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Journal Articles

Visualizing cation vacancies in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ scintillators by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Kamada, Kei*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hosaka, Masahito*; et al.

Applied Physics Express, 13(8), p.085505_1 - 085505_4, 2020/08

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:24.67(Physics, Applied)

To clarify the existence of cation vacancies in Ce-doped Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ (Ce:GAGG) scintillators, we performed gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (GiPALS). GiPAL spectra of GAGG and Ce:GAGG comprised two exponential decay components, which were assigned to positron annihilation at bulk and defect states. By an analogy with Ce:Y$$_{3}$$Al$$_{5}$$O$$_{12}$$, the defect-related component was attributed to Al/Ga-O divacancy complexes. This component was weaker for Ce, Mg:GAGG, which correlated with the suppression of shallow electron traps responsible for phosphorescence. Oxygen vacancies were charge compensators for Al/Ga vacancies. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Journal Articles

Reaction-yield dependence of the ($$gamma$$, $$gamma$$') reaction of $$^{238}$$U on the target thickness

Negm, H.*; Ogaki, Hideaki*; Daito, Izuru*; Hayakawa, Takehito; Zen, H.*; Kii, Toshiteru*; Masuda, Kai*; Hori, Toshitada*; Hajima, Ryoichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; et al.

Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 52(6), p.811 - 820, 2015/06

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:32.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The dependence of the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) yield on the target thickness was studied. To this end, an NRF experiment was performed on $$^{238}$$U using a laser Compton back-scattering (LCS) $$gamma$$-ray beam at the High Intensity $$gamma$$-ray Source facility at Duke University.

Journal Articles

Analysis of nuclear resonance fluorescence excitation measured with LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) detectors near 2 MeV

Omer, M.*; Negm, H.*; Ogaki, Hideaki*; Daito, Izuru*; Hayakawa, Takehito; Bakr, M.*; Zen, H.*; Hori, Toshitada*; Kii, Toshiteru*; Masuda, Kai*; et al.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 729, p.102 - 107, 2013/11

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:43.78(Instruments & Instrumentation)

The performance of LaBr$$_{3}$$ (Ce) to measure nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) excitations is discussedin terms of limits of detection and in comparison with high-purity germanium (HPGe)detectors near the 2 MeV region where many NRF excitation levels from special nuclear materials are located. The NRF experiment was performed at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) facility of Duke University. The incident $$gamma$$-rays, of 2.12 MeV energy, hit a B$$_{4}$$C target to excite the $$^{11}$$B nuclei to the first excitation level. The statistical-sensitive non-linear peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm was implemented to eliminate theback ground and enhance the limits of detection for the spectra measured with LaBr$$_{3}$$ (Ce). Both detection and determination limits were deduced from the experimental data.

Journal Articles

Nuclear resonance fluorescence of $$^{235}$$U measured with high-resolution LaBr$$_3$$(Ce) scintillation detectors

Omer, M.*; Negm, H.*; Zen, H.*; Daito, Izuru*; Kii, Toshiteru*; Masuda, Kai*; Ogaki, Hideaki*; Hajima, Ryoichi; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; et al.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 52(10), p.106401_1 - 106401_4, 2013/10

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:30.5(Physics, Applied)

A nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiment was performed on a $$^{235}$$U target with quasi-monochromatic $$gamma$$-rays at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS) facility of Duke University using a 1733 keV resonant energy. A LaBr$$_3$$ (Ce) detector array consisting of eight cylindrical detectors, each with a length of 7.62 cm and a diameter of 3.81 cm, was implemented in this measurement. Moreover, a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector array consisting of four detectors, each of which has a relative efficiency of 60%, was used as the benchmark for the measurement taken using the LaBr$$_3$$ (Ce) detector array. The integrated cross section of the NRF level, measured with LaBr$$_3$$ (Ce) detectors, showed good agreement with the available data.

Journal Articles

Recent progress in the energy recovery linac project in Japan

Sakanaka, Shogo*; Akemoto, Mitsuo*; Aoto, Tomohiro*; Arakawa, Dai*; Asaoka, Seiji*; Enomoto, Atsushi*; Fukuda, Shigeki*; Furukawa, Kazuro*; Furuya, Takaaki*; Haga, Kaiichi*; et al.

Proceedings of 1st International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC '10) (Internet), p.2338 - 2340, 2010/05

Future synchrotron light source using a 5-GeV energy recovery linac (ERL) is under proposal by our Japanese collaboration team, and we are conducting R&D efforts for that. We are developing high-brightness DC photocathode guns, two types of cryomodules for both injector and main superconducting (SC) linacs, and 1.3 GHz high CW-power RF sources. We are also constructing the Compact ERL (cERL) for demonstrating the recirculation of low-emittance, high-current beams using above-mentioned critical technologies.

Journal Articles

Demagnetization of undulator magnets irradiated high energy electrons

Bizen, Teruhiko*; Tanaka, Takashi*; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kim, D. E.*; Bak, J. S.*; Lee, H. S.*; Kitamura, Hideo*

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 467-468(Part1), p.185 - 189, 2001/07

 Times Cited Count:39 Percentile:92.78(Instruments & Instrumentation)

no abstracts in English

Oral presentation

Nuclear resonance fluorescence in U-238 using LaBr detectors for nuclear security

Hayakawa, Takehito; Negm, H.*; Ogaki, Hideaki*; Daito, Izuru*; Kii, Toshiteru*; Zen, H.*; Omer, M.*; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi

no journal, , 

Recently, a nondestructive measurement method of shielded fissional isotopes such as $$^{235}$$U or $$^{239}$$Pu has been proposed for the nuclear security. These isotopes are measured by using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) with monochromatic energy $$gamma$$-ray beams generated by laser Compton-scattering (LCS). We have proposed that one measure scattered $$gamma$$-rays from NRF with LCS $$gamma$$-ray beams using the LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) detectors. The LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) crystals include internal radioisotopes of a meta-stable isotope $$^{138}$$La and alpha decay chains from some actinides as $$^{227}$$Ac. There is a broad pump at about 2 MeV. This pump is considered to be an overlap of $$alpha$$-rays from decay chains of some actinides but its detailed structure has not been established. Here we have measured NRF spectra of $$^{238}$$U using the LCS $$gamma$$-rays with energy of about 2.5 MeV at the HIgS facility of the Duke University. The background has been evaluated using a simulation code GEAT4. The 9 peaks, 8 NRF $$gamma$$-rays plus the Compton scattered $$gamma$$-ray of the incident beam, are finally assigned in an energy range of about 200 keV at about 2.5 MeV. The 8 integrated NRF cross-sections measured by LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce) have been consistent with results by an HPGe detector. The three levels are newly assigned using the HPGe detector. Two of them are also measured by LaBr$$_{3}$$(Ce).

Oral presentation

Development of gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Zen, H.*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Hosaka, Masahito*; Yamazaki, Junichiro*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hirade, Tetsuya; et al.

no journal, , 

For general positron sources, radioisotopes such as $$^{22}$$Na are often used. However, there is a problem that positrons cannot probe the deep region of metal materials with a thickness of 1 mm or more. Gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime measurement (GiPALS) is a method for generating positrons in bulk samples with a thickness of several centimeters and samples placed in vessels such as high temperature and/or pressure furnaces. The annihilation lifetime of positrons is about 200 ps for metal materials, so it is important to use gamma rays with a shorter pulse width for GiPALS in order to accurately measure the positron lifetime. We have succeeded in the proof-of-principle experiment for GiPALS of ultra-short pulse gamma rays with a pulse width of 2 ps, which was originally developed using 90$$^{circ}$$ collision laser Compton scattering at UVSOR.

Oral presentation

Development of gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at UVSOR

Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Zen, H.*; Okano, Yasuaki*; Hosaka, Masahito*; Yamazaki, Junichiro*; Kato, Masahiro*; Hirade, Tetsuya; et al.

no journal, , 

For general positron sources, radioisotopes such as $$^{22}$$Na are often used. However, there is a problem that positrons cannot probe the deep region of metal materials with a thickness of 1 mm or more. Gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime measurement (GiPALS) is a method for generating positrons in bulk samples with a thickness of several centimeters and samples placed in vessels such as high temperature and/or pressure furnaces. The annihilation lifetime of positrons is about 200 ps for metal materials, so it is important to use gamma rays with a shorter pulse width for GiPALS in order to accurately measure the positron lifetime. We have succeeded in the proof-of-principle experiment for GiPALS of ultra-short pulse gamma rays with a pulse width of 2 ps, which was originally developed using 90$$^{circ}$$ collision laser Compton scattering at UVSOR.

Oral presentation

Vacancy-type defects in garnet crystals revealed by gamma-ray-induced positron annihilation spectroscopy

Kitaura, Mamoru*; Fujimori, Kosuke*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Hirade, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kei*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Onishi, Akimasa*

no journal, , 

Positron annihilation spectroscopy is the only way to investigate the properties of cation vacancies because they are negatively charged. We generated high-energy pulsed gamma rays by the vertical collision of an ultrashort pulse laser and electron beam. In this study, we investigated the vacancy-type defects present in the crystals of GAGG(Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$), GAGG: Ce and GAGG: Ce, Mg by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using the high-energy gamma rays. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This was understood by considering aggregates of Mg$$^{2+}$$ ions at Al/Ga sites with oxygen vacancies, which resulted in the formation of vacancy clusters.

Oral presentation

Origin of phosphorescence in Ce:Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$ crystals revealed by gamma-ray induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

Fujimori, Kosuke*; Kitaura, Mamoru*; Taira, Yoshitaka*; Fujimoto, Masaki*; Zen, H.*; Hirade, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kei*; Watanabe, Shinta*; Onishi, Akimasa*

no journal, , 

We generated high-energy pulsed gamma rays by the vertical collision of an ultrashort pulse laser and electron beam. In this study, we investigated the vacancy-type defects present in the crystals of GAGG(Gd$$_{3}$$Al$$_{2}$$Ga$$_{3}$$O$$_{12}$$), GAGG: Ce and GAGG: Ce, Mg by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using the high-energy gamma rays. The lifetime of the defect-related component was significantly changed by Mg co-doping. This indicates that the Al/Ga vacancies disappear. This fact corresponds well with the suppression of the phosphorescence component and is an important result showing that the Mg co-doping is effective in suppressing the shallow electron capture center.

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