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Journal Articles

Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in Japan, 3; Challenges on technologies for nuclear non-proliferation/nuclear security and progressing credibility

Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(8), p.56 - 57, 2020/07

Strict application of IAEA safeguards and nuclear security should be implemented for Japan's full-scale nuclear fuel cycle. Based on the knowledge and experience of research and development in the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear material management, the effective and efficient promotion of new technologies should be promoted with scientific and demonstrative measures to strengthen the world's nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Development or sophistication of new technologies, human resource development, and reinforcement of the international framework are future challenge in the international community.

Journal Articles

Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in Japan, 2; Significance of sustainable progress in plutonium-thermal policy and R&D of fast reactor

Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(7), p.58 - 59, 2020/06

Japan have promoted the peaceful use of plutonium with the nuclear non-proliferation commitment based on IAEA safeguards agreement and Japan-US nuclear cooperation agreement, as well as ensuring transparency of the policy that Japan has no plutonium without purpose of use. In promoting the nuclear fuel cycle, adherence to those measures and maintaining plutonium utilization by means of plutonium-thermal, and a fast reactor cycle to achieve large-scale and long-term energy supply and environmental improvement, therefore, further research and development is essential.

Journal Articles

Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security in Japan, 1; Peaceful nuclear use and nuclear non-proliferation

Mochiji, Toshiro; Senzaki, Masao*; Tamai, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Tomonori*; Ishiguro, Yuzuru*; Kitade, Yuta; Sato, Heigo*; Suehiro, Rie*; Taniguchi, Tomihiro*; Fukasawa, Tetsuo*; et al.

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(6), p.58 - 59, 2020/05

In order to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, it is important not only to ensure safety but also to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Japan has contributed to the international community through strengthening nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security capabilities with technical and human resource development. However, in the wake of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, Japan's nuclear power plants have not restarted or plutonium use has not progressed smoothly. Concerns have been shown. Towards appropriate steps of Japan's nuclear fuel cycle policy, such concerns are examined and future efforts are summarized.

Journal Articles

Safety and risk assessment of Nuclear Fuel Facilities; Graded approach based on the risk level

Yoshida, Kazuo

Enerugi Rebyu, 40(4), p.19 - 20, 2020/03

The probabilistic Risk Assessment has been recognized to have important role for the safety enhancement of nuclear facilities in Japan. Efforts of developing methodologies and basic data for risk assessment are undertaken actively for NFFs (Nuclear Fuel Facilities) in Japan. The standard for risk assessment for NFFs is consist of simplified assessment detailed one based on the concept of Graded Approach depending on the risk levels of their facilities. Risk-informed application is useful for activities of enhancing safety measures by the licensee rather than in regulatory decision making because of lower risk level of NFFs. The risk assessment has been also required in the periodic safety self-review by the licensees. The correct understanding of significance of risk assessment for safety management of facilities is essential for the risk-informed application. It is key event to apply the risk assessment in the safety self-review and new regulatory inspection system.

Journal Articles

Challenge next-generation nuclear system; Development of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

Otsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

Enerugi Rebyu, 39(1), p.44 - 46, 2019/01

For performance improvement of next-generation nuclear system such as fast reactor, it has been expected to develop advanced material resistant to severe in-reactor environment (i.e. high-dose neutron irradiation at high-temperature). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel for long life fuel cladding tube of fast reactor. Application of ODS ferritic steel to fast reactor fuel can extend the fuel life time twice or more as long as the fuel with conventional cladding tube (i.e. modified SUS316), thus reducing fuel exchange frequency and fuel cost. It can be adaptable to high-temperature plant operation, which is favorable for improvement of power generation efficiency. This paper interprets the development of ODS ferritic steel cladding tube for sodium-cooled fast reactor, which has been led by JAEA for dozens of years.

Journal Articles

Nuclear agreement to promote cooperation between Japan and the U.S.

Suda, Kazunori

Enerugi Rebyu, 38(10), p.38 - 41, 2018/09

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research facilities of Japan Atomic Energy Agency in Fukushima Prefecture; Overview

Yoshikawa, Hideki

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(10), p.13 - 14, 2017/10

We introduce the R&D activities of Japan Atomic Energy Agency immediately after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and some facilities established in Fukushima Prefecture.

Journal Articles

Activities for environmental restoration in Fukushima Environmental Safety Center of JAEA; Miharu-town and Minamisoma-city

Shobu, Nobuhiro

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(10), p.21 - 22, 2017/10

After the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been carrying out research and development activities towards the environmental restoration of Fukushima. This paper describes the following representative activities in Fukushima Environmental Safety Center of JAEA, such as the development of environmental monitoring and mapping technologies, the long-term assessment of transport of radio-cesium in the environment of Fukushima, and the technology development for advancing decontamination and volume reduction technologies.

Journal Articles

Naraha town; Action of the Naraha Remote Technology Development Center

Arakawa, Ryoki

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(10), p.17 - 18, 2017/10

The Naraha Remote Technology Development Center was established in Naraha-town, Fukushima in 2013. This report introduces facilities, research and development, use of facilities.

Journal Articles

Approach of Okuma Analysis and Research Center

Miyachi, Shigehiko

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(10), p.19 - 20, 2017/09

The JAEA is currently constructing the Okuma Analysis and Research Center near the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station site. These are consists of three buildings; Administrative building and hot laboratories; Laboratory-1 and Laboratory-2. Radioactive analysis in hot laboratories will provide the data needed to establish the strategy and methodology for treatment and disposal of radioactive rubbles, and for the removal methods of fuel debris in the reactors.

Journal Articles

J-PARC transmutation experimental facility program and situation of the world

Maekawa, Fujio; Sasa, Toshinobu

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(9), p.15 - 18, 2017/08

Accelerator driven nuclear transmutation systems (ADS) are under development for reducing nuclear waste. The J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility program and situation of the world for the ADS development are introduced.

Journal Articles

Research and development in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

Tsujimoto, Kazufumi

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(9), p.11 - 14, 2017/08

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

How much can radioactive waste be reduced?

Nishihara, Kenji

Enerugi Rebyu, 37(9), p.7 - 10, 2017/08

The present article describes reduction technology of radioactive waste by accelerator that aims to reduce burden of underground disposal. If the technology will be realized, amount of waste will be decreased, period of confinement in underground will be shorten to several hundreds of years, and, the concept of waste disposal can be renewed.

Journal Articles

Experiments EAGLE project for fast reactor safety; A Joint-research program with the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC/RK)

Kamiyama, Kenji; Sato, Ikken; Kubo, Shigenobu

Enerugi Rebyu, 36(11), p.46 - 49, 2016/11

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Expectation to science and technology in Japan; Toward solution of challenges in nuclear utilization and its innovative application

Oigawa, Hiroyuki

Enerugi Rebyu, 36(10), p.10 - 11, 2016/10

Japan Atomic Energy Agency is conducting wide range of research and development on nuclear power such as those for response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, improvement of nuclear power safety, establishment of fast reactor technology and nuclear fuel cycle, countermeasure to back-end of nuclear power, basic and fundamental research, and human resource development, in order to solve various problems concerning nuclear power and to explore possibility of more sophisticated utilization of nuclear technology. Hereafter, we would like to contribute to the creation of innovation originated in Japan by enhancing collaboration with other national research and development organizations, universities and private companies and by maximizing outcomes of research and development in Japan.

Journal Articles

Radionuclide transport behavior

Hidaka, Akihide

Enerugi Rebyu, 35(9), p.20 - 24, 2015/09

Operation of nuclear power plant causes accumulation of radionuclides in fuel rods as a result of nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium. During severe accidents, large amount of radionuclides are released from fuel and transport in the reactor coolant system and/or the containment. When the containment fails or its confinement function is lost, radionuclides could be released into the environment. Meanwhile, radionuclides can be removed by condensation onto wall, natural deposition such as gravitational settling, the engineered safety features (ESF) such as containment spray and so on. After various processes described above, the species, amounts and timing of radionuclide released into the environment is called source terms. The behavior of radionuclide can be described mechanistically by condensation or evaporation of gaseous radionuclide, deposition, growth and removal of aerosol by ESF. Present paper summarizes the radionuclide behavior during severe accidents.

Journal Articles

The Activity of decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants; Establishing a research center

Kawamura, Hiroshi

Enerugi Rebyu, 35(3), p.38 - 42, 2015/03

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

To strengthen nuclear security; Challenge of nuclear security summit and future issues

Senzaki, Masao

Enerugi Rebyu, 34(7), p.46 - 49, 2014/07

The 2014 Nuclear Security Summit was held in The Hague on March 24-25, 2014, and included participation from 53 countries and four international organizations. The Summit resulted in the Hague Communiqueacute; that was adopted by all 53 countries present at the Summit. In addition, a number of joint statements were made by other groupings of countries participating in the Summit. This paper describes the results of the Hague summit and future issues as well as the importance of strengthening nuclear security.

Journal Articles

Safety reactor to reduce high level radioactive waste

Fukaya, Yuji

Enerugi Rebyu, 34(6), p.15 - 19, 2014/06

The concept of naturally safe reactor to reduce high level radioactive waste is introduced. In the concept, fuel matrix except for $$^{238}$$U, which generates high order MA, is employed. As the candidates, there are Th matrix fuel HTGR and YSZ-Er matrix fuel HTGR. For the Th matrix fuel HTGR, reprocessing is necessary because the toxicty of $$^{233}$$U and $$^{234}$$U is significant. The effect of reduction of toxicity is as same as that of the partitioning and transmutation. For the YSZ-Er matrix fuel HTGR, the effect is deplated, but the reprocessing is not necessary. These HTGRs will be realized because of the simple process with high probability. Moreover, it is expected that secondary waste will be also reduced.

Journal Articles

Basic philosophy on super safe reactor

Okamoto, Koji*; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

Enerugi Rebyu, 34(6), p.7 - 10, 2014/06

This document clearly describes the safety of HTGR in comparison with LWR and its development status. In HTGR, the safety functions to stop and cool the reactor, and contain fission products in the reactor are ensured by natural phenomena, not depending on additional safety systems. Therefore, the HTGR is inherently safe and can be easily operated and controlled. In Japan, Japan Atomic Energy Agency and nuclear industries have long been developing the HTGR and constructed the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Oarai Research Center to establish world leading HTGR technology. The HTGR should be developed as a safe nuclear reactor in Japan and can be exported worldwide as a Japanese strategic technology.

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