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Elastic properties of nuclear pasta in a fully three-dimensional geometry

Xia, C.-J.*; 丸山 敏毅; 安武 伸俊*; 巽 敏隆*; Zhang, Y.-X.*

Physics Letters B, 839, p.137769_1 - 137769_5, 2023/04

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.1(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Realistic estimations on the elastic properties of neutron star matter are carried out with a large strain ($$varepsilon$$ $$_sim^{<}$$ 0.5) in the framework of relativistic-mean-field model with Thomas-Fermi approximation, where various crystalline configurations are considered in a fully three-dimensional geometry with reflection symmetry. Our calculation confirms the validity of assuming Coulomb crystals for the droplet phase above neutron drip density, which nonetheless does not work at large densities since the elastic constants are found to be decreasing after reaching their peaks. Similarly, the analytic formulae derived in the incompressible liquid-drop model give excellent description for the rod phase at small densities, which overestimates the elastic constants at larger densities. For slabs, due to the negligence on the variations of their thicknesses, the analytic formulae from liquid-drop model agree qualitatively but not quantitatively with our numerical estimations. By fitting to the numerical results, these analytic formulae are improved by introducing dampening factors. The impacts of nuclear symmetry energy are examined adopting two parameter sets, corresponding to the slope of symmetry energy L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV. Even with the uncertainties caused by the anisotropy in polycrystallines, the elastic properties of neutron star matter obtained with L = 41.34 and 89.39 MeV are distinctively different, results in detectable differences in various neutron star activities.


A Colossal barocaloric effect induced by the creation of a high-pressure phase

Zhang, Z.*; Jiang, X.*; 服部 高典; Xu, X.*; Li, M.*; Yu, C.*; Zhang, Z.*; Yu, D.*; Mole, R.*; 矢野 真一郎*; et al.

Materials Horizons, 10(3), p.977 - 982, 2023/03

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)



Grain refinement in titanium prevents low temperature oxygen embrittlement

Chong, Y.*; Gholizadeh, R.*; 都留 智仁; Zhang, R.*; 井上 耕治*; Gao, W.*; Godfrey, A.*; 光原 昌寿*; Morris, J. W. Jr.*; Minor, A. M.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 14, p.404_1 - 404_11, 2023/02

チタンは格子間酸素によって脆化する。特に極低温では顕著な脆化挙動を示すため、チタンやその合金の製造において酸素含有量を厳しく管理する必要がある。この問題を解決するために、我々は結晶粒の微細化という構造戦略を提案した。77Kで非常に脆い粗粒の組織と比較して、Ti-0.3wt.%Oの超微細粒(UFG)組織(粒径$$sim$$2.0$$mu$$m)は、UFG組織特有の超高降伏強度を維持したまま均一延びを1桁上昇させることに成功した。UFG Ti-0.3wt.%Oにおけるこの特異な強度-延性相乗効果は、粒界凝集エネルギー向上に寄与する希薄な酸素の粒界偏析と優れたひずみ硬化能に寄与する$$<c+a>$$転位の活性化の複合効果によって達成された。この方法は、低温での高強度Ti-O合金の応用の可能性を高めるだけでなく、格子間固溶硬化による延性の低下を生じる他の合金系にも適用できる可能性がある。


Hybridized propagation of spin waves and surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic-ferromagnetic heterostructure

Chen, J.*; 山本 慧; Zhang, J.*; Ma, J.*; Wang, H.*; Sun, Y.*; Chen, M.*; Ma, J.*; Liu, S.*; Gao, P.*; et al.

Physical Review Applied (Internet), 19(2), p.024046_1 - 024046_9, 2023/02

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Applied)

Coherent coupling in magnon based hybrid system has many potential applications in quantum information processing. Magnons can propagate in magnetically ordered materials without any motion of electrons, offering a unique method to build low-power-consumption devices and information channels free of heat dissipation. In this article, we demonstrate the coherent propagation of hybridized modes between spin waves and Love surface acoustic waves in a multiferroic BiFeO$$_{3}$$ and ferromagnetic La$$_{0.67}$$Sr$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ based heterostructure. The magneto-elastic coupling enables a giant enhancement of strength of the hybridized mode by a factor of 26 compared to that of the pure spin waves. A short wavelength down to 250 nm is demonstrated for the hybridized mode, which is desirable for nanoscale acousto-magnonic applications. Our combined experimental and theoretical analyses represent an important step towards the coherent control in hybrid magnonics, which may inspire the study of magnon-phonon hybrid systems for coherent information processing and manipulation.


Fatigue crack non-propagation behavior of a gradient steel structure from induction hardened railway axles

Zhang, H.*; Wu, S. C.*; Ao, N.*; Zhang, J. W.*; Li, H.*; Zhou, L.*; 徐 平光; Su, Y. H.

International Journal of Fatigue, 166, p.107296_1 - 107296_11, 2023/01

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0.01(Engineering, Mechanical)

Abnormal damages in railway axles can lead to a significant hazard to running safety and reliability. To this end, a surface treatment was selected to effectively inhibit fatigue crack initiation and growth. In this study, a single edge notch bending fatigue test campaign with artificial notches was conducted to elucidate the fatigue crack non-propagation behavior in railway S38C axles subjected to an induction hardening process. The fatigue cracking behavior in the gradient structure was revealed by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and fractography. The microhardness distribution was measured using a Vickers tester. The obtained results show that the microhardness of the strengthening layer is nearly triple that of the matrix. Owing to the gradient microstructures and hardness, as well as compressive residual stress, the fatigue long crack propagates faster once it passes through the hardened zone (approximately 2.0 mm in the radial depth). Thereafter, local retarding (including deflection, branching, and blunting) of the long crack occurs because of the relatively coarse ferrite and pearlite in the transition region and matrix. Totally, this fatigue cracking resistance is reasonably believed to be due to the gradient microstructure and residual stress. These findings help to tailor a suitable detection strategy for maximum defects or cracks in railway axles.


Heat-induced structural changes in magnesium alloys AZ91 and AZ31 investigated by in situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction

Liu, X. J.*; 徐 平光; 城 鮎美*; Zhang, S. Y.*; 菖蒲 敬久; 行武 栄太郎*; 秋田 貢一*; Zolotoyabko, E.*; Liss, K.-D.*

Journal of Materials Science, 57(46), p.21446 - 21459, 2022/12

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

In situ time/temperature-resolved synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction is applied to study heat-mediated structural changes and phase transformations in rolled sheets of AZ91 and AZ31 magnesium alloys. Azimuthal diffraction intensities along the Debye-Scherrer rings (AT-plots) are used to obtain information on grain recovery and recrystallization temperatures as well as temperature-assisted grain rotations. The azimuthally integrated diffraction intensities, plotted as functions of the scattering vector (QT-plots), provide vital data on the temperature-dependent lattice parameters of the Mg/Al matrix and intermetallic precipitates, as well as on the evolution of the precipitates' volume fraction. It was found that in AZ31, the main precipitates are of the AlMn type, which is rather stable in the investigated temperature range (up to 773 K). In contrast, in AZ91, the major intermetallic precipitates, Al$$_{12}$$Mg$$_{17}$$, undergo complete dissolution above 600 K. It is caused by the enhanced diffusion of Al into the Mg/Al matrix, which according to the Al-Mg phase diagram, can adopt more Al at elevated temperatures. This diffusion is revealed by the proportional diminishing of the matrix lattice parameter (chemical strain), allowing us to quantify the Al content in the matrix. Fast temperature-dependent manipulation with intermetallic content in the Mg/Al alloy can, in principle, be used for controlling its mechanical properties.


Synergistic hybrid electrocatalysts of platinum alloy and single-atom platinum for an efficient and durable oxygen reduction reaction

Liu, B.*; Feng, R.*; Busch, M.*; Wang, S.*; Wu, H.*; Liu, P.*; Gu, J.*; Bahadoran, A.*; 松村 大樹; 辻 卓也; et al.

ACS Nano, 16(9), p.14121 - 14133, 2022/09

 被引用回数:12 パーセンタイル:94.71(Chemistry, Multidisciplinary)

Pt single-atom materials possess an ideal atom economy but suffer from limited intrinsic activity and side reaction of producing H$$_{2}$$O$$_{2}$$ in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we demonstrate that anchoring platinum alloys on single-atom Pt-decorated carbon (Pt- SAC) surmounts their inherent deficiencies, thereby enabling a complete four-electron ORR pathway catalysis with high efficiency and durability. Pt$$_{3}$$Co@Pt-SAC demonstrates an exceptional mass and specific activities 1 order of magnitude higher than those of commercial Pt/C. They are durable throughout 50000 cycles, showing only a 10 mV decay in halfwave potential. The superior durability is attributed to the shielding effect of the Pt-SAC coating, which significantly mitigates the dissolution of Pt$$_{3}$$Co cores.


Micro- to nano-scale areal heterogeneity in pore structure and mineral compositions of a sub-decimeter-sized Eagle Ford Shale

Wang, Q.*; Hu, Q.*; Zhao, C.*; Yang, X.*; Zhang, T.*; Ilavsky, J.*; Kuzmenko, I.*; Ma, B.*; 舘 幸男

International Journal of Coal Geology, 261, p.104093_1 - 104093_15, 2022/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:45.26(Energy & Fuels)

To understanding the spatial heterogeneity of mineral and pore structure variations in fine-grained shale, microscale X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) mapping, (ultra-) small-angle X-ray scattering [(U)SAXS] and wide-angle X-ray scattering were applied for two samples from a piece of Eagle Ford Shale in South Texas. Thin section petrography and field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), total organic carbon, and pyrolysis were also utilized to investigate the potential spatial heterogeneity of pore types, mineral and organic matter compositions for both samples. Overall, the siliceous-carbonate mineral contents in these carbonate-rich Eagle Ford Shale vary between laminations at mm scales. By analyzing six selected sub-samples on each of two samples with X-ray scattering and XRD techniques, nm-sized pores are mainly interparticle ones in the higher calcite regions, where the porosity is also relatively lower, while the lower calcite regions consist of both interparticle and intraparticle pore types with higher porosity. Finally, the micro-XRF and (U)SAXS are combined to generate porosity distribution maps to provide more insights about its heterogeneity related to the laminations and fractures at our observational scales.


Fine structure in the $$alpha$$ decay of the 8$$^{+}$$ isomer in $$^{216,218}$$U

Zhang, M. M.*; Tian, Y. L.*; Wang, Y. S.*; Zhang, Z. Y.*; Gan, Z. G.*; Yang, H. B.*; Huang, M. H.*; Ma, L.*; Yang, C. L.*; Wang, J. G.*; et al.

Physical Review C, 106(2), p.024305_1 - 024305_6, 2022/08

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:56.18(Physics, Nuclear)

The extremely neutron-deficient even-even uranium isotopes $$^{216,218}$$U were produced in the complete-fusion reactions induced by impinging $$^{40}$$Ar and $$^{40}$$Ca ions on $$^{180,182,184}$$W targets. Fusion evaporation residues were separated in flight by the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS (Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure) and subsequently identified using the recoil-$$alpha$$-correlation method. In this paper, we report on new $$alpha$$-decay activities with $$E_{alpha} = 10163(27)$$ keV for $$^{216}$$U and $$E_{alpha} = 10073(16)$$ keV for $$^{218}$$U, which decay from the 8$$^{+}$$ isomeric states of $$^{216,218}$$U into the 2$$^{+}$$ states of their daughter nuclei $$^{212,214}$$Th, respectively. The new results extend the systematics of the $$alpha$$-decay fine structure for the $$N$$ = 124 and 126 even-even isotones.


Transport model comparison studies of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

Walter, H.*; Colonna, M.*; Cozma, D.*; Danielewicz, P.*; Ko, C. M.*; Kumar, R.*; 小野 章*; Tsang, M. Y. B*; Xu, J.*; Zhang, Y.-X.*; et al.

Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 125, p.103962_1 - 103962_90, 2022/07

 被引用回数:23 パーセンタイル:96.81(Physics, Nuclear)

原子核-原子核衝突や原子核の状態方程式の研究において、反応計算モデルは重要なツールとなり、世界中で開発が進んでいる。本論文は、原子力機構のJQMD-2.0を含め、現在開発中の複数のコード開発者の協力により、これらコードを同じ条件で比較することで共通点や差異を明らかにしたプロジェクトTransport Model Evaluation Project (TMEP)を総括したものである。参加したコードはBoltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck(BUU)法に基づく13のコードと、Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD)法に基づく12のコードであった。プロジェクトでは、Au原子核同士を衝突させてその終状態を観測する現実的な計算や、一辺が640nmの箱に核子を詰めて時間発展させる仮想的な計算を行った。その結果、BUU法コードとQMD法コードは計算原理が異なるため、計算の設定に関係なく系統的な差異が生じることが明らかになった。その一方で、同じ方法を採用するコード間の比較では、時間発展を細かく計算することでコード間の差は埋まっていき、一定の収束値を持つことが示された。この結果は今後開発される同分野のコードのベンチマークデータとして有用なものであるだけでなく、原子核基礎物理学の実験や理論研究の標準的な指針としても役に立つことが期待される。



関 美沙紀; 藤田 善貴; 藤原 靖幸*; Zhang, J.*; 吉永 尚生*; 佐野 忠史*; 堀 順一*; 永田 寛; 大塚 薫; 大森 崇純; et al.

原子力バックエンド研究(CD-ROM), 29(1), p.2 - 9, 2022/06



First observation of a shape isomer and a low-lying strongly-coupled prolate band in neutron-deficient semi-magic $$^{187}$$Pb

Zhang, W. Q.*; Andreyev, A. N.; Liu, Z.*; Seweryniak, D.*; Huang, H.*; Li, Z. H.*; Li, J. G.*; Guo, C. Y.*; 他34名*

Physics Letters B, 829, p.137129_1 - 137129_7, 2022/06

 被引用回数:3 パーセンタイル:87.48(Astronomy & Astrophysics)

Prompt and delayed $$gamma$$-ray spectroscopy of the neutron-deficient, semi-magic isotope $$^{187}$$Pb has been performed at the Argonne Gas-Filled Analyzer. A new 5.15(15)-$$mu$$s isomeric state at only 308 keV above the spherical 3/2$$^{-}$$ ground state is identified and classified as a shape isomer. A strongly-coupled band is observed on top of the isomer, which is nearly identical to the one built on the prolate 7/2$$^{-}$$[514] Nilsson state in the isotone $$^{185}$$Hg. Based on this similarity and on the result of the potential-energy surface calculations, the new isomer in $$^{187}$$Pb is proposed to originate from the same configuration. The retarded character of the 308-keV transition can be well explained by the significant difference between the prolate parent and spherical daughter configurations, leading to the shape isomerism. The combined results of the present work and the previous $$alpha$$-decay and laser spectroscopy studies present evidence for triple shape coexistence at low energy in the negative-parity configurations of $$^{187}$$Pb, which is well reproduced by the potential-energy surface calculations.


MYRRHA-MINERVA injector status and commissioning

Gatera, A.*; Belmans, J.*; Boussa, S.*; Davin, F.*; De Cock, W.*; De Florio, V.*; Doucet, F.*; Parez, L.*; Pompon, F.*; Ponton, A.*; et al.

Proceedings of 64th ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity and High Brightness Hadron Beams (HB2021), p.186 - 190, 2022/04

The MYRRHA project at SCK CEN, Belgium, aims at coupling a 600 MeV proton accelerator to a subcritical fission core operating at a thermal power of 60 MW. The nominal proton beam for this ADS has an intensity of 4 mA and is delivered in a quasi-CW mode. MYRRHA's linac is designed to be fault tolerant thanks to redundancy implemented in parallel at low energy and serially in the superconducting linac. Phase 1 of the project, named MINERVA, will realise a 100 MeV, 4 mA superconducting linac with the mission of demonstrating the ADS requirements in terms of reliability and of fault tolerance. As part of the reliability optimisation program the integrated prototyping of the MINERVA injector is ongoing at SCK CEN in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. The injector test stand aims at testing sequentially all the elements composing the front-end of the injector. This contribution will highlight the beam dynamics choices in MINERVA's injector and their impact on ongoing commissioning activities.


Achieving excellent mechanical properties in type 316 stainless steel by tailoring grain size in homogeneously recovered or recrystallized nanostructures

Liu, M.*; Gong, W.; Zheng, R.*; Li, J.*; Zhang, Z.*; Gao, S.*; Ma, C.*; 辻 伸泰*

Acta Materialia, 226, p.117629_1 - 117629_13, 2022/03

 被引用回数:19 パーセンタイル:98.94(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

One hopeful path to realize good comprehensive mechanical properties in metallic materials is to accomplish homogeneous nanocrystalline (NC) or ultrafine grained (UFG) structure with low dislocation density. In this work, high pressure torsion deformation followed by appropriate annealing was performed on 316 stainless steel (SS). For the first time, we successfully obtained NC/UFG 316 SS having uniform microstructures with various average grain sizes ranging from 46 nm to 2.54 $$mu$$m and low dislocation densities. Among the series, an un-precedentedly high yield strength (2.34 GPa) was achieved at the smallest grain size of 46 nm, in which dislocation scarcity induced hardening accounting for 57% of the strength. On the other hand, exceptional strength-ductility synergy with high yield strength (900 MPa) and large uniform elongation (27%) was obtained in the fully recrystallized specimen having the grain size of 0.38 $$mu$$m. The high yield stress and scarcity of dislocation sources in recrystallized UFGs activated stacking faults and deformation twins nucleating from grain boundaries during straining, and their interaction with dislocations allowed for sustainable strain hardening, which also agreed with the plaston concept recently proposed. The multiple deformation modes activated, together with the effective strengthening mechanisms, were responsible for the outstanding comprehensive mechanical performance of the material.


Metalloid substitution elevates simultaneously the strength and ductility of face-centered-cubic high-entropy alloys

Wei, D.*; Wang, L.*; Zhang, Y.*; Gong, W.; 都留 智仁; Lobzenko, I.; Jiang, J.*; Harjo S.; 川崎 卓郎; Bae, J. W.*; et al.

Acta Materialia, 225, p.117571_1 - 117571_16, 2022/02

 被引用回数:39 パーセンタイル:99.78(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

Recently-developed high-entropy alloys (HEAs) containing multiple principal metallic elements have ex-tended the compositional space of solid solutions and the range of their mechanical properties. Here we show that the realm of possibilities can be further expanded through substituting the constituent metals with metalloids, which are desirable for tailoring strength/ductility because they have chemical interactions and atomic sizes distinctly different from the host metallic elements. Specifically, the metalloid substitution increases local lattice distortion and short-range chemical inhomogeneities to elevate strength, and in the meantime reduces the stacking fault energy to discourage dynamic recovery and encourage defect accumulation via partial-dislocation-mediated activities. These impart potent dislocation storage to improve the strain hardening capability, which is essential for sustaining large tensile elongation. As such, metalloid substitution into HEAs evades the normally expected strength-ductility trade-off, enabling an unusual synergy of high tensile strength and extraordinary ductility for these single-phase solid solutions.


Mictomagnetism and suppressed thermal conduction of the prototype high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi

Yang, J.*; Ren, W.*; Zhao, X.*; 菊地 龍弥*; Miao, P.*; 中島 健次; Li, B.*; Zhang, Z.*

Journal of Materials Science & Technology, 99, p.55 - 60, 2022/02

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:49.92(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

物性測定と中性子散乱を組み合わせることにより、面心立方高エントロピー合金CrMnFeCoNiの磁気および熱輸送特性を調べた。DCおよびAC帯磁率は、温度領域全体で反強磁性および強磁性相互作用が共存する常磁性挙動を示し、それぞれ、常磁性から反強磁性への遷移、反強磁性から強磁性への遷移、およびスピン凍結に対応して、約80, 50、および20Kで3つの異常が見られる。電気伝導率と熱伝導率はNiに比べて大幅に低下しており、格子熱伝導率の温度依存性はガラスのようなプラトーを示す。非弾性中性子散乱測定は弱い非調和性を示唆し、熱輸送は欠陥散乱によって支配されると思われる。


Modelling and simulation of the source term for a sodium cooled fast reactor under hypothetical severe accident conditions; Final report of a coordinated research project

Arokiaswamy, J. A.*; Batra, C.*; Chang, J. E.*; Garcia, M.*; Herranz, L. E.*; Klimonov, I. A.*; Kriventsev, V.*; Li, S.*; Liegeard, C.*; Mahanes, J.*; et al.

IAEA-TECDOC-2006, 380 Pages, 2022/00



Crystalline fully carboxylated polyacetylene obtained under high pressure as a Li-ion battery anode material

Wang, X.*; Tang, X.*; Zhang, P.*; Wang, Y.*; Gao, D.*; Liu, J.*; Hui, K.*; Wang, Y.*; Dong, X.*; 服部 高典; et al.

Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (Internet), 12(50), p.12055 - 12061, 2021/12

 被引用回数:4 パーセンタイル:42.16(Chemistry, Physical)



Long decay length of magnon-polarons in BiFeO$$_{3}$$/La$$_{0.67}$$Sr$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ heterostructures

Zhang, J.*; Chen, M.*; Chen, J.*; 山本 慧; Wang, H.*; Hamdi, M.*; Sun, Y.*; Wagner, K.*; He, W.*; Zhang, Y.*; et al.

Nature Communications (Internet), 12, p.7258_1 - 7258_8, 2021/12

 被引用回数:8 パーセンタイル:72.26(Multidisciplinary Sciences)

Magnons can transfer information in metals and insulators without Joule heating, and therefore are promising for low-power computation. The on-chip magnonics however suffers from high losses due to limited magnon decay length. In metallic thin films, it is typically on the tens of micrometre length scale. Here, we demonstrate an ultra-long magnon decay length of up to one millimetre in multiferroic/ferromagnetic BiFeO$$_{3}$$(BFO)/La$$_{0.67}$$Sr$$_{0.33}$$MnO$$_{3}$$ (LSMO) heterostructures at room temperature. This decay length is attributed to a magnon-phonon hybridization and is more than two orders of magnitude longer than that of bare metallic LSMO. The long-distance modes have high group velocities of 2.5 km$$^{-1}$$ as detected by time-resolved Brillouin light scattering. Numerical simulations suggest that magnetoelastic coupling via the BFO/LSMO interface hybridizes phonons in BFO with magnons in LSMO. Our results provide a solution to the long-standing issue on magnon decay lengths in metallic magnets and advance the bourgeoning field of hybrid magnonics.


Paramagnetic spin Hall magnetoresistance

大柳 洸一*; Gomez-Perez, J. M.*; Zhang, X.-P.*; 吉川 貴史*; Chen, Y.*; Sagasta, E.*; Chuvilin, A.*; Hueso, L. E.*; Golovach, V. N.*; Sebastian Bergeret, F.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 104(13), p.134428_1 - 134428_14, 2021/10

 被引用回数:6 パーセンタイル:67.2(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We report the observation of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in a paramagnetic insulator. By measuring the transverse resistance in a Pt/Gd$$_3$$Ga$$_5$$O$$_{12}$$ (GGG) system at low temperatures, paramagnetic SMR is found to appear with an intensity that increases with the magnetic field aligning GGG's spins. The observed effect is well supported by a microscopic SMR theory, which provides the parameters governing the spin transport at the interface. Our findings clarify the mechanism of spin exchange at a Pt/GGG interface, and demonstrate tunable spin-transfer torque through the field-induced magnetization of GGG. In this regard, paramagnetic insulators offer a key property for future spintronic devices.

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