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Journal Articles

Development of risk assessment methodology of decay heat removal function against natural external hazards for sodium-cooled fast reactors; Project overview and volcanic PRA methodology

Yamano, Hidemasa; Nishino, Hiroyuki; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Okano, Yasushi; Sakai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Takahiro*; Ishizuka, Yoshihiro*; Geshi, Nobuo*; Furukawa, Ryuta*; Nanayama, Futoshi*; et al.

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2016/06

This paper describes mainly volcanic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology development for sodium-cooled fast reactors in addition to the project overview. The volcanic ash could potentially clog air filters of air-intakes that are essential for the decay heat removal. The degree of filter clogging can be calculated by atmospheric concentration of ash and tephra fallout duration and also suction flow rate of each component. The atmospheric concentration can be calculated by deposited tephra layer thickness, tephra fallout duration and fallout speed. This study evaluated a volcanic hazard using a combination of tephra fragment size, layer thickness and duration. In this paper, each component functional failure probability was defined as a failure probability of filter replacement obtained by using a grace period to a filter failure limit. Finally, based on an event tree, a core damage frequency was estimated about 3$$times$$10$$^{-6}$$/year in total by multiplying discrete hazard probabilities by conditional decay heat removal failure probabilities. A dominant sequence was led by the loss of decay heat removal system due to the filter clogging after the loss of emergency power supply. A dominant volcanic hazard was 10$$^{-2}$$ kg/m$$^{3}$$ of atmospheric concentration, 0.1 mm of tephra diameter, 50-75 cm of deposited tephra layer thickness, and 1-10 hr of tephra fallout duration.

Journal Articles

Confirmation of seismic integrity of HTTR against 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

Ono, Masato; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shimizu, Atsushi; Inoi, Hiroyuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro; et al.

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 12 Pages, 2016/06

On March 11th, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred. When the great earthquake occurred, the HTTR had been stopped under the periodic inspection and maintenance of equipment and instrument. In the great earthquake, the maximum seismic acceleration observed at the HTTR exceeded the maximum value in seismic design. The visual inspection of HTTR facility was carried out for the seismic integrity conformation of HTTR. The seismic analysis was also carried out using the observed earthquake motion at HTTR site to confirm the integrity of HTTR. The concept of comprehensive integrity evaluation for the HTTR facility is divided into two parts. One is the inspection of equipment and instrument. The other is the seismic response analysis using the observed earthquake. For the basic inspections of equipment and instrument were performed for all them related to the operation of reactor. The integrity of the facilities is confirmed by comparing the inspection results or the numerical results with their evaluation criteria. As the result of inspection of equipment and instrument and seismic response analysis, it was judged that there was no problem to operate the reactor, because there was no damage and performance deterioration, which affects the reactor operation. The integrity of HTTR was also supported by the several operations without reactor power in cold conditions of HTTR in 2011, 2013 and 2015.

Journal Articles

Loss of core cooling test without one cooling line in Vessel Cooling System (VCS) of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

Fujiwara, Yusuke; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tochio, Daisuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shoji

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

In HTTR, the test was carried out at the reactor thermal power of 9 MW under the condition that one cooling line of VCS was stopped to simulate the partial loss of cooling function from the surface of RPV in addition to the loss of forced cooling flow in the core simulation. The test results showed that temperature change of the core internal structures and the biological shielding concrete was slow during the test. Temperature of RPV decreased several degrees during the test. The temperature decrease of biological shielding made of concrete was within 1 degree C. The numerical result simulating the detail configuration of the cooling tubes of VCS showed that the temperature rise of cooling tubes of VCS was about 15 degree C, which is sufficiently small, which did not significantly affect the temperature of biological shielding concrete. As the results, it was confirmed that the cooling ability of VCS can be kept in case that one cooling line of VCS is lost.

Journal Articles

Improvement of exchanging method of neutron startup source of high temperature engineering test reactor

Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shimazaki, Yosuke; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yanagida, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Tochio, Daisuke

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06

In the HTTR, $$^{252}$$Cf is loaded in the reactor core as a neutron startup source and changed at frequency. In this exchange work, there were two technical issues; slightly higher radiation exposure of workers by neutron leakage and reliability of neutron source transportation container in handling. To reduce the radiation dose by neutron leakage, detail numerical evaluations using PHITS code were carried out, the effective shielding method for fuel handling machine was proposed. Easily removable polyethylene blocks and particles were used as the neutron shielding, and installed in the cooling paths of the fuel handling machine. As a result, the collective effective dose by neutron was reduced from about 700 man-microSv to about 300 man-microSv. As to the neutron source transportation container, the handling performance was improved and the handling work was safety accomplished by downsizing.

Journal Articles

Thermal mixing behavior in the annulus of co-axial double-walled piping in HTGR

Tochio, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Ono, Masato; Shinohara, Masanori; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shoji

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2016/06

From the HTTR operational experience, it is needed to clear the thermal mixing characteristics of the helium gas at the annulus of the co-axial double-walled piping in HTGR. In this paper, thermal-hydraulic analysis on the helium gas at the annular flow path of the co-axial double pipe with T-junction was conducted. The analysis was performed under the condition of the different annular flow path height and with the different flow rate of the higher- and the lower-temperature helium gas. It is shown that the thermal mixing behavior is not so much affected by the flow rate of higher- and lower-temperature helium gas, and it is difficult to mix the helium gas with the smaller height of the annular flow path. It is confirmed that it is difficult to mix the helium gas in the annular flow path of the co-axial double-walled piping by using the hydraulic behavior, and it is necessary to arrange the mixing promotor in the annular flow path.

Journal Articles

Pool nucleate boiling on heat transfer surface with deposited sea salts

Uesawa, Shinichiro; Koizumi, Yasuo; Shibata, Mitsuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 15 Pages, 2016/06

Journal Articles

Comparative study on neutronics characteristics of a 1500 MWe metal fuel sodium-cooled fast reactor

Ohgama, Kazuya; Aliberti, G.*; Stauff, N. E.*; Oki, Shigeo; Kim, T. K.*

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2016/06

Under the cooperative effort of the Civil Nuclear Energy R&D Working Group within the framework of the U.S.-Japan bilateral, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have been performing benchmark study using Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) design with metal fuel. In this benchmark study, core characteristic parameters at the beginning of cycle were evaluated by the best estimate deterministic and stochastic methodologies of ANL and JAEA. The results obtained by both institutions are agreed well with less than 200 pcm of discrepancy on the neutron multiplication factor, and less than 3% of discrepancy on the sodium void reactivity, Doppler reactivity, and control rod worth. The results by the stochastic and deterministic were compared in each party to investigate impacts of the deterministic approximation and to understand potential variations in the results due to different calculation methodologies employed. Impacts of the nuclear data libraries were also investigated using a sensitivity analysis methodology.

Journal Articles

Development of numerical simulation method for melt relocation behavior in nuclear reactors; Validation of applicability for actual core support structures

Yamashita, Susumu; Tokushima, Kazuyuki; Kurata, Masaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2016/06

In order to precisely investigate molten core relocation behavior in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, we have developed the detailed and phenomenological numerical simulation code named JUPITER for predicting the molten core behavior including solidification and relocation based on the three-dimensional multiphase thermal-hydraulic simulation models. At the moment, multicomponent analysis method which can be treated any number of component as a fluid or solid body, Zr-water reaction model and simple radiation heat transfer model were implemented and showed that multicomponent melt flow and its solidification were confirmed in the simplified core structure system. However, the validation of the JUPITER using high temperature molten material has not been performed yet. In this paper, in order to evaluate the validity of the JUPITER, especially, for high temperature melt relocation experiment, we compared between numerical and experimental results for that system. As a result, qualitatively reasonable result was obtained. And also we performed melt relocation simulation on actual core structures designed by three dimensional CAD (Computer-Aided Design) and then we estimated phenomena which might be actually occurred in SAs.

Journal Articles

Development of error reduction methods in aerosol measurement for pool scrubbing experiment

Sun, Haomin; Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Okagaki, Yuria; Yonomoto, Taisuke

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06

Journal Articles

Preliminary analysis of the post-disassembly expansion phase and structural response under unprotected loss of flow accident in prototype sodium cooled fast reactor

Onoda, Yuichi; Matsuba, Kenichi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Toru

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2016/06

Journal Articles

Sensitivity study on forest fire breakout and propagation conditions for forest fire hazard curve evaluations

Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2016/06

This paper presents a sensitivity study of the hazard curves on condition parameters where frequency and probability variables in the logic tree vary within respective fluctuation ranges. With regard to "fluctuation of breakout time of a forest fire", the hazard curves on the reaction intensity and the fireline intensity increased around 4% and 14% respectively on intensity. As for "probability distribution fluctuation of breakout point", the reaction intensity and the fireline intensity vary within around +70% to -40% on frequency. "Firefighting effect on a probability of forest fire arrival at an nuclear power plant" remarkably increase the hazard curves around 40 to 80 times. It only affects the frequency of the hazard curves. This study indicated that the most significant factor in the forest fire hazard curve is whether the firefighting action outside an nuclear power plant is expected before the arrival.

Journal Articles

Design approach for mitigation of air ingress in high temperature gas-cooled reactor

Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Shigeaki

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2016/06

This paper intends to propose a practical solution to protect HTGR from severe oxidation against air ingress accidents without reliance on subsystems. Firstly, a change is made to the center reflector structure to minimize temperature difference during the accident condition in order to reduce buoyancy-driven natural circulation in the reactor. Secondly, a modified structure of the upper reflector is suggested to prevent massive air ingress against a rupture in standpipes. As a preliminary study, a numerical analysis is performed for a typical prismatic-type HTGR to study the effectiveness of the proposed design concept using simplified lumped element models. The results showed that amount of air ingress into the reactor can be significantly reduced with practical changes to local structure in the reactor.

Journal Articles

Development of the pump-integrated intermediate heat exchanger in advanced loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor for demonstration

Amano, Katsunori; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Futagami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tomoyuki*; Watanabe, Sota*

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

In the framework of GIF, SDC and SDG for the generation IV SFRs have been developed in the circumstance of worldwide deployment of SFRs. JAEA and MFBR have been investigating design study of an advanced loop-type SFR to satisfy SDC in the feasibility study of SDG for SFR. In this study, the ability of the pump/IHX in the advanced loop-type SFR for the safety measures has been evaluated. In addition to the safety measures, maintainability and reparability are taken into account in the advanced loop-type SFR design study. The pump/IHX has been modified to satisfy these requirements. This paper describes the modifications for the ability to withstand a severe earthquake, the reliability of the guard vessel in the primary coolant leak, and the reliability of expansion joints in a sodium-water reaction. The evaluations of thermal transient, structural vibration with pump rotation and wear-out of IHX tubes, that has been adversely effected by the modifications, were described as well.

Journal Articles

Preparation for a new experimental program addressing core-material-relocation behavior during severe accident with BWR design conditions; Conduction of preparatory tests applying non-transfer-type plasma heating technology

Abe, Yuta; Sato, Ikken; Ishimi, Akihiro; Nakagiri, Toshio; Nagae, Yuji

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

A new experimental program using non-transfer type plasma heating is under consideration in JAEA to clarify the uncertainty on core-material relocation (CMR) behavior of BWR. In order to confirm the applicability of this new technology, authors performed preparatory plasma heating tests using small-scale test pieces (107 mm $$times$$ 107 mm $$times$$ 222 mmh). Based on these preliminary results, an excellent perspective in terms of applicability of the non-transfer plasma heating technology to the SA (Severe Accident) experimental study was obtained. Furthermore, JAEA is preparing for the next step intermediate-scale preparatory tests in 2016 using ca. 50 rods and a control blade that would not only confirm its technical applicability, but also some insights relevant to the issue on CMR itself.

Journal Articles

First experiments at the CIGMA facility for investigations of LWR containment thermal hydraulics

Shibamoto, Yasuteru; Abe, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Yonomoto, Taisuke

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2016/06

Journal Articles

Characteristic confirmation test by using HTTR and investigation of absorbing thermal load fluctuation

Honda, Yuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Ono, Masato; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Takada, Shoji

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2016/06

The characteristic confirmation test has been demonstrating by using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The thermal load fluctuation test, which is one of marginal performance test is planned to be carried out after restarting of the HTTR. The preliminary analysis for the thermal load fluctuation test has been investigated. In the analysis, the reactor outlet temperature can continue to be stable against the reactor inlet temperature changing by thermal fluctuation. It means that HTGR have the capability of absorbing thermal fluctuation. This paper focuses on the investigation of mechanism of absorbing thermal fluctuation. With additional analysis, it is cleared that the large negative graphite moderator reactivity enhances the capability of absorbing thermal fluctuation. In addition, in the middle of the core, graphite moderator reactivity insertion trend are inverted. This trend is unique to HTGR because of large temperature difference between core inlet and outlet.

Journal Articles

Activities of the safety and operation project for the international research and development of the sodium-cooled fast reactor in the Generation IV international forum

Sakai, Takaaki; Ren, L.*; Tsige-Tamirat, H.*; Vasile, A.*; Kang, S.-H.*; Ashurko, Y.*; Fanning, T.*

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

Journal Articles

Evaluation of sodium pool fire and thermal consequence in two-cell configuration

Ohno, Shuji; Takata, Takashi; Tajima, Yuji*

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

From various kinds of sodium fire situations postulated in SFR plants, the present paper treats the sodium pool fire and subsequent heat transfer behavior in an important air atmosphere two-cell geometry as one of the important cell configuration conditions. The detailed analysis and investigation of sodium fire and thermal-hydraulics in horizontally arranged two cells with an opening between them are made both from experimental measurement and from numerical simulation with a multi-cell sodium fire analysis code SPHINCS.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on splashing during liquid jet impingement onto a liquid film

Yi, Z.*; Oya, Naoki*; Enoki, Koji*; Okawa, Tomio*; Ohno, Shuji; Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

It is important to set the amount of sodium droplet mechanistically for appropriate numerical evaluations of sodium leak and fire behavior in a sodium-cooled fast reactor plant. In the present work, fundamental experiments were performed to measure the splash ratio during the vertical water jet impact onto a horizontal wall. It was shown that the splash ratio can be correlated well as a function of the impact Weber number and the Strouhal number of the droplets impinging the liquid film.

Journal Articles

A Parametric study for the seismic response analysis of a nuclear reactor building by using a three-dimensional finite element model

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Nakajima, Norihiro

Proceedings of 24th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE-24) (DVD-ROM), 7 Pages, 2016/06

Research and development of three-dimensional vibration simulation technologies for nuclear facilities have been promoted in the Center for Computational Science and e-Systems of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). A seismic intensity of upper 5 was observed in the area of High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) at the Oarai Research and Development Center of the JAEA during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In this paper, we report a parametric study of seismic response analyses of this earthquake using three-dimensional finite element models of the HTTR building with various uncertainty parameters (e.g. soil-structure interaction effects, soil properties). By examining the variation of the response result against the uncertainty parameters, we obtained a knowledge, which is essential for constructing a valid three-dimensional finite element model.

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