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Journal Articles

Evaluation of thermal neutron scattering law of nuclear-grade isotropic graphite

Nakayama, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Osamu; Kimura, Atsushi

EPJ Web of Conferences, 294, p.07001_1 - 07001_6, 2024/04

Graphite is a candidate of moderator in innovative nuclear reactors such as molten salt reactors. Scattering of thermal neutrons by the moderator material has a significant impact on the reactor core design. To contribute to the development of innovative nuclear reactors, an evaluation method of thermal neutron scattering law for reactor grade graphite was studied. The inelastic scattering component due to lattice vibration was evaluated based on the phonon density of states computed with first-principles lattice dynamics simulations. The simulations were performed for ideal crystalline graphite. The coherent elastic scattering component due to crystal structure was evaluated based on neutron transmission and scattering experiments recently performed in the J-PARC/MLF facility. In comparison with the neutron transmission experiments, it was found that the quantification of small-angle neutron scattering due to structures larger than crystal, such as pores in graphite, is important. Based on the above methods, thermal neutron scattering law data for reactor-grade graphite at room temperature were evaluated.

Journal Articles

Total and double differential scattering cross-section measurements of isotropic graphite

Kimura, Atsushi; Endo, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Shoji

EPJ Web of Conferences, 294, p.01002_1 - 01002_7, 2024/04

Journal Articles

General-purpose nuclear data library JENDL-5 and to the next

Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kunieda, Satoshi; Minato, Futoshi; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Endo, Shunsuke; Nagaya, Yasunobu; Tada, Kenichi; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.14001_1 - 14001_7, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Simultaneous evaluation of uranium and plutonium fast neutron fission cross sections up to 200 MeV for JENDL-5 and its updates

Otsuka, Naohiko*; Iwamoto, Osamu

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.08011_1 - 08011_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:98.3(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Journal Articles

Statistical uncertainty quantification of probability tables for unresolved resonance cross sections

Tada, Kenichi; Endo, Tomohiro*

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.14013_1 - 14013_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The self-shielding effect in the unresolved resonance region has a large impact on the fast- and intermediate-spectrum reactors. The probability table method is widely used for continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation codes to treat the effect. In this method, a table provides the probability distribution of the cross-section for a nuclide in the given energy grid points. The table is generated by averaging with a lot of "ladders" which represent pseudo resonance structures. Though many nuclear data processing codes require the number of ladders as an input parameter to generate the probability table, an optimal number of ladders has not been investigated. Our previous study revealed that the suitable number of ladders depends on the nuclide and its resonance parameters. This result indicates that it is very difficult for users to find the optimal number of ladders. We developed the calculation method of the statistical uncertainty for the probability table generation.

Journal Articles

Outcomes of WPEC SG47 on "Use of Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database for Nuclear Data Validation"

Kodeli, I. A.*; Fleming, M.*; Cabellos, O.*; Leal, L.*; Celik, Y.*; Ding, Y.*; Jansky, B.*; Neudecker, D.*; Novak, E.*; Simakov, S.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.15002_1 - 15002_8, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:89.57(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation Subgroup 47 (WPEC SG47) entitled "Use of Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database for Nuclear Data Validation" was started in June 2019 with the objectives to promote more systematic and wider use of shielding benchmark experiments in nuclear data and transport code validation and development, to provide feedback on the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive and Database (SINBAD). Complementing the database with new features was discussed, for example providing the nuclear data sensitivity profiles more systematically would facilitate and better guide the use of data, and the information on the geometry, (radiation source) and materials is expected to allow an easier and less error prone computational model preparation for different transport codes. Examples of the use and some views on future development of the SINBAD benchmark database will be presented in the paper.

Journal Articles

Deuteron and alpha sub-libraries of JENDL-5

Nakayama, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Osamu; Sublet, J.-Ch.*

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.14011_1 - 14011_4, 2023/05

JENDL-5, the latest version of the Japanese evaluated nuclear data library, includes several sub-libraries to contribute to various applications. In this paper, we outline the evaluation and validation of the deuteron reaction sub-library developed mainly for the design of accelerator-based neutron sources and the alpha-particle reaction sub-library developed mainly for use in the back-end field. As for the deuteron sub-library, the data for $$^{6,7}$$Li, $$^{9}$$Be, and $$^{12,13}$$C from JENDL/DEU-2020 were partially modified and adopted. The data up to 200 MeV for $$^{27}$$Al, $$^{63,65}$$Cu, and $$^{93}$$Nb, which are important as accelerator structural materials, were newly evaluated based on the calculations with the DEURACS code. As for the alpha-particle sub-library, the data up to 15 MeV for 18 light nuclides from Li to Si isotopes were evaluated based on the calculations with the CCONE code, and then only the neutron production cross sections were replaced with the data of JENDL/AN-2005. Validation on neutron yield by Monte Carlo transport simulations was performed for both sub-libraries. As a result, it was confirmed that the simulations based on the sub-libraries showed good agreement with experimental data.

Journal Articles

Analyses of JAEA/FNS iron in-situ experiment with latest nuclear data libraries

Konno, Chikara; Kwon, Saerom*

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.15010_1 - 15010_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For the JENDL development we analyzed the iron in-situ experiment at the DT neutron source facility FNS in JAEA with the two-dimensional Sn code DORT and the latest nuclear data libraries: JENDL-4.0, ENDF/B-VIII.0 and JEFF-3.3. As a result, we found that the result with ENDF/B-VIII.0 reproduced the measured data worse than those with JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.3 as follows: overestimation of neutron flux below a few keV, underestimation of the reaction rate of $$^{115}$$In(n,n')$$^{rm 115m}$$In sensitive to neutrons above 0.3 MeV and underestimation of neutron flux above 10 MeV. Our detailed study specified that the inelastic scattering cross section of Fe-56 in ENDF/B-VIII.0 mainly caused the overestimation of neutron flux below a few keV and underestimation of the reaction rate of $$^{115}$$In(n,n')$$^{rm 115m}$$In and that the angular distribution data of the elastic scattering and the cross section of the (n,2n) reaction of $$^{56}$$Fe in ENDF/B-VIII.0 were the reason of the underestimation of neutron flux above 10 MeV.

Journal Articles

Measurement of double-differential neutron yields for iron, lead, and bismuth induced by 107-MeV protons for research and development of accelerator-driven systems

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita; Meigo, Shinichiro; Satoh, Daiki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Sugihara, Kenta*; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Ishi, Yoshihiro*; Uesugi, Tomonori*; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.01023_1 - 01023_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For accurate prediction of neutronic characteristics for accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and a source term of spallation neutrons for reactor physics experiments for the ADS at Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), we have launched an experimental program to measure nuclear data on ADS using the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University. As part of this program, the proton-induced double-differential thick-target neutron-yields (TTNYs) and cross-sections (DDXs) for iron, lead, and bismuth have been measured with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. For each measurement, the target was installed in a vacuum chamber on the beamline and bombarded with 107-MeV proton beams accelerated from the FFAG accelerator. Neutrons produced from the targets were detected with stacked, small-sized neutron detectors for several angles from the incident beam direction. The TOF spectra were obtained from the detected signals and the FFAG kicker magnet's logic signals, where gamma-ray events were eliminated by pulse shape discrimination. Finally, the TTNYs and DDXs were obtained from the TOF spectra by relativistic kinematics. The measured TTNYs and DDXs were compared with calculations by the Monte Carlo transport code PHITS with its default physics model of INCL version 4.6 combined with GEM and those with the JENDL-4.0/HE nuclear data library.

Journal Articles

Present status of an R-matrix analysis code AMUR for cross-section evaluation in resolved resonance region

Kunieda, Satoshi

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.03014_1 - 03014_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

For thorough understanding resonant theories and cause of discrepancies among different cross-section measurements, development of an R-matrix analysis code AMUR is being progressed. The code is organized by "theoretical" and "experimental" classes based on the object-oriented framework. In the theoretical class, with sharing the same compound nucleus, the independent distant poles can optionally be assumed for the simultaneous analysis of different projectile + nucleus pairs to see the relation between the channel radius and the theoretical background. In the experimental class, to simulate experimental conditions, calculated cross-sections can be corrected by the Doppler broadening, resolution functions, re-normalization, adding contaminant elements. I demonstrate some example analyses of measured cross-sections with AMUR both for the light and heavier nuclei to show effects of those new options. Also, preliminary results will be shown from analyses for experimental data of J-PARC/ANNRI.

Journal Articles

Evaluation of light-element reactions in the resolved resonance region

Dimitriou, P.*; Chen, Z.*; deBoer, R. J.*; Hale, G.*; Kunieda, Satoshi; Leeb, H.*; Paris, M.*; Pigni, M. T.*; Srdinko, Th.*; Tamagno, P.*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.03002_1 - 03002_5, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Charged-particle-induced reactions at low energies in the resolved resonance region are important for applications such as ion beam analysis of materials and management of the nuclear fuels. However, the evaluated nuclear data libraries maintained by national or international coordinated efforts (ENDF, JEFF, JENDL, CENDL) are to date, incomplete as far as charged-particle- induced reactions in the resolved resonance region are concerned. The IAEA Nuclear Data Section is coordinating an international effort to (i) verify that the existing R-matrix codes are consistent, (ii) evaluate charged-particle cross sections in the resolved resonance region, (iii) produce evaluated nuclear data files for further processing and finally (iv) disseminate the evaluated data through general purpose evaluated nuclear data libraries. We present the results of the effort made thus far on (1) verification of the available R-matrix codes, minimization methods and calculation of covariances, (2) the evaluation of the compound system $$^7$$Be*, and (3) improving $$(alpha,n)$$ reaction data for the applications.

Journal Articles

Neutron production in the interaction of 200-MeV deuterons with Li, Be, C, Al, Cu, Nb, In, Ta, and Au

Watanabe, Yukinobu*; Sadamatsu, Hiroki*; Araki, Shohei; Nakano, Keita; Kawase, Shoichiro*; Kin, Tadahiro*; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Satoh, Daiki; Hagiwara, Masayuki*; Yashima, Hiroshi*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.01041_1 - 01041_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:0 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Intensive fast neutron sources using deuteron accelerators have been proposed for the study of medical RI production, radiation damage for fusion reactor materials, nuclear transmutation of radioactive waste, and so on. Neutron production data from various materials bombarded by deuterons are required for the design of such neutron sources. In the present work, we have conducted a systematic measurement of double-differential neutron production cross sections (DDXs) for a wide atomic number range of targets (Li, Be, C, Al, Cu, Nb, In, Ta, and Au) at an incident energy of 200 MeV in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. A deuteron beam accelerated to 200 MeV was transported to the neutron experimental hall and focused on a thin target foil. Emitted neutrons from the target were detected by two different-size EJ301 liquid organic scintillators located at two distances of 7 m and 20 m, respectively. The neutron DDXs were measured at six angles from 0$$^{circ}$$ to 25$$^{circ}$$). The neutron energy was determined by a conventional time-of-flight (TOF) method. The measured DDXs were compared with theoretical model calculations by the DEUteron-induced Reaction Analysis Code System (DEURACS) and PHITS. The result indicated that the DEURACS calculation provides better agreement with the measured DDXs than the PHITS calculation.

Journal Articles

Nuclide production cross sections in proton-induced reactions on Bi at GeV energies

Iwamoto, Hiroki; Nakano, Keita*; Meigo, Shinichiro; Takeshita, Hayato; Maekawa, Fujio

EPJ Web of Conferences, 284, p.01033_1 - 01033_4, 2023/05

 Times Cited Count:1 Percentile:0.21(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Evaluation of covariance data in JENDL

Iwamoto, Osamu

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00009_1 - 00009_4, 2023/03

Journal Articles

Updates to the AMUR code for R-matrix analyses on heavy nuclei

Kunieda, Satoshi; Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00017_1 - 00017_6, 2023/03

The AMUR code, which is based on the multi-channel/multi-level R-matrix theory, is under development for the cross-section evaluation with the covariance data in the resolved resonance energy region. Although, the code was initially designed for the analysis of the light-nuclei, the authors extended its capability toward the analysis of heavier nuclei by introducing the Reich-Moore approximation and the free-gas approximation for the Doppler broadening. In this work, we challenge a resonance analysis of neutron cross-section data measured in J-PARC/ANNRI with AMUR, in which the resolution functions and the double-bunching effects were taken into account inside the code. In this presentation, let us show results of resonance analysis on some of the J-PARC/ANNRI measurements together with covariance of the resonance parameters and cross-sections, for the first time. We also plan to discuss differences of correlation matrices among approximations of the R-matrix theory to understand physics underlying on the resonant reaction.

Journal Articles

Covariance of resonance parameters ascribed to systematic uncertainties in experiments

Endo, Shunsuke; Kimura, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shoji; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Rovira Leveroni, G.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00012_1 - 00012_5, 2023/03

Journal Articles

Fast-neutron capture cross section data measurement of minor actinides for development of nuclear transmutation systems

Katabuchi, Tatsuya*; Iwamoto, Osamu; Hori, Junichi*; Kimura, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Shoji; Rovira Leveroni, G.; Endo, Shunsuke; Shibahara, Yuji*; Terada, Kazushi*; et al.

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00014_1 - 00014_4, 2023/03

Journal Articles

Development of adjusted nuclear data library for fast reactor application

Yokoyama, Kenji

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00004_1 - 00004_10, 2023/03

In Japan, development of adjusted nuclear data library for fast rector application based on the cross-section adjustment method has been conducted since the early 1990s. The adjusted library is called the unified cross-section set. The first version was developed in 1991 and is called ADJ91. Recently, the integral experimental data were further expanded to improve the design prediction accuracy of the core loaded with minor actinoids and/or degraded Pu. Using the additional integral experimental data, development of ADJ2017 was started in 2017. In 2022, the latest unified cross-section set AJD2017R was developed based on JENDL-4.0 by using 619 integral experimental data. An overview of the latest version with a review of previous ones will be shown. On the other hand, JENDL-5 was released in 2021. In the development of JENDL-5, some of the integral experimental data used in ADJ2017R were explicitly utilized in the nuclear data evaluation. However, this is not reflected in the covariance data. This situation needs to be considered when developing a unified cross-section set based on JENDL-5. Preliminary adjustment calculation based on JENDL-5 is performed using C/E (calculation/experiment) values simply evaluated by a sensitivity analysis. The preliminary results will be also discussed.

Journal Articles

Applicability evaluation of Akaike's Bayesian information criterion to covariance modeling in the cross-section adjustment method

Maruyama, Shuhei; Endo, Tomohiro*; Yamamoto, Akio*

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00008_1 - 00008_9, 2023/03

The applicability of Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to covariance modeling in the cross-section adjustment method was investigated. One of the most important things for a reliable cross-section adjustment method is giving a suitable covariance matrix. However, since we cannot know the true covariance matrix in advance, we usually estimate and assume it. To judge the goodness of the covariance matrix modeling, a metric is desirable. As a candidate for this metric, we focus on ABIC which is one of the information criteria in Bayesian inference, because the cross-section adjustment method is often discussed within the framework of Bayesian inference. In the conventional cross-section adjustment method, incorporation of the analysis model uncertainty in a covariance matrix still requires ad hoc treatment. In JAEA, the integral experimental database for fast reactors has been developed and the adjusted cross-section set ADJ2017 has been created based on this database. Many of the core characteristics in the database have been analyzed by a deterministic method. Therefore, the predicted core characteristics have non-negligible uncertainties with correlations due to some numerical approximations. However, the evaluations of the uncertainties and their correlations are still challenging issues. In addition, there would be unknown uncertainties that experimenters and analysts of reactor physics experiments could not recognize. To judge the goodness of the covariance matrix related to these uncertainties, the applicability of ABIC to the cross-section adjustment method was investigated.

Journal Articles

Development of a robust nuclear data adjustment method to outliers

Fukui, Yuhei*; Endo, Tomohiro*; Yamamoto, Akio*; Maruyama, Shuhei

EPJ Web of Conferences, 281, p.00006_1 - 00006_9, 2023/03

We developed a new nuclear data adjustment method for experimental data containing outliers. This method mitigates the effect of outliers by applying M-estimation, a type of robust estimation, to the conventional nuclear data adjustment method using sensitivity coefficients. Based on the M-estimation, we derived a weighted nuclear data adjustment formula and developed a weight calculation method. The weighted nuclear data adjustment formula was derived by weighting the function to take the extremum of the conventional nuclear data adjustment. The weighting of each nuclear characteristic is calculated from the difference between the measured and calculated values of the nuclear characteristic. This weight calculation method can evaluate the validity of each nuclear characteristic by considering correlations between nuclear characteristics using singular value decomposition. The proposed method and the conventional method were compared and verified by twin experiments. In the twin experiments, the nuclear data were adjusted using experimental data that intentionally included outliers. As a result of twin experiments, it was confirmed that the nuclear data were adjusted robustly and appropriately even with the experimental data containing outliers.

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