Endo, Yukihiro*; Fukaya, Yuki; Mochizuki, Izumi*; Takayama, Akari*; Hyodo, Toshio*; Hasegawa, Shuji*
Carbon, 157, p.857 - 862, 2020/02
no abstracts in English
Takahashi, Hiroshi*; Minami, Masayo*; Aramaki, Takafumi*; Handa, Hiroko*; Kokubu, Yoko; Ito, Shigeru*; Kumamoto, Yuichiro*
Radiocarbon, 61(6), p.1879 - 1887, 2019/12
Water sample for interlaboratory comparison (here after "comparison water") must have inalterable C concentration during the comparison campaign and inter-batches homogeneity. In this study, the procedure for preparing of comparison water was discussed. We employed that comparison waters were artificially made by mixing chemical reagents, controlling C concentration and chemical composition. We could prepare six comparison waters, having 1, 14, 37, 56, 72 and 100 pMC, respectively. The stable carbon isotopic values and chemical compositions of some batches were measured to exanimate the inter- batches homogeneity. The C discrepancies among the batches were negligible for the inter-laboratory comparison. Finally, the results of trial comparison in Japan will be presented. Most of C results of CO extracted by six laboratories showed good agreements each other.
Matsunaka, Tetsuya*; Sasa, Kimikazu*; Takahashi, Tsutomu*; Matsumura, Masumi*; Satou, Yukihiko; Shen, H.*; Sueki, Keisuke*; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki*
Radiocarbon, 61(6), p.1633 - 1642, 2019/12
Kokubu, Yoko; Mitsuguchi, Takehiro*; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamada, Tsutomu*; Asami, Ryuji*; Iryu, Yasufumi*
Radiocarbon, 61(5), p.1593 - 1601, 2019/10
We performed C measurements of two fossil and one modern corals using a combined system of an elemental analyzer and an automated graphitization equipment AGE3 (EA-AGE3 system) and JAEA-AMS-TONO. The C concentrations (pMC values) of mid-Holocene Okinawa corals obtained by our EA-AGE3 system appear to be slightly higher than those obtained by the conventional graphitization method using phosphoric acid. The pMC increase in our EA-AGE3 system may result in significant underestimation of C age especially for older samples (e.g., 10,000 BP); however, the pMC increase is negligible in C measurements of modern or recent samples. We applied the EA-AGE3 method to the pre- and post-bomb annual-band samples from the modern Ogasawara coral for C measurements. On the basis of the pre-bomb coral C data, we estimated marine reservoir correction (R) around Ogasawara Islands and its stability between 1900 and 1950 AD.
Lambertin, D.*; Davy, C. A.*; Hauss, G.*; Planel, B.*; Marchand, B.*; Cantarel, V.
Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Innovation in Low-Carbon Cement and Concrete Technology (ILCCC 2019) (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2019/06
Composite materials made of geopolymer (GP) cement and organic liquids are useful to synthetize porosity-controlled media, for the management of radioactive organic liquid waste, or as phase change materials (PCM). Indeed, GP cements are able to integrate huge amounts of organic oils by direct emulsion in the fresh paste. The emulsion (GEOIL) remains stable during GP hardening. In this contribution, by using 3D X Ray micro Computed Tomography (micro CT) with a voxel size of 1 micron, we investigate the effect of formulation parameters (oil proportion, Si/Al molar ratio, surfactant) on the 3D oil droplet structure of GEOIL pastes. Samples are emulsified in the fresh state, and imaged in the hardened state. Porosity, oil droplet size distribution and mean distance between droplets are all determined quantitatively. It is observed that the presence of surfactant provides significantly smaller oil droplets. The increase in Si/Al ratio also decreases the oil droplet sizes, but to a lesser extent.
Yamada, Yoichi*; Kuklin, A. V.*; Sato, Sho*; Esaka, Fumitaka; Sumi, Naoya*; Zhang, C.*; Sasaki, Masahiro*; Kwon, E.*; Kasama, Yasuhiko*; Avramov, P. V.*; et al.
Carbon, 133, p.23 - 30, 2018/07
We report first STM observation of the Li ion endohedral C, which is of a new class of endohedral fullerenes, prepared by means of evaporation of high-purity Li@C[PF] salt in ultra-high vacuum. Prior to the STM measurements, the electronic structure of Li@C in the Li@C[PF] salt was also precisely determined. In the salt, it is shown that Li and PF have nearly single positive and negative charge, respectively, and the C cage is nearly neutral, suggesting that Li@C in the salt retains its original electronic state.
Okuno, Mitsuru*; Nagaoka, Shinji*; Kokubu, Yoko; Nakamura, Toshio*; Kobayashi, Tetsuo*
Radiocarbon, 59(2), p.483 - 488, 2017/00
We present here results of AMS C dating to refine the history of the middle and western parts of the Kuju Volcanic Group, located in middle Kyushu, Japan, which consists of more than 20 lava domes and cones. C dating has conducted by AMS (JAEA-AMS-TONO) under the Common-Use Facility Program of JAEA. The Handa PF deposits, which are products of the largest eruption of the group, were dated to 53.5 ka BP. The Shirani and Muro PF deposits, which are block-and-ash flows, were dated to 44 to 50 cal ka BP and 3539 cal ka BP, respectively. These ages can be correlated with the TL ages for the lava domes. Therefore, both TL and C methods can be useful tools in establishing the eruptive sequence of lava domes and pyroclastic flows. This study also demonstrates that these eruptive activities occurred after the Handa pfl, the biggest eruption during the last 150 kyrs without a significant time interval.
Nakata, Kotaro*; Hasegawa, Takuma*; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Kato, Toshihiro
Radiocarbon, 58(3), p.491 - 503, 2016/09
Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for C analysis of groundwater is usually extracted by a gas-strip or precipitation method. In this study, the certainty of the two methods for C dating were confirmed. DIC and C concentrations obtained by the gas-strip method were close to the theoretically predicted C value. Conversely, the C value obtained by the precipitation method always showed higher values than the predicted values. The difference in C value between gas-strip and precipitation methods was assumed to arise owing to contamination of modern carbon used in the precipitation method. The applicability of the precipitation method for groundwater should be considered carefully according to the DIC, C concentration of groundwater and purpose of the study being conducted.
Fukaya, Yuki; Entani, Shiro; Sakai, Seiji; Mochizuki, Izumi*; Wada, Ken*; Hyodo, Toshio*; Shamoto, Shinichi
Carbon, 103, p.1 - 4, 2016/07
no abstracts in English
Shimoyama, Iwao; Baba, Yuji
Carbon, 98, p.115 - 125, 2016/03
The amounts of adsorbed thiophene were compared among phosphorus- and nitrogen-doped graphite and graphite damaged by Ar irradiation to clarify the influence of heteroatom doping on the adsorptive desulfurization properties of -conjugated carbon materials. On the basis of thiophene coverages estimated from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Phosphorus-doped graphite had an adsorption ability that was 10-20 times larger than that of Nitrogen-doped graphite, indicating that the adsorptive desulfurization property of carbon largely depends on dopant atoms. Polarization dependent analysis using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to distinguish the configurations at dopant sites, indicating that the curved structures of phosphorus sites exhibited approximately 10 times greater adsorption abilities when compared with the planar structures. Theoretical simulation using molecular orbital calculations indicated different dopant effects between phosphorus and nitrogen along with different thiophene adsorption behaviors between planar and curved structures. Finally, experimental thiophene desorption results obtained at different temperatures revealed an advantage of phosphorus doping for reactivation.
Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kodama, Katsuaki; Asaoka, Hidehito
Carbon, 95, p.279 - 285, 2015/12
Amorphous SiC nanotubes are successfully synthesized by 340 keV Si ions irradiation of polycrystalline SiC nanotubes for the first time. A polycrystalline/amorphous heterostructure SiC nanotube, in which polycrystalline SiC and amorphous SiC coexist in the same nanotube, is also synthesized by ions irradiation with a mask in front of polycrystalline SiC nanotube. According to electron energy loss spectroscopy evaluation, the plasmon energies of SiC nanotube change rapidly at the interface between polycrystalline and amorphous regions. The volume swelling by amorphization evaluated from the differences of plasmon energies is approximately 5.0%. This result reveals that the further relaxed amorphous SiC nanotubes with higher density can be produced. The graphitic shells in carbon layer of C-SiC nanotube gradually bend to the radial direction of nanotube by the ion irradiation. Since the graphite (002) spots in the selected area electron diffraction pattern are clearly observed even after the ion irradiation, the carbon layer in C-SiC nanotube has certain crystallinity. Moreover, the new multi-walled carbon nanotube with the graphitic shells completely parallel to the radial direction of nanotube is also produced inside the amorphous SiC tubular layer in the case of C-SiC nanotube with large caliber.
Aihara, Haruka; Kitawaki, Shinichi; Nomura, Kazunori; Taguchi, Katsuya
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.1076 - 1083, 2015/09
Sasaki, Yuji; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Shirasu, Noriko; Morita, Keisuke; Suzuki, Tomoya
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.1653 - 1656, 2015/09
The concept for the new partitioning method of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by single-cycle extraction process has been investigated. This process is based on extraction of actinides (An) and fission products (FP), and mutual separation by reverse extraction. Solo extractant and several stripping reagents will be utilized in this process. The extractant employed in this process is required to extract soft (platinum metals), hard acid metals(An), and oxonium anions (Mo, Tc) simultaneously. NTAamide is one of the candidate extractants. After extraction of An and FP by NTAamide(C8), the mutual separation among these metals by reverse extraction will be followed using the suitable water-miscible reagents. The extraction of An and FP, and the masking effect by some water-miscible reagents has been studied.
Sugawara, Takanori; Nishihara, Kenji; Takei, Hayanori; Iwamoto, Hiroki; Oizumi, Akito; Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.648 - 656, 2015/09
The JAEA has investigated an accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides which will be partitioned from the high level waste. There are various inherent issues for the research and development on the ADS. This study introduces the current two activities to get a feasible and reliable ADS concept. For the feasibility, the beam window design is one of the most important issues. To mitigate the design condition of the beam window, namely to reduce the proton beam current, the subcritical core concepts with subcriticality adjustment mechanism were investigated. As the result, the proton beam current reduced from 20mA to 10mA by the installation of the control rods. For the reliability, the two accelerators concept was proposed and the beam trip frequency was estimated by the J-PARC LINAC data and Monte-Carlo method. Through these investigations, it was confirmed that the two accelerators concept was useful to realize reliable accelerator operation for the ADS.
Ban, Yasutoshi; Hotoku, Shinobu; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Tsutsui, Nao; Matsumura, Tatsuro
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.1147 - 1152, 2015/09
Extraction properties of -di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,2-dimethylpropanamide (DEHDMPA), -di(2-ethylhexyl)butanamide (DEHBA), and some of their degradation products for the metal elements Zr, Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd were studied using a single-stage batch method, and the results showed that the degradation products barely extracted these metal elements. Furthermore, separation performance of DEHDMPA and DEHBA for U and Pu in a continuous counter-current process was evaluated using a calculation code, and it was confirmed that the calculated values of U concentration in the U fraction and U and Pu concentrations in the U-Pu fraction were similar to those measured experimentally. These results supported the applicability of DEHDMPA and DEHBA as extractants for separation processes and the validity of the calculation code for estimating the separation performance of the process.
Tsutsui, Nao; Ban, Yasutoshi; Hakamatsuka, Yasuyuki; Urabe, Shunichi; Matsumura, Tatsuro
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.1153 - 1157, 2015/09
,-Dialkylamides are promising alternative extractants to tri--butyl phosphate in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, but the two-phase separation between their organic and aqueous phases has not been evaluated quantitatively. ,-Di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,2-dimethylpropanamide (DEHDMPA) in -dodecane were agitated with uranyl nitrate-containing nitric acid, and their turbidities and their uranium distribution ratios were measured with respect to the time for the quantitative evaluation. Increasing DEHDMPA, uranium, and nitric acid concentrations enhanced turbidities. Although turbidities decreased with respect to the time, uranium distribution ratios slightly changed, indicating the observed turbidities did not affect these uranium distribution ratios significantly. Therefore, DEHDMPA may act as suitable extractant for uranium in nitric acid from two-phase separation viewpoint, and turbidity may be an indicator for extractant performance evaluation.
Suzuki, Tomoya; Shimazaki, Shoma*; Morita, Keisuke; Sasaki, Yuji; Ozawa, Masaki*; Matsumura, Tatsuro
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.1539 - 1543, 2015/09
To understand the adsorption behaviors of ion-exchange resin bearing -trimethylglycine groups (AMP03), adsorption experiments using HNO solutions containing Ru(III), Rh(III), and Pd(II) have been performed. AMP03 strongly adsorbed Pd(II), and Ru(III) and Rh(III) were moderately adsorbed. To control the adsorption abilities of AMP03 for the Ru(III), Rh(III) and Pd(II), adsorption experiments using sample solutions with added thiourea (TU), triethylamine (TEA), and betaine anhydrous were performed. The adsorption abilities for Ru(III) and Rh(III) greatly increased with the addition of TEA, whereas the ability to adsorb Pd(II) was not significantly affected. The addition of TU or betaine anhydrous remarkably decreased the adsorption ability for Pd(II), and contrastingly slight changes in the abilities to adsorb Ru and Rh were also observed. These results show that AMP03 has a significant potential for separation of platinoid elements from HNO solution.
Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Sasa, Toshinobu; Maekawa, Fujio; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Kurata, Masaki; Morita, Yasuji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.657 - 663, 2015/09
To continue the utilization of the nuclear fission energy, the management of the high-level radioactive waste is one of the most important issues to be solved. Partitioning and Transmutation technology of HLW is expected to be effective to mitigate the burden of the HLW disposal by reducing the radiological toxicity and heat generation. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting the research and development on accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) as a dedicated system for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides. This paper overviews the recent progress and future R&D plan of the study on the ADS and related fuel cycle technology in JAEA.
Takeda, Toshikazu*; Usami, Shin; Fujimura, Koji*; Takakuwa, Masayuki*
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.560 - 566, 2015/09
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled "technology development for the environmental burden reduction" in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. The method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor.
Nishihara, Kenji; Iwamura, Takamichi*; Akie, Hiroshi; Nakano, Yoshihiro; Van Rooijen, W.*; Shimazu, Yoichiro*
Proceedings of 21st International Conference & Exhibition; Nuclear Fuel Cycle for a Low-Carbon Future (GLOBAL 2015) (USB Flash Drive), p.388 - 395, 2015/09
The present study focuses on transmutation of Pu and minor actinide in Japanese case without utilizing Pu as resource. Pu can be transmuted by two groups of technology: conventional ones without reprocessing of spent fuel from transmuter and advanced ones with reprocessing. Necessary number of transmuters, inventory reduction of actinide and impact on repository are revealed by nuclear material balance analysis. As a whole advanced technology performs better in transmutation efficiency, although required number of transmuters is larger.