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Journal Articles

Experience in MOX fuel fabrication at the PFPF for the fast reactor

Suzuki, Kiichi; Okita, Takatoshi; Aono, Shigenori

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication technologies in large-scale and fabricated MOX fuel assemblies for experimental fast reactor "JOYO" and prototype fast reactor "MONJU" at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) since 1988. Low density pellet is adopted as MONJU fuel. For the low density pellet fabrication in large-scale, various challenges were encountered. In order to resolve these challenges, countermeasures such as new pore former with high softening temperature and improved granulation method for MOX powder were considered. In this presentation, accumulated MOX fuel fabrication technologies as mentioned above and recent R&D activity such as new pelletizing method, or die wall lubrication pelletizing, for low-decontaminated TRU fuel fabrication will be discussed.

Journal Articles

Conceptual design of engineering-scale plant applied the simplified MA-bearing fuel fabrication process

Yamada, Yoshikazu; Segawa, Tomoomi; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2017/06

Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have proposed the transmutation of minor actinides by fast reactors as a way to contribute significantly to the reduction of the volume and the potential radiotoxicity of radioactive wastes. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to introduce a fully automated and remote operation fuel fabrication plant with shielded hot cells and manipulators. JAEA's facilities including Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) have fabricated MOX fuel. On the basis of the operational and technical experience obtained in above facilities, the conceptual design of engineering-scale plant applied the simplified MA-bearing fuel fabrication process with shielded hot cells and manipulator was done. It will be able to fabricate high MA-bearing fuel and to perform the maintenance and repairing of each equipment with manipulators. This plant will be constructed based on this concept and development plan.

Journal Articles

Mechanical and thermal properties of (U,Pu)O$$_{2-x}$$

Hirooka, Shun; Kato, Masato

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2017/06

Young's modulus of MOX pellets was evaluated by measuring the sound velocities of longitudinal and transverse waves in the pellets as functions of porosity, oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M) and plutonium content. The results showed that porosity was the most important factor that 20% of the porosity decreased Young's modulus by neatly 100 GPa while O/M and plutonium content could change the Young's modulus by ~20 GPa. From the measured sound velocities, temperature dependence on Young's modulus and specific heat capacity were calculated on the Debye model by leveraging the thermal expansion data. The temperature dependence that Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature is in good agreement with literature data. The specific heat capacity also agrees with that of calculated value by Kopp's method, taken the Schottky term and the excited term into account.

Journal Articles

Advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor development regarding GIF safety design criteria

Hayafune, Hiroki; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kamide, Hideki; Iwasaki, Mikinori*; Shoji, Takashi*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2017/06

Design studies on a next generation sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) considering the safety design criteria (SDC) developed in the generation IV international forum (GIF) was summarized. To meet SDC including the lessons learned from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident, the heat removal function was enhanced to avoid loss of the function even if any internal events exceeding design basis or severe external event happen. Several design options have been investigated and auxiliary core cooling system using air as ultimate heat sink has been selected as an additional cooling system regarding system reliability and diversification. Even though the next generation SFR already adopts seismic isolation system, main component designs have been improved considering revised earthquake conditions. For other external events, design measures for various external events are taken into account. Reactor building design has been improved and important safety components are diversified and located separately improving independency. Those design studies and evaluations on the next generation sodium-cooled reactor have contributed to the development of safety design guidelines (SDG) which is under discussion in the GIF framework.

Journal Articles

Basic visualization experiments on eutectic reaction between boron carbide and stainless steel under sodium-cooled fast reactor conditions

Yamano, Hidemasa; Suzuki, Toru; Kamiyama, Kenji; Kudo, Isamu*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 11 Pages, 2017/06

This paper describes basic visualization experiments on eutectic reaction and relocation of boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) under a high temperature condition exceeding 1500$$^{circ}$$C as well as the importance of such behaviors in molten core during a core disruptive accident in a Generation-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (750 MWe class) designed in Japan. At first, a reactivity history was calculated using an exact perturbation calculation tool taking into account expected behaviors. This calculation indicated the importance of a relocation behavior of the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic because its behavior has a large uncertainty in the reactivity history. To clarify this behavior, basic experiments were carried out by visualizing the reaction of a B$$_{4}$$C pellet contacted with molten SS in a high temperature-heating furnace. The experiments have shown the eutectic reaction visualization as well as freezing and relocation of the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic in upper part of the solidified test piece due to the density separation.

Journal Articles

Current status of GIF collaborations on sodium-cooled fast reactor system

Hayafune, Hiroki; Glatz, J.-P.*; Yang, H.*; Ruggieri, J.-M.*; Kim, Y.-I.*; Ashurko, Y.*; Hill, R.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 12 Pages, 2017/06

The SFR system arrangement Phase II became effective on 16 February 2016 by signatures of CEA, JAEA, KAERI, USDOE, and Rosatom, and was extended for additional 10 years. Collaboration of GIF SFR is growing adding new reactor concepts and related RDs. In 2015, a project arrangement on SFR System Integration and Assessment (SIA) has been signed by 7 members : China, EU, France, Japan, Korea, Russia and US. In the SIA project, RD needs from the SFR design will be shown to the RD project, and RD results from each RD project will be integrated into the designs.

Journal Articles

Development of under sodium viewer for next generation sodium-cooled fast reactors

Aizawa, Kosuke; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Ara, Kuniaki; Yui, Masahiro*; Uemoto, Yohei*; Kurokawa, Masaaki*; Hiramatsu, Takashi*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 9 Pages, 2017/06

Inspection in opaque liquid metal coolant is one of important issues for sodium-cooled fast reactors. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, various under sodium viewers (USVs), including horizontal USVs for obstacle detection for a long distance and imaging USVs for a short and middle distance imaging, have been developed in several research institutes and countries. In this study, an imaging USV for a middle distance, approximately 1 m, has been developed. The USV in this study adopts an optical receiving system which measures the vibration displacement of diaphragm by using a laser as a receiving sensor. This study mainly focuses on the sensitivity improvement for a transmission sensor and the receiving sensor. In addition, an imaging experiment in the water was conducted using the new transmission sensor and receiving sensor. The experimental results showed that the newly developed USV sensors can make higher resolution images of a target than the previous sensors.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of irradiation-induced point defect migration energy during neutron irradiation in modified 316 stainless steel

Sekio, Yoshihiro; Yamagata, Ichiro; Akasaka, Naoaki; Sakaguchi, Norihito*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2017/06

The widths of void denuded zones (VDZs) which were formed near random grain boundaries by neutron irradiation were analyzed in order to perform quantitative evaluations for the irradiation-induced point defect behavior in the modified 316 stainless steel (PNC316) having been developed by JAEA. Namely, the temperature dependence of VDZ width was investigated and vacancy migration energy of the PNC316 steel was estimated from the VDZ width analysis for the neutron-irradiated specimens. The obtained value of vacancy migration energy was estimated as 1.46 eV, which was consistent with that from the exiting method using electron in-situ examination. This indicates that VDZ analysis could be effective method to evaluate especially vacancy migration energy during irradiation, and this would be realized from not in-situ observation but post-irradiation examination in the case of neutron irradiation.

Journal Articles

The Safety design guideline development for Generation-IV SFR systems

Nakai, Ryodai

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

The GIF Safety Design Criteria Task Force (SDC TF) has been developing a set of safety design guidelines (SDG) to support practical application of SDC since the completion of the "SDC Phase I Report" that clarifies safety design requirements for Gen-IV SFR systems. The main objective of the SDG development is to assist SFR developers and vendors to utilize the SDC in their design process for improving the safety in specific topical areas including the use of inherent/passive safety features and the design measures for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. The first report on "Safety Approach SDGs" aims to provide guidance on safety approaches covering specific safety issues on fast reactor core reactivity and on loss of heat removal. The second report on "SDGs on key Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs)" focuses on the functional requirements for SSCs important to safety; reactor core system, reactor coolant system, and containment system.

Journal Articles

The Safety design criteria development and summary of its update for the Generation-IV SFR systems

Sofu, T.*; Okano, Yasushi

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 8 Pages, 2017/06

The Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) completed development of Safety Design Criteria (SDC) for the Generation-IV SFR systems in May, 2013. SDC reflects the high-level GIF safety and reliability goals and follows GIF basic safety approach. It aims to establish reference criteria for safety design of structures, systems and components and achieve harmonization of safety approaches among GIF member states. Following its public release, SDC report was distributed to international organizations and national regulatory bodies for review and feedback. Based on comments received during the following two-year period, SDC report underwent a revision reflecting feedback received from IAEA, NRC (USA), IRSN (France), and NNSA (China). This paper provides an overview of SDC development effort, and summarizes its revisions based the comments/suggestions received from the international review.

Journal Articles

Identification of important phenomena under sodium fire accidents based on PIRT process

Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Uchibori, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Takata, Takashi; Ohno, Shuji; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

The present PIRT process is aimed to identify key phenomena involved in sodium fire accidents that involve complex phenomena in sodium-cooled fast reactor plants. In this PIRT process, the figures of merit (FOMs) are specified through factor analysis. Associated phenomena are identified through the element- and sequence-based phenomena analyses. Importance of each associated phenomenon is evaluated by considering the sequence-based analysis of associated phenomena correlated with the FOMs. Then, we complete the ranking table through the factor and phenomenon analyses. An assessment matrix of important phenomena and experiments is completed finally for model validation.

Journal Articles

Progress of design and related researches of sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan

Kamide, Hideki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shigenobu; Oki, Shigeo; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Kenji

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

Development of a sodium-cooled fast reactor has been implemented in Japan from the viewpoint of severe accident countermeasures in order to strengthen safety of a fast reactor since the Great East Japan Earthquake. This paper describes the progress of design study and research and development related to safety enhancement and the severe accident countermeasures. For the purpose of strengthening of decay heat removal function, several researches have been carried out on the decay heat removal in a core disruptive accident (CDA), diversity and applicability of decay heat removal systems, and thermal hydraulic evaluation methods. In order to elucidate the behavior of molten fuel during CDA, some in-pile and out-of-pile tests has been performed by international collaboration including basic experiments. Core design was also improved from the viewpoint of preventing the occurrence of severe accident.

Journal Articles

Current status of the next generation fast reactor core & fuel design and related R&Ds in Japan

Maeda, Seiichiro; Oki, Shigeo; Otsuka, Satoshi; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Ozawa, Takayuki; Kamide, Hideki

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

The next generation fast reactor is being investigated in Japan, aiming at several targets such as "safety", "reduction of environmental burden" and "economic competitiveness". As for the safety aspect, FAIDUS concept is adopted to avoid re-criticality in core destructive accidents. The uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel, in which minor actinide elements are included, will be applied to reduce the amount and potential radio-toxicity of radioactive wastes. The high burn-up fuel is pursued to reduce fuel cycle cost. The candidate concept of the core and fuel design, which could satisfy various design criteria by design devisals, has been established. In addition, JAEA is investigating material properties and irradiation behavior of MA-MOX fuel. JAEA is developing the fuel design code especially for the fuel pin with annular pellets of MA-bearing MOX. Furthermore, JAEA is developing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding for the high burnup fuel.

Journal Articles

Numerical analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test-17 using 1D plant dynamic analysis code coupled with 3D CFD code

Doda, Norihiro; Hiyama, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Thomas, J.*; Vilim, R. B.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

In sodium-cooled fast reactors, a natural circulation is expected to remove the core decay heat when the plant gets into a station blackout. From a perspective of reactor safety, the core hot spot temperature arising in the natural circulation should be evaluated accurately. To this end, Japan Atomic Energy Agency is trying to couple a 1-D plant dynamics analysis code Super-COPD and a 3-D CFD code AQUA to solve the thermal-hydraulic field in the whole plant under natural circulation condition. As a validation study, the coupled code was applied to an analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test. The obtained numerical results reasonably agreed with the measured data, which demonstrated the validity of the coupled code.

Journal Articles

Recent activities of the safety and operation project of the sodium-cooled fast reactor in the Generation IV International Forum

Vasile, A.*; Ren, L.*; Fanning, T.*; Tsige-Tamirat, H.*; Yamano, Hidemasa; Kang, S.-H.*; Ashurko, I.*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 15 Pages, 2017/06

The tasks in the Safety and Operation (SO) topics are categorized into the following three work packages (WP): WP-SO-1 Methods, Models and codes is devoted to the development of tools for the evaluation of safety, WP-SO-2 Experimental Programs and Operational Experiences includes the operation, maintenance and testing experiences in experimental facilities and SFRs (e.g., Monju, Phenix, BN-600 and CEFR), and WP-SO-3 Studies of Innovative Design and Safety Systems relates to safety technologies for GEN-IV reactors such as active and passive safety systems and other specific design features. In this paper, recent activities in the SO project are described.

Journal Articles

Development of core and structural materials for fast reactors

Asayama, Tai; Otsuka, Satoshi

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 15 Pages, 2017/06

This paper summarizes ongoing efforts in Japan Atomic Energy Agency on the development of core and structural materials for sodium-cooled fast reactors. For core materials, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and 11Cr ferritic steel (PNC-FMS) will be used for the fuel pin cladding and wrapper tube, respectively. As for ODS steel, 9Cr- and 11Cr-ODS steels have been extensively developed. Their laboratory-scale manufacturing technology has been developed including reliability improvement in tube microstructure and strength homogeneity. As for the PNC-FMS wrapper tube, the development of a dissimilar joining technique with type 316 steel and properties evaluation of dissimilar welds have been carried out. For structural materials, codification of 316FR stainless steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is ongoing. Acquisition and collection of long-term data of base metal and welded joints are continued and evaluation methodologies are being developed to establish a technical basis for 60-year design.

Journal Articles

Study on safety design concept for future sodium-cooled fast reactors in Japan

Kubo, Shigenobu; Shimakawa, Yoshio*

Proceedings of International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles; Next Generation Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development (FR-17) (USB Flash Drive), 10 Pages, 2017/06

This paper describes safety design concept for future sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Japan, which is based on the safety design criteria and safety design guidelines developed in the auspices of the international forum of generation IV nuclear energy systems. Inherent and/or passive design features are utilized based on SFRs characteristics such as low pressure, high thermal inertia of the system. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident is one of important issues to be incorporated into the safety design concept. In order to realize commercial SFRs in the future, robust and rational safety design should be pursued by integrating various factors into the design and limiting additional specific systems, structures and components. Existing engineering principle for the design and manufacturing of SFR's components, and innovative technologies introduced in the FaCT project are keys to achieve the safety concept.

Oral presentation

Thermal conductivity of non-stoichiometric (Pu$$_{0.928}$$Am$$_{0.072}$$)O$$_{2-x}$$

Matsumoto, Taku; Morimoto, Kyoichi; Kato, Masato; Ogasawara, Masahiro*

no journal, , 

In this study, thermal conductivity of non-stoichiometric (Pu$$_{0.928}$$Am$$_{0.072}$$)O$$_{2-x}$$ (x=0.000$$sim$$0.058) was evaluated using measured thermal diffusivity by laser flash method, the bulk density and the heat capacity. The experimental data suggested that the Am effect on thermal conductivity is almost comparable with Pu at non-stoichiometric region.

Oral presentation

The Influence of porosity on thermal conductivity of low-density uranium oxide

Morimoto, Kyoichi; Ogasawara, Masahiro*

no journal, , 

In MOX fuel fabrication, the mitigation of specifications on fuel design is considered from a viewpoint of improvement of economic efficiency. As the one of the mitigations of specifications, the tolerance expansion of the density specification is considered. In this consideration, it is necessary to confirm the applicability of the porosity correction equation to the thermal conductivity in a low density region. In this study, UO$$_{2}$$ pellet was adopted as test specimen for the following reasons. The stability of O/M ratio of UO$$_{2}$$ pellets in the thermal conductivity measurement is superior to that of MOX pellets. The densities of the specimens were adjusted in the wide range by using crystalline cellulose. The thermal conductivities of these specimens were measured and the applicability of the porosity correction equation to the thermal conductivity in a low density region was evaluated.

Oral presentation

Evaluation of double leakage at primary heat transport systems of Monju with passive safety features

Yoshimura, Kazuo; Ikeda, Makinori; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Aizawa, Kosuke

no journal, , 

JAEA has conducted a safety evaluation of impacts of double leakage at the PHTSs considering the passive safety features of Monju as the best-estimate evaluation for a DEC. The result shows that the total amount of leaked sodium can be reduced by the depressurization of the cover gas resulting from decrease in coolant inventory, i.e. negative pressure effects. The reactor coolant level required for decay heat removal, therefore, can be maintained even under double leakage at the PHTSs.

22 (Records 1-20 displayed on this page)