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Journal Articles

Preliminary assessment for dust contamination of ITER in-vessel transporter

Saito, Makiko; Ueno, Kenichi; Maruyama, Takahito; Murakami, Shin; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka*; Tesini, A.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2352 - 2356, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

After plasma operation of the ITER reactor, irradiated radioactive dust will accumulate in the vacuum vessel (VV). The In Vessel Transporter (IVT) will be installed in the VV and remove the blanket modules for maintenance. The IVT will be carried back to the Hot Cell Facilities (HCF) after exchanging the blanket, and the IVT itself also needs maintenance. It is considered that the maintenance workers will be exposed to the irradiated radioactive dust attached to the IVT surface. In this study, dust contamination of the IVT is evaluated to assess exposure during maintenance work in the HCF. The IVT contamination scenario is assumed in the ITER project. From plasma shut down until maintenance is performed on the IVT will take 345 days under the ITER project assumption. Under this scenario, the effective dose rate from irradiated radioactive dust was calculated as an infinite plate for each nuclide. As a result, W-181 and Ta-182 were the dominant nuclides for the effective dose rate. If all dust is W-181 or Ta-182, the effective dose rate is about 400 $$mu$$Sv/h and 100 $$mu$$Sv/h respectively. Nevertheless, using the dose limit determined by the ITER project and the estimated maximum maintenance time, the effective dose rate limit was calculated to be 4.18 $$mu$$Sv/h under these limited conditions. To satisfy the dose rate limit, decontamination processes were assumed and the dose rate after decontamination was evaluated.

Journal Articles

Metallurgical analysis of lithium test assembly operated for 1200 h

Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Hoashi, Eiji*; Suzuki, Sachiko*; Horiike, Hiroshi*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1674 - 1678, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

One key issue in the development of the IFMIF is the corrosion/erosion of the lithium components. At Osaka University, lithium free-surface flow experiments to verify the design of the IFMIF target have been carried out, and the test assembly was operated in high-speed lithium flow for 1200 hours at 300 $$^{circ}$$C. Since the test assembly is important to understand the corrosion/erosion behavior as the demonstration experimental data, the metallurgical analysis was been performed. Slight irregularities which were trace of high-speed lithium flow were observed at the tip of the nozzle. On the other hand, mottled unevenness with many micro-cracks of a few micrometer depths was observed at the inlet of the nozzle, whose velocity ratio was 0.1-0.4 as compared with the nozzle tip. It was estimated that the phenomena was caused by carburizing from liquid lithium, and it was newly proven that carbon control in lithium was also important for corrosion / erosion protection of the IFMIF components.

Journal Articles

Physical properties of F82H for fusion blanket design

Hirose, Takanori; Nozawa, Takashi; Stoller, R. E.*; Hamaguchi, Dai; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Enoeda, Mikio; Kato, Yutai*; Snead, L. L.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1595 - 1599, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:37 Percentile:95.43(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The material properties, focusing on the properties used for design analysis were re-assessed and newly investigated for various heats including F82H-IEA. Moreover, irradiation effects on those properties were studied in this work. As for thermal properties, thermal conductivity that has significant impacts on the thermo-hydraulic properties of the blanket was investigated on several heats of F82H including F82H-IEA. According to the measurements, the thermal conductivity falls in the range 28.3$$pm$$1.1 W/m/K at 293 K. Although this is comparable with that of the other ferritic/martensitic steels, it is 20% lower than the published value for F82H-IEA. The re-assessment on the published value revealed that the thermal diffusivity was over-estimated. As for irradiation effects on the physical properties, electric resistivity was measured after irradiation up to 6 dpa at 573 K and 673 K. The reduction of resistivity in F82H and its welds were 3% and 6%, respectively.

Journal Articles

R&D status on water cooled ceramic breeder blanket technology

Enoeda, Mikio; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Nakajima, Motoki; Sato, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1131 - 1136, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:19 Percentile:84(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. Regarding the fabrication technology development using F82H, the fabrication of a real scale mockup of the back wall of TBM was completed. Also the assembling of the complete box structure of the TBM mockup and planning of the pressurization testing was studied. The development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for higher chemical stability was performed for future DEMO blanket application. From the view point of TBM test result evaluation and DEMO blanket performance design, the development of the blanket tritium simulation technology, investigation of the TBM neutronics measurement technology and the evaluation of tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been performed.

Journal Articles

Infrared thermography inspection for monoblock divertor target in JT-60SA

Nakamura, Shigetoshi; Sakurai, Shinji; Ozaki, Hidetsugu; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Sakasai, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1024 - 1028, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:25.77(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Carbon Fiber Composite mono-block divertor target is required for power handling in JT-60SA. Heat removal capability of the target is degraded by joint defect which is induced in manufacturing process. For screening heat removal capability, infrared thermography inspection (IR inspection) is improved an accuracy for the target using threaded cooling tube. In IR inspection, the targets heated at 95$$^{circ}$$C by hot water in steady state condition are instantaneously cooled down by cold water flow of 5$$^{circ}$$C in three channels of test section. The heat removal capability of the targets is evaluated with comparing the transient thermal response time between defect-free and tested targets. A construction of a database for a correlation between the known defects, maximum surface temperatures in the heat load test and the IR inspection are successfully completed. Screening criteria is set with finite element methods based on the database.

Journal Articles

Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach activities

Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1534 - 1538, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The ion exchange membrane such as Nafion is a key material for electrolysis cells of the Water Detritiation System. Long-term exposure of Nafion ion exchange membrane into 1.38$$times$$10$$^{12}$$Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion ion exchange membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by active radical reactions. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of the membrane immersed in tritiated water revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm$$^{-1}$$ demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The high-resolution solid state $$^{19}$$F NMR spectrum of the membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of membrane irradiated with $$gamma$$-rays. From the $$^{19}$$F NMR spectrum, any distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was not measured.

Journal Articles

Penetration of tritiated water vapor through hydrophobic paints for concrete materials

Edao, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Fukada, Satoshi*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2062 - 2065, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:25.77(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Tritium transfer behavior through hydrophobic paints, epoxy resin and acrylic-silicon resin, was investigated experimentally. The authors measured the amount of tritium permeated through the paint membranes which exposed in HTO atmosphere of 2$$sim$$100 Bq/cm$$^{3}$$. The most of tritium permeated through the paints in the form of HTO at room temperature. Tritium permeation through the acrylic-silicon paint was explained a linear sorption/release model and that through the epoxy paint was suggested to be controlled by a one-dimensional diffusion model. While effective diffusivity was 1.0$$times$$10$$^{-13}$$$$sim$$1.8$$times$$10$$^{-13}$$ m$$^{2}$$/s at 21$$^{circ}$$C$$sim$$26$$^{circ}$$C for epoxy membrane, the diffusivity was found to be hundreds times larger than that for cement-paste coated with epoxy paint. Hence, tritium diffusivity through interface between cement-paste and the epoxy paint was considered to be most effective in the overall tritium transfer process. Tritium transfer behavior in the interface is important to explain the mechanism of tritium transfer behavior in concrete walls.

Journal Articles

Robot vision system R&D for ITER blanket remote-handling system

Maruyama, Takahito; Aburadani, Atsushi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Tesini, A.*

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2404 - 2408, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:33.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

The Start-up and observation of the Li target in the EVEDA Li test loop

Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Groeschel, F.*; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1688 - 1693, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:56.14(Nuclear Science & Technology)

EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activity) Li Test Loop, which simulates the hydraulic condition of the Li target and the purification system of the IFMIF Li facility, is under operation in a frame work of the IFMIF/EVEDA. The Li target at a velocity of 20 m/s in a pressurized condition and a vacuum condition were observed by image devices in this study.

Journal Articles

Gamma-ray dose analysis for ITER JA WCCB-TBM

Sato, Satoshi; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Enoeda, Mikio; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.1984 - 1988, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:9.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In order to evaluate nuclear properties of the ITER JA WCCB-TBM (Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module) and ensure that the design conforms to the nuclear regulation for licensing, nuclear analyses have been performed for the WCCB-TBM including flame, shield, pipe-forest, bio-shield and AEU (Ancillary Equipment Unit). Nuclear analyses are performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5.14, activation code ACT-4 and Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.1. MCNP geometry input data of the TBM is created from CAD data with the automatic conversion code GEOMIT, and other geometry input data is created by manually. By adopting the dog-leg gaps, decay $$gamma$$-ray dose rate can be drastically reduced and hands-on access is possible for shield. Detailed calculation results will be presented in this symposium.

Journal Articles

Trial examination of direct pebble fabrication for advanced tritium breeders by the emulsion method

Hoshino, Tsuyoshi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1431 - 1435, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:15 Percentile:75.45(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Demonstration power reactors (DEMOs) require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. For the mass production of advanced tritium breeder pebbles, pebble fabrication by the emulsion method is a promising technique. To develop the most efficient pebble fabrication method, a new direct pebble fabrication process utilizing the emulsion method was implemented. A prior pebble fabrication process consisted of the preparation of raw materials followed by granulation. The new process integrates the preparation and granulation of raw materials. The slurry for the emulsion granulation of Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ as a tritium breeder consists of mixtures of Li$$_{2}$$CO$$_{3}$$ and TiO$$_{2}$$ at specific ratios. The average diameter of the obtained sintered Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ pebbles were 1.0 mm. The trial fabrication results suggest that the new process has the potential to increase the fabrication efficiency of advanced tritium breeder pebbles.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of applicability of laser-based distance meter to measure Li-jet thickness for IFMIF/EVEDA project

Kanemura, Takuji; Kondo, Hiroo; Hoashi, Eiji*; Suzuki, Sachiko*; Yamaoka, Nobuo*; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Wakai, Eiichi

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1642 - 1647, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:12 Percentile:70.59(Nuclear Science & Technology)

In the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), a device to measure thickness variation of a high-speed (15 m/s) liquid lithium (Li) jet must be developed. The required measurement precision is 0.1 mm. For this purpose, we newly focused on a laser-based distance meter. This paper describes the result of an applicability test of the new sensor conducted in the Osaka University Li Loop. In the experiment, thickness variation of a Li jet (10 mm in thickness) was measured at the sampling frequency of 500 kHz in the velocity range of 10 to 15 m/s at the Li temperature of 573 K under argon atmosphere of 0.12 MPa. To evaluate the applicability of the device, the measurement precision of the Li level was evaluated. As a result, the precision was approximately 9 $$mu$$m. Thus, we concluded that the laser-based distance meter is applicable to the measurement of the Li target thickness.

Journal Articles

Fabrication of beryllide pebble as advanced neutron multiplier

Nakamichi, Masaru; Kim, Jae-Hwan

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1304 - 1308, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:16 Percentile:79.67(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Effect of plasma-sintering consolidation on the reactivity of beryllium

Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1440 - 1443, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Research and development status on fusion DEMO reactor design under the Broader Approach

Tobita, Kenji; Federici, G.*; Okano, Kunihiko

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.1870 - 1874, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:20 Percentile:85.24(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The goal of the DEMO reactor design under the Broader Approach (BA) is to develop possible pre-conceptual designs of DEMO by addressing key design issues and options in physics, technology and system engineering for DEMO. The joint work between EU and Japan for the DEMO design started with a benchmark of systems codes. Cross-checking between the EU systems code PROCESS and the JA systems code TPC showed a good agreement for relatively conservative plasma parameters. In parallel, critical design issues on DEMO have been studied. In order to resolve the problem on divertor heat removal, a reduction of divertor heat load due to plasma detachment and advanced divertor concepts such as super-X and snowflake configuration has been investigated. Regarding remote maintenance (RM), various RM concepts based on different sector segmentations and access ports has been studied to allow reasonable plant availability under severe in-vessel dose rate.

Journal Articles

Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2299 - 2303, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:60.54(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Remote handling (RH) system is necessary for the maintenance and repair of in-vessel components of JT-60SA. Design study of RH system, focusing on the deployment of remote pipe cutting tool for JT-60SA divertor cassette is reported in this conference. Some cooling pipes on the outboard side in the divertor cassette should be cut and welded in the vacuum vessel. The outer diameter, thickness and material of the cooling pipe is 59.7 mm, 2.7 mm and SUS316L, respectively. Cutting tool head equips a disk cutter blade and rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The cooling pipe is cut by rotating the cutting tool head with pushing out the disk cutter blade. Newly developed cutting tool indicates that the cooling pipe is cut by pushing out the disk cutter blade up to 30.5 mm in radius, i.e. 61 mm in diameter.

Journal Articles

Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, S.*; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1723 - 1727, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:51.25(Nuclear Science & Technology)

A SiC/SiC composite is a promising candidate material for the advanced fusion DEMO blanket. For the design of the DEMO, the stability of high-temperature strength of SiC/SiC composites needs to be identified. Additionally, strength anisotropy needs to be clarified because of its unique fabric architecture. This study therefore aims to evaluate mechanical properties by various modes at elevated temperatures, eventually providing a stress envelope for the design. A P/W Tyranno-SA3 fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composite with multilayered SiC/PyC interface was evaluated in this study. Tensile and compressive tests were conducted by the SSTT specifically arranged for the high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were contrarily estimated by the off-axial tensile method assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion is valid for composites. All tests were performed in vacuum. The preliminary test results indicate no degradation of both proportional limit stress (PLS) and the ultimate tensile strength at temperatures below 1000$$^{circ}$$C. Similarly, no significant degradation of high-temperature compressive and in-plane shear properties were identified, finally providing the stress envelope at elevated temperatures for the design.

Journal Articles

Benchmark experiment on titanium with DT neutron at JAEA/FNS

Ota, Masayuki; Takakura, Kosuke; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Konno, Chikara

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2164 - 2168, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:33.4(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Titanium is contained in lithium titanate, which is a tritium breeding material candidate. In the nuclear design, accurate nuclear data are needed. However, few benchmark experiments had been performed for titanium. Thus we performed a benchmark experiment with a titanium assembly and a DT neutron source at JAEA/FNS. The assembly was a titanium slab of 45 cm$$times$$45 cm$$times$$40 cm covered with 5 or 10 cm thick Li$$_{2}$$O blocks. Dosimetry reaction rates were measured by the foil activation method of niobium, aluminum, indium, gold and tungsten inside the assembly. And fission rates of $$^{235}$$U and $$^{238}$$U were measured by using micro fission chambers. This experiment was analyzed by using Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP5-1.40 with recent nuclear data libraries of ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, FENDL-2.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4.0, and JENDL-4.0u. The calculation results were compared with the measured one in order to validate nuclear data libraries of titanium.

Journal Articles

DT neutron irradiation experiment for evaluation of tritium recovery from WCCB blanket

Ochiai, Kentaro; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Edao, Yuki; Takakura, Kosuke; Ota, Masayuki; Sato, Satoshi; Konno, Chikara

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(7-8), p.1464 - 1468, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:39.65(Nuclear Science & Technology)

We have performed the tritium recovery experiment on fusion reactor blanket with DT neutrons at the Fusion Neutronics Source facility in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The candidate breeding material, Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ pebble, was put into the container which was set up it into an assembly simulating water cooled ceramic breeding (WCCB) blanket. Helium sweep gas including H$$_{2}$$ (1%) and/or H$$_{2}$$O (1%) was flowed and extracted tritium was collected to water bubblers during DT neutron irradiation. The Li$$_{2}$$TiO$$_{3}$$ pebble was also heated up to a constant temperature at 573, 873 and 1073 K, respectively. We arranged the tritium recovery system to measure tritiated water moisture and tritium gas, separately, and to investigate the amount of recovered tritium and the chemical form. From our experiments, it was showed that the amount of recovered tritium was corresponded to the calculation value and the ratio of chemical form depended to the temperature and kinds of sweep gas.

Journal Articles

Safe disassembly and storage of radioactive components of JT-60U torus

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Okano, Fuminori; Hanada, Masaya; Sakasai, Akira; Kubo, Hirotaka; Akino, Noboru; Chiba, Shinichi; Ichige, Hisashi; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kiyono, Kimihiro; et al.

Fusion Engineering and Design, 89(9-10), p.2018 - 2023, 2014/10

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:17.55(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Disassembly of the JT-60U torus was started in 2009 after 18-years D$$_{2}$$ operations, and was completed in October 2012. The JT-60U torus was featured by the complicated and welded structure against the strong electromagnetic force, and by the radioactivation due to D-D reactions. Since this work is the first experience of disassembling a large radioactive fusion device in Japan, careful disassembly activities have been made. About 13,000 components cut into pieces with measuring the dose rates were removed from the torus hall and stored safely in storage facilities by using a total wokers of 41,000 person-days during 3 years. The total weight of the disassembly components reached up to 5,400 tons. Most of the disassembly components will be treated as non-radioactive ones after the clearance verification under the Japanese regulation in future. The assembly of JT-60SA has started in January 2013 after this disassembly of JT-60U torus.

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