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A Predicted CRISPR-mediated symbiosis between uncultivated archaea

Esser, S. P.*; Rahlff, J.*; Zhao, W.*; Predl, M.*; Plewka, J.*; Sures, K.*; Wimmer, F.*; Lee, J.*; Adam, P. S.*; McGonigle, J.*; et al.

Nature Microbiology (Internet), 8(9), p.1619 - 1633, 2023/09

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:83.33

CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotic cells from viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Capitalizing on multi-omics approaches, we show here that the CRISPR-Cas systems of uncultivated archaea also play an integral role in mitigating potentially detrimental interactions with episymbionts. A comprehensive analysis of CRISPR-Cas-based infection histories revealed that uncultivated deep-subsurface archaeal primary-producers defend themselves from archaeal episymbionts of the DPANN superphylum of archaea, some of which are known to fuse their membranes with their host. We show that host cells counter these attacks by deploying one of two CRISPR-Cas systems (type I-B and type III-A) to target and disrupt essential genes in the episymbiont. However, genome-scale modeling of metabolic interactions between two deep subsurface host-symbiont systems revealed that host cells also benefit from the symbionts via metabolic complementation. We speculate that populations of these uncultivated archaeal episymbionts are currently transitioning from a parasitic lifestyle to one of mutualism, as must have occurred in countless mutualistic systems known today. By expanding our analysis to thousands of archaeal genomes, we conclude that CRISPR-Cas mediated resistance to archaeal episymbiosis evolved independently in various archaeal lineages and may be a wide-spread evolutionary phenomenon.


Magnetic properties and electronic configurations of Mn ions in the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba$$_{1-x}$$K$$_x$$(Zn$$_{1-y}$$Mn$$_y$$)$$_2$$As$$_2$$ studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

鈴木 博人*; Zhao, G.*; 岡本 淳*; 坂本 祥哉*; Chen, Z.-Y.*; 野中 洋亮*; 芝田 悟朗; Zhao, K.*; Chen, B.*; Wu, W.-B.*; et al.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 91(6), p.064710_1 - 064710_5, 2022/06

 被引用回数:0 パーセンタイル:0(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

The magnetic properties and the electronic excitations of the new diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba$$_{1-x}$$K$$_x$$(Zn$$_{1-y}$$Mn$$_y$$)$$_2$$As$$_2$$ have been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). The sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra indicates that the Mn atoms are in the high-spin configurations of $$d^5$$, whereas the presence of competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions reduces the net spin moment. Based on a comparison of the RIXS line shapes with those of Ga$$_{1-x}$$Mn$$_x$$As, it is concluded that the ground state of Mn in Ba$$_{1-x}$$K$$_x$$(Zn$$_{1-y}$$Mn$$_y$$)$$_2$$As$$_2$$ consists of both the $$3d^5 underline{L}$$ and $$3d^5$$ electron configurations.


Environmental effects on layer-dependent dynamics of Dirac fermions in quasicrystalline bilayer graphene

Zhao, Y.*; Suzuki, T.*; Iimori, T.*; Kim, H.-W.*; Ahn, J. R.*; 堀尾 眞史*; 佐藤 祐輔*; 深谷 有喜; Kanai, T.*; Okazaki, K.*; et al.

Physical Review B, 105(11), p.115304_1 - 115304_8, 2022/03

 被引用回数:1 パーセンタイル:18.86(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)



Coexistence of ferromagnetic and stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$

Wo, H.*; Wang, Q.*; Shen, Y.*; Zhang, X.*; Hao, Y.*; Feng, Y.*; Shen, S.*; He, Z.*; Pan, B.*; Wang, W.*; et al.

Physical Review Letters, 122(21), p.217003_1 - 217003_5, 2019/05

 被引用回数:5 パーセンタイル:43.19(Physics, Multidisciplinary)

We report neutron scattering measurements of single-crystalline YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ in the normal state, which has the same crystal structure as the 122 family of iron pnictide superconductors. YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ does not exhibit long-range magnetic order but exhibits strong spin fluctuations. Like the iron pnictides, YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ displays anisotropic stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations at ($$pi, 0, pi$$). More interesting, however, is the observation of strong spin fluctuations at the in-plane ferromagnetic wave vector ($$0, 0, pi$$). These ferromagnetic spin fluctuations are isotropic in the ($$H, K$$) plane, whose intensity exceeds that of stripe spin fluctuations. Both the ferromagnetic and stripe spin fluctuations remain gapless down to the lowest measured energies. Our results naturally explain the absence of magnetic order in YFe$$_{2}$$Ge$$_{2}$$ and also imply that the ferromagnetic correlations may be a key ingredient for iron-based materials.


Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)P with decoupled charge and spin doping

Deng, Z.*; Zhao, K.*; Gu, B.; Han, W.*; Zhu, J. L.*; Wang, X. C.*; Li, X.*; Liu, Q. Q.*; Yu, R. C.*; 後神 達郎*; et al.

Physical Review B, 88(8), p.081203_1 - 081203_5, 2013/08

 被引用回数:71 パーセンタイル:91.9(Materials Science, Multidisciplinary)

We report the discovery of a diluted magnetic semiconductor, Li(Zn,Mn)P, in which charge and spin are introduced independently via lithium off-stoichiometry and the isovalent substitution of Mn$$^{2+}$$ for Zn$$^{2+}$$, respectively. Isostructural to (Ga,Mn)As, Li(Zn,Mn)P was found to be a ${it p}$-type ferromagnetic semiconductor with excess lithium providing charge doping. First-principles calculations indicate that excess Li is favored to partially occupy the Zn site, leading to hole doping. Ferromagnetism with Curie temperature up to 34 K is achieved while the system still shows semiconducting transport behavior.


Spatio-temporal evolution of the L$$rightarrow$$H and H$$rightarrow$$L transitions

三木 一弘; Diamond, P. H.*; Fedorczak, N.*; G$"u$rcan, $"O$. D.*; Malkov, M.*; Lee, C.*; 小菅 祐輔*; Tynan, G. R.*; Xu, G. S.*; Estrada, T.*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 53(7), p.073044_1 - 073044_10, 2013/07

 被引用回数:24 パーセンタイル:72.51(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)

L$$rightarrow$$H, H$$rightarrow$$L遷移の理解はITER運用の成否に重要である。この論文で我々は新たな理論モデル研究を紹介して、遷移の時空間ダイナミクスを調べる。ここで帯状流の役割、そしてダイナミクスと輸送しきい値の間にあるマクロとミクロの接続について強調する。モデルは5場で、簡略化された座標系で、時間と1次元の空間発展を解く。この論文の内容は次の通りである。(a)モデルの基礎方程式とL$$rightarrow$$I$$rightarrow$$H遷移の時空間発展、(b)$$nabla$$Bドリフトの非対称性で輸送しきい値が変化することの物理的な説明、(c)熱雪崩現象がL$$rightarrow$$I$$rightarrow$$H遷移のしきい値変位に与える影響、(d)H$$rightarrow$$L逆遷移のダイナミクスとヒステリシスの物理。


Experimental progress on zonal flow physics in toroidal plasmas

藤澤 彰英*; 井戸 毅*; 清水 昭博*; 岡村 昇一*; 松岡 啓介*; 井口 春和*; 浜田 泰司*; 中野 治久*; 大島 慎介*; 伊藤 公孝*; et al.

Nuclear Fusion, 47(10), p.S718 - S726, 2007/10

 被引用回数:100 パーセンタイル:95.33(Physics, Fluids & Plasmas)



Experimental progress on zonal flow physics in toroidal plasmas

藤澤 彰英*; 井戸 毅*; 清水 昭博*; 岡村 昇一*; 松岡 啓介*; 浜田 泰司*; 星野 克道; 永島 芳彦*; 篠原 孝司; 中野 治久*; et al.

Proceedings of 21st IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2006) (CD-ROM), 12 Pages, 2007/03


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