of beam ion density, consistent with classical beam ion slowing down. The magnitude of off-axis NBCD is sensitive to the alignment of the beam injection relative to the helical pitch of the magnetic field lines. If the signs of B and I yield the proper helicity, both measurement and calculation indicate that the efficiency is as good as on-axis NBCD because the increased fraction of trapped electrons reduces the electron shielding of the injected ion current, in contrast with electron current drive schemes where the trapping of electrons degrades the efficiency. The measured off-axis NBCD increases approximately linearly with the injection power, although a modest amount of fast ion diffusion is needed to explain an observed difference in the NBCD profile between the measurement and the calculation at high injection power.
Murakami, Masanori*; Park, J. M.*; Petty, C. C.*; Luce, T. C.*; Heidbrink, W. W.*; Osborne, T. H.*; Prater, R.*; Wade, M. R.*; Anderson, P. M.*; Austin, M. E.*; et al.
Nuclear Fusion, 49(6), p.065031_1 - 065031_8, 2009/06
Modification of the two existing DIII-D neutral beam lines is planned to allow vertical steering to provide off-axis neutral beam current drive (NBCD) peaked as far off-axis as half the plasma minor radius. New calculations for a downward-steered beam indicate strong current drive with good localization off-axis so long as the toroidal magnetic field, BT, and the plasma current, Ip, point in the same direction. This is due to good alignment of neutral beam injection (NBI) with the local pitch of the magnetic field lines. This model has been tested experimentally on DIII-D by an injecting equatorially-mounted NBs into reduced size plasmas that are vertically displaced with respect to the vessel midplane. The existence of off-axis NBCD is evident in the changes seen in sawtooth behavior in the internal inductance. By shifting the plasma upward or downward, or by changing the sign of the toroidal field, measured off-axis NBCD profiles measured with motional Stark effect data and internal loop voltage show a difference in amplitude (40%-45%) consistent with predicted differences predicted by the changed NBI alignment with respect to the helicity of the magnetic field lines. The effects of NB injection direction relative to field line helicity can be large even in ITER: off-axis NBCD can be increased by more than 20% if the BT direction is reversed. Modification of the DIII-D NB system will strongly support scenario development for ITER and future tokamaks as well as providing flexible scientific tools for understanding transport, energetic particles and heating and current drive.
Mori, Michiaki; Yogo, Akifumi; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Ma, J.*; Sagisaka, Akito; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Kondo, Shuji; et al.
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 36(4), p.1872 - 1877, 2008/08
A dependence of cut-off proton kinetic energy on laser prepulse duration has been observed. ASE pedestal duration is controlled by a fast electro-optic pulse slicer where the risetime is estimated to be 130 ps. We demonstrate a new correlated spectral technique for determining this risetime using a stretched, frequency chirped pulse.
Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Daido, Hiroyuki; Yogo, Akifumi; Orimo, Satoshi; Ogura, Koichi; Ma, J.-L.; Sagisaka, Akito; Mori, Michiaki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.
Physics of Plasmas, 15(5), p.053104_1 - 053104_10, 2008/05
High-flux energetic protons whose maximum energies are up to 4 MeV are generated by an intense femtosecond Titanium Sapphire laser pulse interacting with a 7.5, 12.5, and 25m thick Polyimide tape targets. The laser pulse energy is 1.7 J, duration is 34 fs, and intensity is 310Wcm. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has the intensity contrast ratio of 410. The conversion efficiency from laser energy into proton kinetic energies of 3% is achieved, which is comparable or even higher than those achieved in the previous works with nanometer-thick targets and the ultrahigh contrast laser pulses (10).
Yamasaki, Chisato*; Murakami, Katsuhiko*; Fujii, Yasuyuki*; Sato, Yoshiharu*; Harada, Erimi*; Takeda, Junichi*; Taniya, Takayuki*; Sakate, Ryuichi*; Kikugawa, Shingo*; Shimada, Makoto*; et al.
Nucleic Acids Research, 36(Database), p.D793 - D799, 2008/01
Here we report the new features and improvements in our latest release of the H-Invitational Database, a comprehensive annotation resource for human genes and transcripts. H-InvDB, originally developed as an integrated database of the human transcriptome based on extensive annotation of large sets of fulllength cDNA (FLcDNA) clones, now provides annotation for 120 558 human mRNAs extracted from the International Nucleotide Sequence Databases (INSD), in addition to 54 978 human FLcDNAs, in the latest release H-InvDB. We mapped those human transcripts onto the human genome sequences (NCBI build 36.1) and determined 34 699 human gene clusters, which could define 34 057 protein-coding and 642 non-protein-coding loci; 858 transcribed loci overlapped with predicted pseudogenes.
Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Daido, Hiroyuki; Yogo, Akifumi; Ogura, Koichi; Sagisaka, Akito; Li, Z.*; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Mori, Michiaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; et al.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, 46(9A), p.5853 - 5858, 2007/09
A laser-driven proton beam with a maximum energy of a few MeV is stably obtained using an ultra-short and high-intensity Titanium Sapphire laser. At the same time, keV X-ray is also generated at almost the same place where protons are emitted. Here, we show the successful demonstration of simultaneous proton and X-ray projection images of a test sample placed close to the source with a resolution of 10m, which is determined from the source sizes. Although the experimental configuration is very simple, the simultaneity is better than a few hundreds of ps. A CR-39 track detector and imaging plate, which are placed as close as possible to the CR-39, are used as detectors of protons and X-ray. The technique is applicable to the precise observation of microstructures.
Jeong, T.*; Choi, I. W.*; Sung, J. H.*; Kim, H.*; Hong, K.*; Yu, T.*; Kim, J.-H.*; Noh, Y.*; Ko, D.-K.*; Lee, J.*; et al.
Journal of the Korean Physical Society, 50(1), p.34 - 39, 2007/01
no abstracts in English
Daido, Hiroyuki; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Mori, Michiaki; Ma, J.-L.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.
Proceedings of 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO-PR 2007) (CD-ROM), p.77 - 79, 2007/00
We are developing a proton accelerator using an intense lasers with a focused intensity of 10 W/cm. To monitor proton energy spectra as well as plasma parameters at each laser shot, we are using real time detectors. The proton energy of MeV is stably obtained for applications.
Daido, Hiroyuki; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Mori, Michiaki; Li, Z.*; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kanazawa, Shuhei; et al.
X-Ray Lasers 2006; Springer Proceedings in Physics, Vol.115, p.595 - 605, 2007/00
At present, using ultra-short high intensity lasers at APRC, JAEA Kansai photon research institute, we are developing laser driven multiple quantum beams such as protons, X-rays, electrons and THz waves. These beams are perfectly synchronized with each other. The pulse duration of each beam is lass than a pico-second. They have sharp directionality with high brightness. If we properly combined these, we have new pump-probe techniques for various applications.
Kim, D.*; Kyu, T.*; Hashimoto, Takeji
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B; Polymer Physics, 44(24), p.3621 - 3630, 2006/12
Various topological phase diagrams of blends of main-chain liquid crystalline polymer (MCLCP) and flexible polymer have been established theoretically in the frame-work of Matsuyama-Kato theory by combining Flory-Hussing (FH) free energy for isotropic mixing, Maier-Saupe (MS) free energy for nematic ordering in the constituent MCLCP, and free energy pertaining to polymer chain-rigidity. The calculated phase diagrams exhibit liquidus and solidus lines along with a nematic-isotropic (NI) transition of the constituent MCLCP. Subsequently, thermodynamic parameters estimated from the phase diagrams hitherto established have been employed in the numerical computation to elucidate phase separation dynamics and morphology evolution accompanying thermal-quench induced phase separation of the MCLCP/polymer mixture.
Lu, L.*; Hancock, J. N.*; Chabot-Couture, G.*; Ishii, Kenji; Vajk, O. P.*; Yu, G.*; Mizuki, Junichiro; Casa, D.*; Gog, T.*; Greven, M.*
Physical Review B, 74(22), p.224509_1 - 224509_9, 2006/12
We present a detailed Cu -edge resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) study of the Mott insulator LaCuO in the 1-7 eV energy loss range. As initially found for the high-temperature superconductor HgBaCuO, the spectra exhibit a multiplet of weakly dispersive electron-hole excitations, which are revealed by utilizing the subtle dependence of the cross section on the incident photon energy. The close similarity between the fine structures for in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations is indicative of the central role played by the 1s core hole in inducing charge excitations within the CuO planes. On the other hand, we observe a polarization dependence of the spectral weight, and careful analysis reveals two separate features near 2 eV that may be related to different charge-transfer processes. The polarization dependence indicates that the electrons contribute significantly to the RIXS cross section.