Kawabori, Tatsuru*; Watanabe, Masashi; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Ueta, Shohei; Yan, X.; Mizoshiri, Mizue*
Applied Physics A, 129(7), p.498_1 - 498_9, 2023/07
We investigated a potential of femtosecond laser sintering of silicon carbide (SiC) using the nanoparticles in air. A SiC nanoparticle ink including polyvinylpyrrolidone and ethylene glycol exhibited intense absorption by SiC nanoparticles at the wavelength of 780 nm. The whole of the sintered film patterns from the surface to the bottom underwent significant oxidation at a scanning speed of 1 mm/s, suggesting that the excessive energy irradiation generated silicon oxides. In contrast, the patterns fabricated by laser scanning at a raster pitch of 30 m at which a sintered area was observed at a scanning speed of 5 mm/s, exhibited no significant difference in oxidation of the raw SiC nanoparticles except for the surfaces from 1.72 m. These results indicate that the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses generated the sintered SiC patterns without additional atmospheric oxidation of the raw materials because of its low heat accumulation. In additions, the dispersant of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ethylene glycol did not affect the sintering by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This vacuum-free direct printing technique has the potential for additive manufacturing.
Sakakibara, Ryotaro*; Bao, J.*; Yuhara, Keisuke*; Matsuda, Keita*; Terasawa, Tomoo; Kusunoki, Michiko*; Norimatsu, Wataru*
Applied Physics Letters, 123(3), p.031603_1 - 031603_4, 2023/07
We here report a step unbunching phenomenon, which is the inverse of the phenomenon of step bunching. When a 4H-SiC (0001) surface is annealed at a high temperature, step bunching arises due to the different velocities of the step motion in adjacent steps, resulting in steps with a height of more than several nanometers. We found that the bunched steps, thus, obtained by hydrogen etching in an Ar/H atmosphere were "unbunched" into lower height steps when annealed subsequently at lower temperatures. This unbunching phenomenon can be well explained by the consequence of the competition between energetics and kinetics. Our findings provide another approach for the surface smoothing of SiC by hydrogen etching and may give significant insight into the application of SiC power devices and two-dimensional materials growth techniques in general.
Wang, Y.*; Gong, W.; Kawasaki, Takuro; Harjo, S.; Zhang, K.*; Zhang, Z. D.*; Li, B.*
Applied Physics Letters, 123(1), p.011903_1 - 011903_6, 2023/07
Ogawa, Hiroki; Asamori, Koichi; Negi, Tateyuki*; Ueda, Takumi*
Journal of Applied Geophysics, 213, p.105012_1 - 105012_17, 2023/06
A number of schemes for processing magnetotelluric (MT) data have been reported aiming at suppressing the strong effect of artificial electromagnetic noise, especially coherent noise that is correlated between electric and magnetic time series. Many of the recent denoising schemes are based on decomposing MT data into the responses of the natural signal and noise. Meanwhile, it is crucial to distinguish the natural signal from noise stably without depending on any empirical choice of parameter setting. In addition, improper subtraction of values from the separated signal can lead to the loss of useful values of the natural signal or missing noise-affected values, which may result in failure in deriving the true MT responses. We propose a novel data-processing method that applies frequency-domain independent component analysis (FDICA) to both the local MT data and the reference magnetic data. Among the separated signal, the proposed method can quantitatively distinguish the natural signal from the noise-affected components by calculating the ratio of cross-power spectrum with the reference data to the auto-power spectrum for each component. When determining which values to subtract from the separated signal, we introduce an evaluation index with respect to two characteristics of the MT response function: stationary in the time domain and smoothness in the frequency domain. We conduct the experiments both with MT time series severely contaminated by synthetic coherent noises and with MT field data interfered with DC (direct current) railways. Consequently, we confirm the superiority of the proposed method in the noise-suppression performance over the conventional methods of MT data processing.
Yamaguchi, Hisato*; Yusa, Ryunosuke*; Wang, G.*; Pettes, M. T.*; Liu, F.*; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Abukawa, Tadashi*; Moody, N. A.*; Ogawa, Shuichi*
Applied Physics Letters, 122(14), p.141901_1 - 141901_7, 2023/04
A lowering of work function for LaB by monolayer hexagonal BN coating is reported. Photoemission electron microcopy (PEEM) and thermionic emission electron microscopy (TEEM) both revealed that the hBN coated region of a LaB(100) single crystal has lower work function compared to the bare (i.e., non-coated) and graphene coated regions. A larger decrease of work function for the hBN coated LaB(100) compared to graphene coated LaB(100) was qualitatively supported by our density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adding an oxide layer in the calculations improved consistency between the calculation and experimental results. We followed up our calculations with synchrotron-radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-XPS) and confirmed the presence of an oxide layer on our LaB.
Masuda, Hiroto*; Yamane, Yuta*; Seki, Takeshi*; Raab, K.*; Dohi, Takaaki*; Modak, R.*; Uchida, Kenichi*; Ieda, Junichi; Klui, M.*; Takanashi, Koki
Applied Physics Letters, 122(16), p.162402_1 - 162402_7, 2023/04
Sato, Yuma*; Takeuchi, Yutaro*; Yamane, Yuta*; Yoon, J.-Y.*; Kanai, Shun*; Ieda, Junichi; Ohno, Hideo*; Fukami, Shunsuke*
Applied Physics Letters, 122(12), p.122404_1 - 122404_5, 2023/03
Mori, Michiyasu; Maekawa, Sadamichi
Applied Physics Letters, 122(4), p.042202_1 - 042202_5, 2023/01
Maekawa, Sadamichi; Kikkawa, Takashi*; Chudo, Hiroyuki; Ieda, Junichi; Saito, Eiji
Journal of Applied Physics, 133(2), p.020902_1 - 020902_24, 2023/01
Fukuda, Tatsuo; Kobata, Masaaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Yoshii, Kenji; Kamiya, Junichiro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Makino, Takahiro*; Yamazaki, Yuichi*; Oshima, Takeshi*; Shirai, Yasuhiro*; et al.
Journal of Applied Physics, 132(24), p.245102_1 - 245102_8, 2022/12
Direct energy conversion has been investigated using Ni/SiC Schottky junctions with the irradiation of monochromatized synchrotron X-rays simulating the gamma rays of Np (30 keV) and Am (60 keV). From current-voltage measurements, electrical energies were obtained for both kinds of gamma rays. The energy conversion efficiencies were found to reach up to 1.6%, which is comparable to those of a few other semiconducting systems reported thus far. This result shows a possibility of energy recovery from nuclear wastes using the present system, judging from the radiation tolerant nature of SiC. Also, we found different conversion efficiencies between the two samples. This could be understandable from hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, suggesting the formation of Ni-Si compounds at the interface in the sample with a poor performance. Hence, such combined measurements are useful to provide information that cannot be obtained by electrical measurements alone.
Yoneda, Yasuhiro; Kim, S.*; Mori, Shigeo*; Wada, Satoshi*
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(SN), p.SN1022_1 - SN1022_10, 2022/11
Local structural analysis of the (1-) BiFeO-BaTiO solid solution was performed by PDF analysis of the data obtained in the synchrotron radiation high-energy X-ray diffraction experiment. First, when XAFS experiments were performed and sample screening was performed, it was found that structural fluctuations were large in the BiFeO-rich composition. Therefore, PDF analysis of a sample with BiFeO-rich composition was performed. As a result, it was found that although the average structure is a cubic structure, the local structure can be reproduced with a rhombohedral crystal structure, and there is a displacement that breaks the symmetry of the rhombohedral structure in a composition with a large fluctuation.
Hirata, Yuho; Kai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Matsuya, Yusuke; Sato, Tatsuhiko
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(10), p.106004_1 - 106004_6, 2022/10
Some radiation effects such as pulse-height defects and soft errors can cause problems in silicon (Si) devices. Local energy deposition in microscopic scales is essential information to elucidate the mechanism of these radiation effects. We, therefore, developed an electron track-structure model, which can simulate local energy deposition down to nano-scales, dedicated to Si and implemented it into PHITS. Then, we verified the accuracy of our developed model by comparing the ranges and depth-dose distributions of electrons obtained from this study with the corresponding experimental values and other simulated results. As an application of the model, we calculated the mean energies required to create an electron-hole pair, the so-called epsilon value. We found that the threshold energy for generating secondary electrons reproducing the epsilon value is 2.75 eV, consistent with the corresponding data deduced from past theoretical and computational studies. Since the magnitudes of the radiation effects on Si devices largely depend on the epsilon value, the developed code is expected to contribute to precisely understanding the mechanisms of pulse-height defects and semiconductor soft errors.
Iwase, Akihiro*; Fukuda, Kengo*; Saito, Yuichi*; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Semboshi, Satoshi*; Amekura, Hiroshi*; Matsui, Toshiyuki*
Journal of Applied Physics, 132(16), p.163902_1 - 163902_10, 2022/10
Amorphous SiO samples were implanted with 380 keV Fe ions at room temperature. After implantation, some of the samples were irradiated with 16 MeV Au ions. magnetic properties were investigated using a SQUID magnetometer, and the morphology of the Fe-implanted SiO samples was examined using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS and XANES), which showed that the size of Fe nanoparticles was increasing The size of Fe nanoparticles increased with increasing Fe implantation amount; some of the Fe nanoparticles consisted of Fe oxides, and the valence and structure of Fe atoms became closer to that of metallic -Fe with increasing Fe injection amount. The magnetization-field curve of the sample implanted with a small amount of Fe was reproduced by Langevin's equation, suggesting that the Fe nanoparticles behave in a superparamagnetic manner. In addition, when a large amount of Fe was implanted, the magnetization-magnetic field curve shows a ferromagnetic state. These magnetic property results are consistent with the X-ray absorption results. Subsequent 16 MeV Au irradiation crushed the Fe nanoparticles, resulting in a decrease in magnetization.
Mizobata, Hidetoshi*; Tomigahara, Kazuki*; Nozaki, Mikito*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji*; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*
Applied Physics Letters, 121(6), p.062104_1 - 062104_6, 2022/08
The interface properties and energy band alignment of SiO/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures fabricated on N-polar GaN(000) substrates were investigated by electrical measurements and synchrotron-radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They were then compared with those of SiO/GaN MOS structures on Ga-polar GaN(0001). Although the SiO/GaN(000) structure was found to be more thermally unstable than that on the GaN(0001) substrate, excellent electrical properties were obtained for the SiO/GaN(000) structure by optimizing conditions for post-deposition annealing. However, the conduction band offset for SiO/GaN(000) was smaller than that for SiO/GaN(0001), leading to increased gate leakage current. Therefore, caution is needed when using N-polar GaN(000) substrates for MOS device fabrication.
Yoshida, Masayuki*; Nishihata, Itsuki*; Matsuda, Tomoki*; Ito, Yusuke*; Sugita, Naohiko*; Shiro, Ayumi*; Shobu, Takahisa; Arakawa, Kazuto*; Hirose, Akio*; Sano, Tomokazu*
Journal of Applied Physics, 132(7), p.075101_1 - 075101_9, 2022/08
Kobayashi, Yoshinori*; Sato, Kiminori*; Yamawaki, Masato*; Michishio, Koji*; Oka, Toshitaka; Washio, Masakazu*
Applied Physics Express, 15(7), p.076001_1 - 076001_4, 2022/07
We discuss the energy dissipation of short-lived -positronium (-Ps) in polymers and silica glass. The parameter characterizing the Doppler broadening of -Ps annihilation is determined from the previously reported systematic data of positron annihilation age momentum correlation for various polymers and silica glass. A comparison of the parameter with that expected for thermalized -Ps trapped in a free volume reveals that -Ps is not thermalized and possesses excess energy in fluorinated polymers and silica glass, indicating that it is difficult for Ps to lose energy in substances containing heavy elements such as fluorine and silicon.
Hosoi, Takuji*; Osako, Momoe*; Moges, K.*; Ito, Koji*; Kimoto, Tsunenobu*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*
Applied Physics Express, 15(6), p.061003_1 - 061003_5, 2022/06
The combination of NO annealing and subsequent post-nitridation annealing (PNA) in CO ambient for SiO/SiC structures has been demonstrated to be effective in obtaining both high channel mobility and superior threshold voltage stability in SiC-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). N atoms on the SiO side of the SiO/SiC interface incorporated by NO annealing, which are plausible cause of charge trapping sites, could be selectively removed by CO-PNA at 1300C without oxidizing the SiC. CO-PNA was also effective in compensating oxygen vacancies in SiO, resulting high immunity against both positive and negative bias-temperature stresses.
Nakanuma, Takato*; Iwakata, Yu*; Watanabe, Arisa*; Hosoi, Takuji*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(SC), p.SC1065_1 - SC1065_8, 2022/05
Nitridation of SiO/4H-SiC(110) interfaces with post-oxidation annealing in an NO ambient (NO-POA) and its impact on the electrical properties were investigated. Sub-nm-resolution nitrogen depth profiling at the interfaces was conducted by using a scanning X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy microprobe. The results showed that nitrogen atoms were incorporated just at the interface and that interface nitridation proceeded much faster than at SiO/SiC(0001) interfaces, resulting in a 2.3 times higher nitrogen concentration. Electrical characterizations of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were conducted through capacitance-voltage () measurements in the dark and under illumination with ultraviolet light to evaluate the electrical defects near the conduction and valence band edges and those causing hysteresis and shifting of the curves. While all of these defects were passivated with the progress of the interface nitridation, excessive nitridation resulted in degradation of the MOS capacitors. The optimal conditions for NO-POA are discussed on the basis of these experimental findings.
Shimamura, Kazutoshi*; Wajima, Hiroki*; Makino, Hayato*; Abe, Satoshi*; Haga, Yoshinori; Sato, Yoshiaki*; Kawae, Tatsuya*; Yoshida, Yasuo*
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 61(5), p.056502_1 - 056502_7, 2022/05
Nakanuma, Takato*; Kobayashi, Takuma*; Hosoi, Takuji*; Sometani, Mitsuru*; Okamoto, Mitsuo*; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Shimura, Takayoshi*; Watanabe, Heiji*
Applied Physics Express, 15(4), p.041002_1 - 041002_4, 2022/04
The leakage current and flat-band voltage (VFB) instability of NO-nitrided SiC (110) (a-face) MOS devices were systematically investigated. Although NO nitridation is effective in improving the interface properties, we found that it reduces the onset field of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) current by about 1 MVcm, leading to pronounced leakage current. Synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the nitridation reduces the conduction band offset at the SiO/SiC interface, corroborating the above finding. Furthermore, systematical positive and negative bias stress tests clearly indicated the VFB instability of nitrided a-face MOS devices against electron and hole injection.