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Journal Articles

Interim report of performance test of the advanced verification for inventory sample system (AVIS)

Nagatani, Taketeru; Nakajima, Shinji; Asano, Takashi; Marlow, J. B.*; Swinhoe, M. T.*; Menlove, H. O.*; Rael, C. D.*; Kawasue, Akane*; Iso, Shoko*; Kumakura, Shinichi*; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2012/07

The advanced verification for inventory sample system (AVIS) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system designed to measure small samples of bulk plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) powder and pellets at the proposed Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant (J-MOX). The system consists of a $$^{3}$$He-based passive neutron well counter with an integrated high-purity germanium $$gamma$$ system. The AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron ($$^{240}$$Pu effective) measurement. It is intended that the AVIS measurement will be substituted for a fraction of the DA samples from J-MOX. JAEA has conducted performance testing on the AVIS in order to confirm the system performance before installation and to minimize the period of calibration at J-MOX site. In this paper, we provide a summary of the result of performance test phase 1 and the test plan of performance test phase 2 of the AVIS.

Journal Articles

Proposal of neutron resonance densitometry for particle like debris of melted fuel using NRTA and NRCA

Koizumi, Mitsuo; Kitatani, Fumito; Harada, Hideo; Takamine, Jun; Kureta, Masatoshi; Seya, Michio; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Iimura, Hideki

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2012/07

We proposed a system of neutron resonance densitometry for quantification of nuclear materials in particle like debris of melted fuel in the reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Techniques of neutron resonance transmission analysis and neutron resonance capture analysis are applied to this system. Research and development have started under the support of JSGO/MEXT.

Journal Articles

Design and implementation of a passive neutron counter to continously monitor holdup in glove boxes

LaFleur, A. M.*; Nakamura, Hironobu; Menlove, H.*; Marlow, J.*; Swinhoe, M. T.*; Mukai, Yasunobu; Kurita, Tsutomu

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2012/07

To improve the safeguards and nuclear material accountancy of holdup measurements, a continuous neutron monitor (CNM) that continuously monitors the singles rate from holdup in gloveboxes was design and implemented at PCDF. The holdup currently in the gloveboxes at PCDF is from LWR recycle plutonium. In the near future, different Pu isotopic compositions from Fugen spent fuel will be transferred to PCDF. The different Pu isotopics of MOX-B fuel will result in much higher neutron emission rates compared to that from LWR spent fuel. Thus, the CNM is needed to establish baseline measurements of the existing holdup as a function of time prior to the introduction of the plutonium into the process equipment. It is considered that these baseline measurements can then be compared to post-process measurements to holdup after introduction of MOX-B fuel to determine the relative increase in holdup in the gloveboxes, and will help to avoid anticipated problems concerning safeguards or nuclear material accountancy.

Journal Articles

Implementation of dynamic cross-talk correction (DCTC) for MOX holdup assay measurements among multiple gloveboxes

Nakamura, Hironobu; Beddingfield, D.*; Montoya, J.*; Nakamichi, Hideo; Mukai, Yasunobu; Kurita, Tsutomu

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2012/07

Plutonium holdup inventory in gloveboxes are measured by HBAS for the nuclear material accountancy (NMA) at PCDF. Because the gloveboxes are installed close to one another, we must make a correction for neutron cross-talk between the gloveboxes. In order to address the issue of variable cross-talk contributions to holdup assay values, we developed a dynamic cross-talk correction (DCTC) method to obtain the actual doubles signal cross-talk between multiple gloveboxes. With the HBAS improvement, the DCTC improves PCDF NMA by eliminating the double-counting of material that stems from cross-talk in the holdup assay data and eliminates this source of bias in the assay results. Since the DCTC methodology can be used to determine the cross-correlation among multiple inventories in small areas and substantially reduce cross-talk-induced biases in assay results, it is expected that DCTC technology can reflect as a safeguards-by-design.

Journal Articles

A Collection and distillation of the important physics for understanding, interpreting, and evaluating neutron-based non-destructive assay techniques for nuclear fuel

Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

In recent years, the US Department of Energy has renewed research in a wide variety of non-destructive-assay (NDA) techniques, through its Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). Of the fourteen technologies that are being considered in the NGSI, ten measure neutrons to determine the fissile content of the nuclear material. These ten techniques can be categorized according to the characteristic of the neutrons that they measure. Five techniques measure the multiplication of neutrons by fissile material, three analyze the neutron energy spectrum for resonance reactions in fissile isotopes, and two measure the time coincidence of the neutrons that are emitted by fission. A basic knowledge of these principles is essential for understanding the these techniques. This paper summarizes parts of this knowledge.

Journal Articles

ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for accountancy analysis at PFDC

Okazaki, Hiro; Sumi, Mika; Abe, Katsuo; Kageyama, Tomio; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2012/07

Accurate and precise measurement of Pu and U is critically important for safeguards and is the premise of safeguards inspection by IAEA at Nuclear Fuel handling facilities. Quality control section of Plutonium Fuel Development Center (PFDC-lab) has been analyzing the Pu and U isotopic compositions by MS as well as its content by IDMS of the MOX fuel pellet and its source materials for the accountancy purposes. To maintain and improve analysis quality and analysis reliability, PFDC-lab decided to have accreditation of ISO/IEC 17025 (International standard for the General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories). PFDC-lab established analysis quality management system, acquired the knowledge and information of uncertainty evaluation under cooperative study with US DOE's NBL, ensured our analysis traceability and validates our methods to meet technical requirements. In conclusion, we have accredited for ISO/IEC 17025 in March 1st, 2010.

Journal Articles

Study on sustainable regional nuclear fuel cycle framework from nuclear non-proliferation viewpoint, 1; Historical review and basic concept to propose new framework

Kuno, Yusuke; Tazaki, Makiko; Akiba, Mitsunori*; Adachi, Takeo*; Takashima, Ryuta*; Omoto, Akira*; Oda, Takuji*; Choi, J.-S.*; Tanaka, Satoru*

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

This paper will present brief historical review of multilateral nuclear approach (MNA), and based on which, a basic concept of a reliable framework of nuclear fuel cycle, where the fuel-cycle services could be provided without discrimination and meet the international 3S requirements, is discussed.

Journal Articles

Quality control and uncertainty evaluation for accountancy analysis at PFDC-JAEA

Sumi, Mika; Okazaki, Hiro; Abe, Katsuo; Kageyama, Tomio; Nakazawa, Hiroaki

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2012/07

PFDC has been developing various technologies for MOX fuel production, and Pu and U isotopic composition and content of these samples are analyzed at PFDC-lab. For the analysis of MOX fuel material including raw material powders, PFDC-lab is accredited as the testing laboratory of ISO/IEC 17025 scoped for (1) Pu and U isotopic composition measurement in the nuclear fuel materials by MS and (2) Pu and U content measurement in the nuclear fuel materials by IDMS. This accreditation was granted in March 2010. While preparing for accreditation, the PFDC-lab established the capability to estimate measurement uncertainty in accordance with the GUM Guide and developed calculation program combining GUM-Workbench and Excel. This paper presents details of our quality control system and measurement uncertainty evaluation systems.

Journal Articles

Feasibility study of $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of low-volatile FPs for special nuclear material accountancy in molten core material

Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

Reviewing the technologies applied to TMI-2, feasibility study of $$gamma$$ spectroscopy of low-volatile FPs for special nuclear material accountancy in molten core material or debris has been performed numerically, and the sensitivity of low-volatile FP nuclides on fuel contents, especially $$^{239}$$Pu, was studied with parameters of typical BWR fuel such as enrichment, burnup and neutron spectrum, heat density. Comparing TMI-2, a PWR reactor, broader neutron spectrum axial profile and irradiation cycle complexity of typical BWR fuel assemblies make more variance in the accumulation of daughter nuclides by neutron capture reactions. As results, $$^{239}$$Pu quantification, by burnup dependent $$^{154}$$Eu/$$^{239}$$Pu index has accuracy of 15-18% in 1-sigma level mainly affected by burnup uncertainty, and $$^{239}$$Pu quantification by $$^{144}$$Ce/$$^{239}$$Pu has accuracy of 20% as long as $$^{144}$$Ce released photon could be observed within 10 years, within the scope of inventory survey except for measurement uncertainty. Finally systematic image of fuel quantification by passive $$gamma$$ spectroscopy and, as future study, FPs quantification by passive $$gamma$$ measurement tests by mockup debris measurement with self-attenuation correction are introduced.

Journal Articles

Proposal of healthiness confirmation procedure in electro manometer system in terms of nuclear material accountancy

Mukai, Yasunobu; Shoji, Kaoru; Hayashi, Hiroyuki*; Nakamura, Hironobu; Kurita, Tsutomu

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2012/07

In general, electro manometer system for volume measurement in high concentrated Pu, U solution is used. The measurement uncertainty of volume measurement should be kept within 0.36% in the nuclear material accountancy. Not only manometer censors are calibrated periodically, but also operator should maintain the integrity of entire volume measurement system. If clogging at a tip of dip-tube is occurred, it causes measurement bias. Therefore, we studied confirmation procedure of healthiness in the system during solution storage. As result, it is confirmed that following points are effective: (1) Confirmation of consistency in the Kumar's density formula by using actual Pu, U concentration, density and acidity determined by periodical sampling and high accuracy DA. In addition, Pu, U mass is maintained within the uncertainty from the previous sampling/DA result. (2) In order to confirm the integrity of differential pressure for density that may be impacted regarding the measurement bias by clogging, comparison between measured differential pressure for density and analyzed density with high accuracy is important. In the confirmation for density, correction method between different temperatures was established by the result of evaluation of temperature effect derived by Kumar's density formula.

Journal Articles

Demonstration plan of Pu NDA system using ZnS ceramic scintillator

Nakamura, Hironobu; Kureta, Masatoshi; Ozu, Akira; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Mukai, Yasunobu; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2012/07

To establish an alternative technique of $$^{3}$$He neutron detector that is used for nuclear material accountancy and safeguards, we have started an R&D project to develop a new type of neutron detector (Pu NDA system) using ZnS ceramic scintillator with support of Japanese government. The design of the alternative system is basically referenced from PCDF-PCAS (Plutonium Canister Assay System) which can measure up to 5 kg Pu mass in a MOX canister. In order to prove the technology and performance after the fabrication of the new detector progresses, we are planning to conduct 2 stage of demonstration activity in the near future experimentally. The first stage of demonstration activity implements the confirmation of flatness response profile for vertical axis, integrity check of detector parameters and basic performance comparison between calculated and measured using MOX powder around June 2013. After some modification and upgrade will have completed, we will conduct second stage of demonstration activity around December 2013. During the activity, we plan to perform the performance comparison between current PCAS and the new Pu NDA related to the counting statistics.

Journal Articles

The JAEA part of the joint JAEA-U.S. DOE project for Pu measurement of Fugen spent fuel assemblies by integrated PNAR and SINRD

Ebara, Noriyasu; Katano, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Takahisa; Takagi, Hisatsugu; Bolind, A.; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

The Fugen advanced thermal reactor stopped operations in 2003 and is now being decommissioned. Nevertheless, the spent-fuel pool at Fugen still remains and currently contains both MOX and UO$$_{2}$$ spent-fuel assemblies. Because Fugen was a prototype, the standard operations at the spent-fuel pool are flexible enough to be able to conduct NDA experiments on the spent fuel. Therefore, JAEA and the U.S.DOE are planning to conduct a test of an integrated PNAR and SINRD NDA measurement system at Fugen in 2013. LANL is designing and constructing the detector, and JAEA is preparing the Fugen site for the test. It will be report to select for install location of NDA test device in spent fuel pool, how to installation and study of test flow.

Journal Articles

JAEA development programs of advanced technologies for safeguards and security

Bolind, A.; Kureta, Masatoshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Hajima, Ryoichi; Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Takahisa; Seya, Michio

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

This paper reports the progress that has been made at JAEA concerning 4 development programs of advanced technologies for the measurement of nuclear material for safeguards and security. One program is developing a neutron detector based on a ZnS ceramic scintillator material, to replace $$^{3}$$He neutron detectors. The other 3 programs are developing new non-destructive assay (NDA) systems. One system measures the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) induced in fissile material by a high-intensity, mono-energetic $$gamma$$ ray beam, produced by a Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) system in an energy-recovery linac (ERL). Another system uses both neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) and neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) to determine the fissile content in particle debris of melted nuclear fuel. The last system is a neutron-based, spent-fuel, NDA system that is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The system uses combines the techniques of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) and passive neutron albedo reactivity (PNAR). It will be tested on used nuclear fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pool at Fugen.

Journal Articles

Development of regional training course for physical protection of nuclear material and facilities at Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security

Naoi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Naoki; Hamada, Kazuko; Noro, Naoko; Matsuzawa, Reina; Wakabayashi, Shuji; Nonaka, Nobuyuki; Senzaki, Masao; Scharmer, C.*; Duggan, R.*; et al.

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

At the 2010 Washington Nuclear Security Summit, Japan committed to establish a regional center for the strengthening of nuclear security, mainly in Asia, through capacity building support including human resources training and infrastructure development assistance. In accordance with this statement, the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) was inaugurated in December 2010 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). This paper describes the ISCN training activities and introduces the developing new training course on physical protection.

Journal Articles

Nuclear nonproliferation capacity building support by Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security; Modeling the support program for Vietnam and beyond

Hamada, Kazuko; Senzaki, Masao; Okubo, Michiaki; Naoi, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Naoki; Nguyen, N. H. V.*

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Feasibility studies and development of NDA technologies for NM in the melted fuels of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP

Seya, Michio; Harada, Hideo; Kitatani, Fumito; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Hajima, Ryoichi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Angell, C.; Bolind, A.

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

This paper describes Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) based on NRTA (Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis) and NRCA (Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis) utilizing the TOF (Time of Flight) method, which is intended for the analysis of particle-like debris, in terms of feasibility studies. This paper also describes an NDA technology using LCS (Laser Compton Scattered) $$gamma$$-rays (mono-energetic $$gamma$$-rays) to analyze other types of debris (small rock like debris or kcut shaped debris) by the Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) method. For LCS-$$gamma$$ NRF technology the measurement of scattered NRF $$gamma$$-ray and a novel transmission measurement using NRF is also shown roughly, which has the advantage of being insensitive to the radioactive nature of the fuel and is completely insensitive to the geometry of the fuel.

Journal Articles

Development plan of Pu NDA system using ZnS ceramic scintillator

Kureta, Masatoshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Seya, Michio; Ozu, Akira; Haruyama, Mitsuo; Takase, Misao; Sakasai, Kaoru; Nakamura, Tatsuya; To, Kentaro

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2012/07

Alternative techniques to neutron detection by helium-3 for nuclear security and safeguards systems are necessary to be developed since helium-3 shortage is serious. With support of Japanese government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), we have started an R&D project of Pu NDA system using ZnS ceramic scintillator. Here we present development plan, production of a new type of ZnS ceramic scintillator experimentally and basic design of a PCAS alternative Pu NDA system. We are planning the demonstration tests using the alternative NDA system comparing with the current PCAS in which the helium-3 counters are installed.

Journal Articles

Significant improvement of nuclear resonance fluorescence non-destructive assay by using the average resonance technique and photofission

Angell, C.; Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki; Hajima, Ryoichi

Proceedings of INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (CD-ROM), 10 Pages, 2012/07

Oral presentation

Development of an information sharing framework; Communication strategies

Kawakubo, Yoko; Hoffheins, B.; Inoue, Naoko; Mongiello, R.*; Baldwin, G.*

no journal, , 

The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), in cooperation with the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), has conducted research and development of transparency concepts and tools to support and promote regional nuclear non-proliferation transparency. Their cooperative efforts are ongoing and the most recent activity was the workshop held in Tokai, Japan, December 1-2, 2011, "Transparency Workshop: Development of an Information Sharing Framework". Among other things, the workshop discussed various ways of information sharing and highlighted two mechanisms: "face-to-face" and "web-based". This paper analyzed both "face-to-face" and "web-based" mechanisms to support establishing the information sharing framework for regional transparency. The analysis showed that each mechanism has different advantages and disadvantages therefore it is essential to find the optimum combination of these two mechanisms depending on the goals and needs of the framework. The challenges to web-based mechanism such as information security and possible structures of multi-party participation framework would be also described.

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