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Journal Articles

Synthesis and characterisation of a new graphitic C-S compound obtained by high pressure decomposition of CS$$_2$$

Klotz, S.*; Baptiste, B.*; Hattori, Takanori; Feng, S. M.*; Jin, Ch.*; B$'e$neut, K.*; Guigner, J. M.*; Est$`e$ve, I.*

Carbon, 185, p.491 - 500, 2021/11

 Times Cited Count:0

Carbon disulphide (CS$$_2$$) is one of the simplest molecular systems made of double covalent bonds. Under high pressure, the molecular structure is expected to break up to form extended crystalline or polymeric solids. Here we show that by compression at 300 K to approximately $$sim$$10 GPa using large-volume high pressure techniques, an instantaneous reaction leads to a mixture of pure sulphur and a well-defined compound with stoichiometry close to C$$_2$$S which can be recovered to ambient pressure. We present neutron and X-ray diffraction as well as Raman data which show that this material consists of sulphur bonded to sp$$^2$$ graphite layers of nanometric dimensions. The compound is a semiconductor with a gap of 45 meV, as revealed by temperature dependent resistivity measurements, and annealing at temperatures above 200$$^{circ}$$C allow to reduce its sulphur content up to C$$_{10}$$S. Its structural and electronic properties are fundamentally different to "Bridgman black" reported from previous high pressure experiments on CS$$_2$$.

Journal Articles

Experimental and analytical investigation on local damage to reinforced concrete panels subjected to projectile impact, 1; Penetration damage mode due to normal impact

Kang, Z.; Okuda, Yukihiko; Nishida, Akemi; Tsubota, Haruji; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

Most empirical formulas have been proposed to quantitatively evaluate local damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structures caused by a rigid projectile impact. These formulas have been derived from impact tests performed to the target structure with a normal angle, while only a few impact tests involving soft projectile to the target structure have been studied. Recently, we conducted a series of impact tests to evaluate local damage to RC panels subjected to normal and oblique impact due to rigid and soft projectiles. The final goal of our study is to establish a new formula for evaluating local damage to RC structures caused by soft projectile with oblique angle based on experimental and analytical investigation. This paper summarizes the results of experimental and analytical investigation on penetration damage mode to RC panels subjected to normal projectile impact. Through the comparison between experimental and analytical results, the validity of the analytical method is confirmed.

Journal Articles

A Statistical approach for modeling the effect of hot press conditions on the mechanical strength properties of HTGR fuel elements

Aihara, Jun; Kuroda, Masatoshi*; Tachibana, Yukio

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/08

To maintain the structural integrity of fuel elements for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) under disaster conditions, strong and oxidation-resistant fuel elements should be further developed. The HTGR fuel elements employ a hot-pressed silicon carbide (SiC)/carbon (C) mixed matrix to improve the oxidative resistance. Hot-press conditions such as pressure, temperature, and duration would be one of the factors that affect the strength of the HTGR fuel elements. To identify the optimal hot-press conditions for preparing the high-strength fuel elements, modelling their effects on the mechanical-strength properties of the HTGR fuel elements should be evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the response surface model, which represents the relationship between the hot-press conditions and the mechanical-strength properties, has been constructed by introducing statistical design-of-experiment approaches.

Journal Articles

Features of a BWR neutron absorber melt relocation in an oxidative environment during the CLADS-MADE-02 test

Pshenichnikov, A.; Nagae, Yuji; Kurata, Masaki

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

Journal Articles

Hybrid dynamic response test focusing on the support structure of piping systems

Okuda, Yukihiko; Nishida, Akemi; Sakai, Michiya*; Shiogama, Yuzo*; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

To develop a more realistic seismic evaluation method of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the seismic behavior considering the joints of each component that are treated as independent models during design evaluation, such as buildings, equipment, and piping systems. Particularly, the piping support structure, which is the joint between the building and piping, is important in the seismic evaluation of the piping system. While the current seismic evaluation of piping support structures is performed within the elastic range, it is important to consider the realistic elastic-plastic response of piping support structures for fragility assessment in seismic probabilistic risk assessment. However, the seismic evaluation method that considers the elastic-plastic response of piping support structures has not yet been established, and there is a need to improve seismic evaluation methods. In this study, a hybrid dynamic response test for simulating the seismic behavior of the piping support structure, including the elastic-plastic response, has been conducted. Specifically, static cyclic loading tests and hybrid dynamic response tests were conducted using four types of piping support structures to understand the basic mechanical behavior. This report presents the details of the tests and test results.

Journal Articles

Assessment of seismic fragility using a three-dimensional structural model of a reactor building

Nishida, Akemi; Choi, B.; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Kawata, Manabu; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

The new regulatory requirements in Japan have strengthened the mitigation of damage caused by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and the operational guide for safety improvement evaluation recommends the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) as the evaluation method in Japan. In the PRA of an earthquake, also known as the seismic PRA, the realistic assessment of the structural seismic response and the damage probability (fragility) assessment using the realistic response assessment of the nuclear buildings and equipment is one of the most important issues. Accordingly, the authors have conducted this study on the realistic seismic response analysis methods and seismic fragility assessment methods to ensure the seismic safety of the nuclear buildings and equipment. In this study, a nonlinear seismic response analysis is conducted for input ground motions beyond the ground motions assumed in the design by using a three-dimensional (3D) structural model of a reactor building. In addition, the damage mode of the structural components of the reactor building associated with the equipment is identified, and the seismic fragility is assessed based on the 3D behavior of the reactor building. The local response and detailed damage process of the reactor building that have been obtained through seismic response analysis, are reported in this study, along with the results of the seismic fragility assessment.

Journal Articles

Estimation of vibration characteristics of nuclear facilities based on seismic observation records

Yamakawa, Koki*; Saruta, Masaaki*; Moritani, Hiroshi*; Yamazaki, Hiroaki*; Nishida, Akemi; Kawata, Manabu; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

Several large-scale earthquakes have occurred, such as the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007 and the 2011 off-the-Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model to evaluate the local response of the reactor building is currently being developed for seismic response analysis. In order to refine the 3D finite element model, it is important to verify the correspondence to the seismic observation behaviors. In this study, the authors analyze the basic response characteristics, such as the natural frequencies and modes of the reactor building, and evaluate the effects of the amplitude of the seismic excitation on the response characteristics based on seismic observation records. This is done to clarify the behavior of a reactor building during earthquakes. These analyses will assist in quantitatively evaluating the correlation between the natural frequency of the building and the amplitude of the seismic excitation. Furthermore, the ratios of rotational displacement and displacement caused by building deformation for natural modes are discussed.

Journal Articles

Activities of the GIF safety and operation project of sodium-cooled fast reactor systems

Yamano, Hidemasa; Chenaud, M.-S.*; Kang, S.-H.*; Sumner, T.*; Tsige-Tamirat, H.*; Wang, J.*; Rozhikhin, E.*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2021/08

The Generation IV (GEN-IV) international forum is a framework for international co-operation in research and development for the next generation of nuclear energy systems. Within the GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) system arrangement, the SFR Safety and Operation (SO) project addresses the areas of safety technology and reactor operation technology developments. The aims of the SO project include (1) analyses and experiments that support establishment of the safety approaches and validate the performance of specific safety features, (2) development and verification of computational tools and validation of models employed in safety assessment and facility licensing, and (3) acquisition of reactor operation technology, as determined largely from experience and testing in operating SFR plants. The tasks in the SO topics are categorized into the following three work packages (WP): WP-SO-1 "Methods, Models and Codes" is devoted to the development of tools for the evaluation of safety. WP-SO-2 "Experimental Programs and Operational Experience" includes the operation, maintenance and testing experiences in experimental facilities and SFRs, and WP-SO-3 "Studies of Innovative Design and Safety Systems" relates to safety technologies for GEN-IV reactors such as active and passive safety systems and other specific design features. This paper reports recent activities within the SO project.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 1; Project overview and progress until 2019

Yamano, Hidemasa; Takai, Toshihide; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Emura, Yuki; Kamiyama, Kenji; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki*; Higashi, Hideo*; Nishi, Tsuyoshi*; Ota, Hiromichi*; et al.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 11 Pages, 2021/08

One of the key issues in a core disruptive accident (CDA) evaluation in sodium-cooled fast reactors is eutectic reactions between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) as well as its relocation. Such behaviors have never been simulated in CDA numerical analyses in the past, therefore it is necessary to develop a physical model and incorporate the model into the CDA analysis code. This study focuses on B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting experiments, thermophysical property measurement of the eutectic melt, and physical model development for the eutectic melting reaction. The eutectic experiments involve the visualization experiments, eutectic reaction rate experiments and material analyses. The thermophysical properties are measured in a range from solid to liquid state. The physical model is developed for a CDA computer code based on the measured data of the eutectic reaction rate and the physical properties. This paper describes the project overview and progress of experimental and analytical studies conducted until 2019. Specific results in this paper are the validation of physical model describing B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic reaction in the CDA analysis code, SIMMER-III, through the numerical analysis of the B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting experiments in which a B$$_{4}$$C block was placed in a SS pool.

Journal Articles

Analytical study on removal mechanisms of cesium aerosol from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool, 2; Effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols

Miyahara, Shinya*; Kawaguchi, Munemichi; Seino, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Takuto*; Uno, Masayoshi*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

In a postulated accident of fuel pin failure of sodium cooled fast reactor, a fission product cesium will be released from the failed pin as an aerosol such as cesium iodide and/or cesium oxide together with a fission product noble gas such as xenon and krypton. As the result, the xenon and krypton released with cesium aerosol into the sodium coolant as bubbles have an influence on the removal of cesium aerosol by the sodium pool in a period of bubble rising to the pool surface. In this study, cesium aerosol removal behavior due to inertial deposition, sedimentation and diffusion from a noble gas bubble rising through liquid sodium pool was analyzed by a computer program which deals with the expansion and the deformation of the bubble together with the aerosol absorption considering the effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols. In the analysis, initial bubble diameter, sodium pool depth and temperature, aerosol particle diameter and density, initial aerosol concentration in the bubble were changed as parameter, and the results for the sensitivities of these parameters on decontamination factor (DF) of cesium aerosol were compared with the results of the previous study in which the effects of particle size distribution and agglomeration in aerosols were not considered. From the results, it was concluded that the sensitivities of initial bubble diameter, the aerosol particle diameter and density to the DF became significant due to the inertial deposition of agglomerated aerosols. To validate these analysis results, the simulation experiments have been conducted using a simulant particles of cesium aerosol under the condition of room temperature in water pool and air bubble systems. The experimental results were compared with the analysis results calculated under the same condition.

Journal Articles

Study on eutectic melting behavior of control rod materials in core disruptive accidents of sodium-cooled fast reactors, 2; Kinetic study on eutectic reaction process between stainless steel with low boron carbide concentration and stainless steel

Kikuchi, Shin; Takai, Toshihide; Yamano, Hidemasa; Sakamoto, Kan*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/08

In a postulated severe accidental condition of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), eutectic melting between boron carbide (B$$_{4}$$C) and stainless steel (SS) may occur. Thus, behavior of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic melting is one of the phenomena to evaluate the core disruptive accidents in SFR. In this study, the reaction experiments using SS crucibles and the pellets of SS with low B$$_{4}$$C concentration as samples were performed to simulate the state of the reaction interface in which the eutectic reaction and interdiffusion of B$$_{4}$$C-SS have progressed to a certain extent. It was revealed that the rate constants of eutectic reaction between SS and SS with low B$$_{4}$$C concentration are smaller than that of B$$_{4}$$C-SS eutectic reaction at high temperatures.

Journal Articles

Experimental study on aerosol transport behavior in multiple cells with expandable connecting pipe for safety assessment of sodium-cooled fast reactors

Umeda, Ryota; Kondo, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 9 Pages, 2021/08

In this study, in order to obtain the fundamental information on aerosol transport behavior between cells, the Multiple cells with Expandable connecting pipe Test facility (MET) was manufactured and preliminary experiments were performed. In the preliminary experiments, simulated particles were used in a test system with two cells connected horizontally or vertically, and their transport behavior was measured. As a result, it was possible to confirm the behavior of the simulated particles transporting to the horizontal or vertical cells from the results such as images and sedimentation data.

Journal Articles

Outline of guideline for seismic response analysis method using 3D finite element model of reactor building

Choi, B.; Nishida, Akemi; Shiomi, Tadahiko; Kawata, Manabu; Li, Y.

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 7 Pages, 2021/08

In the seismic safety assessment of building structures in nuclear facilities, lumped mass models are conventionally used. However, they cannot possess the required high-accuracy evaluation of nuclear facilities, such as the local response at the equipment location in a reactor building. In this point of view, a seismic response analysis method using a three-dimensional finite element (3D FE) model is indispensable. Although, it has been reported that the analysis results obtained using 3D FE models vary greatly depending on the experience and knowledge of analysts, the quality of analysis results should be insured by developing a standard analysis method. In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, we have developed a guideline for seismic response analysis methods that adopt 3D FE models of reactor buildings. The guideline consists of a main body, commentary, and several supplements; it also includes procedures, recommendations, points of attention, and a technical basis for conducting seismic response analysis using 3D FE models of reactor buildings. In this paper, the outline of the guideline and analysis examples based on the guideline are presented.

Journal Articles

Development of cesium trap material for coated fuel particles in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

Sasaki, Koei; Miura, Shuichiro*; Fukumoto, Kenichi*; Goto, Minoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

Cs-Bi and Cs-Sb absorbed graphite samples (Cs-Bi/graphite and Cs-Sb/graphite) were synthesized and their high temperature chemical stabilities were tested up to 1500$$^{circ}$$C by TG and analyzed by TEM-EDS for the development of Cs trap material in high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel particles. It was observed that Cs was stabilized by Sb but not by Bi in the specimens after the TG test. A rapid weight loss from 800 to 1000$$^{circ}$$C may be caused by evaporation of Cs (boiling point: 671$$^{circ}$$C) was seen in the TG result of both specimens. Precipitated Cs-Sb substance in the graphite matrix were not resolved even after the 1500$$^{circ}$$C heating. The chemical composition of the Cs-Sb was specified as Cs$$_{3}$$Sb. The experimental results suggest that Sb have potential to be a Cs getter material in graphite matrix. Long term heating test should be performed to confirm adaptability of Sb for Cs trap material in HTGR fuel particles.

Journal Articles

Manufacturability estimation on burnable poison mixed fuel for improving criticality safety of HTGR fuel fabrication

Hasegawa, Toshinari; Fukaya, Yuji; Ueta, Shohei; Goto, Minoru

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 5 Pages, 2021/08

Burnable poison (BP) credit concept has been proposed as a criticality safety measure for commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel fabrication, so we estimated manufacturability of the BP-mixed UO$$_2$$ kernel for the practical use of the concept. As a BP, boron, gadolinium, erbium, and hafnium are investigated. Boron mixed fuel kernels are fabricated by mixing boric acid powder with U$$_3$$O$$_8$$ powder. In the case of the other BPs, BP nitrate powder is mixed with U$$_3$$O$$_8$$ powder. In order to confirm that BP remain in the kernels after the heat treatment processes, thermodynamic equilibrium analysis was performed. Above 450$$^circ$$C, boron would melt and vaporize during the heat treatment processes, so it was found that the boron mixed fuel kernel fabrication is difficult. On the other hand, it was found that gadolinium, erbium, and hafnium would change to solid oxides that do not melt and vaporize even at 2000$$^circ$$C, and there was no problem with manufacturability of the BP-mixed fuel kernel.

Journal Articles

Investigation of applicability of subchannel analysis code ASFRE on thermal hydraulics analysis in fuel assembly with inner duct structure in sodium cooled fast reactor

Kikuchi, Norihiro; Imai, Yasutomo*; Yoshikawa, Ryuji; Doda, Norihiro; Tanaka, Masaaki

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2021/08

In the design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor (Advanced-SFR) in JAEA, the use of a specific fuel assembly (FA) with an inner duct structure called FAIDUS has been investigated to enhance safety of Advanced-SFR. Due to the asymmetric layout of fuel rods by the inner duct, it is necessary to estimate the temperature distribution to confirm feasibility of FAIDUS. For the FAIDUS, confirmation of validity of the numerical results by a subchannel analysis code named ASFRE was not enough because the reference data on the thermal hydraulics in FAIDUS have not been obtained by the mock-up experiment, yet. Therefore, the code-to-code comparisons with numerical results of ASFRE and those of a CFD code named SPIRAL was conducted. The applicability of ASFRE was indicated through the confirmation of the consistency of mechanism of the specific temperature and velocity distributions appearing around the inner duct between the numerical results by ASFRE and those by SPIRAL.

Journal Articles

Core thermal-hydraulic analysis during dipped-type direct heat exchanger operation in natural circulation conditions

Hamase, Erina; Doda, Norihiro; Ono, Ayako; Tanaka, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasuhiro*; Imai, Yasutomo*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 10 Pages, 2021/08

To enhance the safety of sodium-cooled fast reactors, a dipped-type direct heat exchanger (D-DHX) has been investigated in a natural circulation decay heat removal system. During the D-DHX operation, the core-plenum interactions occurs, therefore, a thermal-hydraulic analysis model in the reactor vessel for computational fluid dynamics code (RV-CFD model) is necessarily required. In this study, the application of the subchannel analysis method for subassemblies to the RV-CFD model was attempted to reduce the calculation costs. Analysis results were compared to the experimental data obtained in the sodium experimental apparatus PLANDTL-1. As the result, the behavior of cold sodium into the simulated core was well grasped and the calculated sodium temperature in the core had good agreement with the experimental result. The applicability of the RV-CFD model was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Fragmentation and cooling behavior of a simulated molten core material discharged into a sodium pool with limited depth and volume

Matsuba, Kenichi; Kato, Shinya; Kamiyama, Kenji; Akayev, A. S.*; Baklanov, V. V.*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 4 Pages, 2021/08

In order to obtain experimental knowledge on fragmentation and cooling behavior of molten core material discharged into regions where the depth and volume of sodium are limited, a series of out-of-pile experiments using molten alumina as a simulant for molten core material was conducted. It was found that following mechanisms might be involved in the fragmentation and cooling behavior in a shallow sodium pool: (1) FCI which occurs at location of impingement of the molten jet on the bottom plate promotes fragmentation. (2) If there is a sufficient amount of sodium as a heat sink outside the region, heat exchange by sodium flow in and out due to vapor expansion and condensation suppresses the sodium temperature rise. (3) This temperature suppression contributes to effective cooling of molten core material. In the future study, in order to confirm the mechanisms which was clarified in this study, analytical evaluation of the experimental result will be carried out using a simulation tool.

Journal Articles

Numerical evaluation of sodium-water reaction based on engineering approach with particle method

Kosaka, Wataru; Uchibori, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Hideki*; Takata, Takashi; Jang, S.*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 6 Pages, 2021/08

For safety assessment or design of a steam generator (SG) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, it is important to evaluate the effects of a multiphase flow involving sodium-water reaction. If pressurized water/water-vapor leaks from a tube, it forms a corrosive, high-temperature, and high-velocity jet, and may cause failure of the adjacent tubes. The occurrence of tube failure on many tubes will lead to failure of the boundary between the primary and secondary cooling loops. The numerical analysis code, LEAP-III, has been developed to evaluate water leak rate considering the effects of the above-mentioned phenomena with short computational time. In some cases, however, the current LEAP-III provides excessive conservativeness due to its temperature distribution evaluation model. In order to reduce this excess, we have developed a new Lagrange particle method with several engineering approaches. We also performed test analyses which simulate time development of the vapor jet with chemical reaction in a SG. The results of the developed method were compared with ones of the multi-dimensional multiphase thermal hydraulic analysis code, SERAPHIM which considers compressibility and chemical reaction. Through the test analyses, the basic capability of the developed method was confirmed.

Journal Articles

Validation of evaluation method of feedback reactivity for plant dynamics analysis code during unprotected loss of heat sink event in sodium-cooled fast reactors

Yoshimura, Kazuo; Doda, Norihiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Hidemasa; Igawa, Kenichi*

Proceedings of 28th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering; Nuclear Energy the Future Zero Carbon Power (ICONE 28) (Internet), 8 Pages, 2021/08

The numerical results of the benchmark analyses for the unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) tests in the pool-type experimental SFR in the United States, EBR-II (BOP-302R and BOP-301) are discussed in order to validate the evaluation method of the reactivity feedback equipped in the in-house plant dynamics analysis code named Super-COPD. By comparing the numerical results and the experimental data, the profiles of the increase of the core inlet temperature and the decrease of the reactor power calculated by Super-COPD were comparable with those of the experimental data and the applicability of the evaluation method for the reactivity feedback was indicated during the ULOHS event.

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