Kasahara, Shigeki; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki; Fukuya, Koji*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*
Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors (Internet), p.1345 - 1355, 2019/08
This paper describes empirical equation development of crack growth rates (CGR) in consideration of IASCC of neutron irradiated stainless steel to contribute to structural integrity assessment of BWR reactor internals. Empirical equations of CGR (da/dt) were developed based on a formula of da/dt = MK, assuming that "M" and "n" tend to be saturated with increasing neutron fluence. To obtain the empirical equations for normal water chemistry (NWC) and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) of BWR, a data fitting with least square method was applied to the datasets consisting of F, K and CGR from post irradiation examinations of neutron irradiated stainless steel under simulated NWC and HWC conditions from open literature. As a result, calculated results by the equation for NWC showed good agreement with measured CGR data, meanwhile those for HWC did not. The above difference was seemed to be attributed that CGR data obtained under HWC conditions were scattered extensively.
Fukuya, Koji*; Fujii, Katsuhiko*; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Hata, Kuniki
Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors (Internet), p.523 - 531, 2019/08
For structural integrity assessment on reactor internals of light water reactors, empirical equations of tensile properties as a function of neutron dose, and trend curves of stress-strain relations of neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels was proposed by fitting to recently developed database. The data in the database were obtained from reports of national projects in Japan and open literature, which was summarized in the form of data sheets. The empirical equations for tensile properties were formulated by using a saturation-type formulae. The equations were for CW 316 and SA 304/316 stainless steels in the temperature range of 280-350C and the dose range up to 80 dpa. Stress-strain relation curves were reproduced based on the Swift model. Obtained calculated results by the empirical equations and stress-strain relations were reasonably well fitted to experimental data. The effects of composition and cold-working, etc. on tensile properties were discussed.
Pratama, M. A.; Takahara, Shogo; Munakata, Masahiro; Yoneda, Minoru*
Environment International, 115, p.196 - 204, 2018/06
Nakayama, Hiromasa; Takemi, Tetsuya*
International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 64(1/3), p.125 - 144, 2018/00
We have attempted to develop a practical and quick local-scale atmospheric dispersion calculation method using an overlapping technique for plume concentration distributions in an emergency response to nuclear accidents. In order to evaluate the overlapping approach, we performed LESs of turbulent flows and plume dispersion under varying mean wind directions using the meteorological data as the model input. When compared with the simulated results under the real meteorological condition, it is shown that the concentration distribution patterns are reasonably simulated by the overlapping method. It can be concluded that the atmospheric dispersion calculation method using the overlapping technique has potential performance for emergency responses to nuclear accidents.
Aoki, So; Kondo, Keietsu; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.663 - 672, 2018/00
The objective of this study was to clarify effect of long-term thermal aging on SCC initiation susceptibility in low carbon austenitic stainless steels. Specimens used were Type 304L and 316L steels. Both steels were cold rolled to 20% thickness reduction (CW) and then followed by long-term thermal aging at 288C for 14,000 h (LTA). Crevice Bent Beam (CBB) test was carried out to estimate the SCC initiation susceptibility under BWR simulated water condition at high temperature. The present results of the CBB tests showed that 304L CW + LTA exhibited no SCC susceptibility. In contrast, the SCC initiation susceptibility of 316L increased by the combination of cold rolling and long-term thermal aging. To understand these results, evaluation on the changes in microchemistry, microstructure and mechanical properties induced by the CW and LTA treatment has been developed, and their correlation with the SCC initiation susceptibility is discussed.
Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.509 - 521, 2018/00
In-situ electrochemical measurement within crevice of stainless steel in 288C water has been conducted to analyze crevice water chemistry. Small sensors ( 250m) measured local solution electrical conductivity, , polarization resistance, and electrochemical corrosion potential. Real-time response of the as functions of bulk water conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration has been quantitatively analyzed. The effect of geometrical factors on the crevice environment was also studied. The differ more than an order of magnitude depending on the oxygen potential inside the crevice. The increased by small amount of bulk DO (e.g. 30 ppb). Maximum was observed with DO of 32000 ppb and became more than 100 times higher than that of bulk water. Crevice geometry affected significantly on the water chemistry inside.
Chimi, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Shigeki; Seto, Hitoshi*; Kitsunai, Yuji*; Koshiishi, Masato*; Nishiyama, Yutaka
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.1039 - 1054, 2018/00
In order to understand irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth behavior, crack growth rate (CGR) tests have been performed in simulated Boiling Water Reactor water conditions at 288C on neutron-irradiated 316L stainless steels (SSs) at 12-14 dpa. After the tests, the microstructures near the crack tip of the specimens are examined with scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM). In comparison with a previous study at 2 dpa, this result shows a less benefit of low electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) conditions on CGR. A crack tip immersed over 1000 hours was filled with oxides, while almost no oxide film was observed near the crack front in the low-ECP conditions. In addition, a high density of deformation twins and dislocations were found near the fracture surface of the crack front. It is considered that both localized deformation and oxidation are possible dominant factors for the SCC growth in highly irradiated SSs.
Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi*; Hamamoto, Shoichiro*; Nishimura, Taku*; Sanada, Yukihisa
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(8), p.926_1 - 926_14, 2017/08
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of -ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct rays to scattered rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples.
Yamaguchi, Masatake; Ebihara, Kenichi; Itakura, Mitsuhiro
Proceedings of 2016 International Hydrogen Conference (IHC 2016); Materials Performance in Hydrogen Environments, p.563 - 571, 2017/00
no abstracts in English
Ebihara, Kenichi; Saito, Kei*; Takai, Kenichi*
Proceedings of 2016 International Hydrogen Conference (IHC 2016); Materials Performance in Hydrogen Environments, p.470 - 477, 2017/00
For understanding hydrogen (H) embrittlement of steels, it is necessary to infer the state that defects trap H in the steels. Thermal desorption spectra of H obtained by the thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) are used for inferring such a state. Because the thermal desorption spectra include the influence of experimental conditions and hydrogen diffusion as well as information of the defects trapping H, it is necessary to interpret the spectra using the numerical simulation. In the presentation, we determined the detrapping and the trapping rate constants which are necessary for the simulation from the experimental spectra obtained for plate specimens which is so small that H diffusion is ignorable. Then we confirmed that the model using the obtained rate constants can simulate the spectra of larger cylindrical specimens, so that it was found that the rate constant for small specimens can be used for the simulation of the spectra for specimens of different shape or size.
Kato, Chiaki; Sato, Tomonori; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamagishi, Isao
Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, Vol.2, p.1357 - 1374, 2016/05
With respect to the long-term storage of the zeolite-containing spent Cs adsorption vessels used at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the corrosion of the vessel material is one of the most important issues. In this study, we performed electrochemical tests on stainless steel specimens in zeolite-containing artificial seawater under gamma-ray irradiation. The spontaneous potential ESP and critical pitting potential VC of the type 316L steel in systems in contact with various zeolites were measured in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the steel. In addition, the water sample was analyzed after being irradiated, in order to determine the concentrations of various dissolved oxidants such as oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, which can accelerate the corrosion process. The steady-state rest potential increased with an increase in the dose rate; however, the increase was suppressed in contact with the zeolites. The VC value of the steel when in contact with the zeolites was slightly smaller than the VC value in bulk water; however, the choice of the zeolite used as herschelite, IE96 and IE911 hardly affect the VC value. The concentration of HO in the bulk water under irradiation also increased with the increase in the dose rate. This increase was suppressed in the systems in contact with the zeolites, owing to the decomposition of the HO by the zeolites. A clear relationship was observed between ESP and the HO concentration. As contact with the zeolites caused the increase in ESP under irradiation to be suppressed, it can be concluded that the presence of zeolites in the spent Cs adsorption vessels can reduce the probability of the localized corrosion of the stainless steel in the vessels.
Sasao, Eiji; Yuguchi, Takashi*; Ito, Yasuto*; Inoue, Takashi*; Ishibashi, Masayuki
Proceedings of 10th Asian Regional Conference of International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG ARS 2015) (USB Flash Drive), 6 Pages, 2015/09
Understanding of the fracture network is important for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. We present our hypothesis on the formative mechanism of inhomogeneous distribution of fracture in the Toki Granite. In the Toki Granite, low- and high-angle fractures are abundant at the shallower part, while less at the deeper part where high-angle fracture is dominant. Distribution of the high-angle fracture is inhomogeneous. Thermochronological study revealed that the rapid cooling occurred at the early stage of granite formation. Paleomagnetic directions of the intact granite were dispersed. This suggests granite was plastically deformed during rapid cooling period. The rapid cooling might cause inhomogeneous distribution of cooling strain. When the granite reached to brittle deformation field, inhomogeneous fracture distribution was formed by the inhomogeneous strain. If so, recognition of the cooling history is essential to understand the distribution of the fracture network.
Ishii, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Yuta; Inagaki, Daisuke*
Proceedings of 10th Asian Regional Conference of International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG ARS 2015) (USB Flash Drive), 4 Pages, 2015/09
This manuscript describes unpredicted inflow which occurred during tunnel excavation for a permeable fault zone with clay-rich gouge although the fault zone was pregrouted. Some observational evidence indicates that the gouge was increasingly washed out into the tunnel through the rockbolts penetrating the gouge and the boundary between the shotcrete and the gouge on the excavation side wall during excavation. The resultant piping/erosion of the gouge probably accelerated groundwater flow from the outer aquifer of the pregrouted zone to the tunnel. After an excavation outcrop exposing the fault zone was temporarily shotcreted, major inflow occurred from the nucleated flow channel in the fault zone, breaking the shotcrete. When a fault zone including such clay-rich gouge is pregrouted, washout of the gouge during tunnel excavation should be fully cared because the gouge itself is not cemented by pre-grouting due to its low-porosity.
Zito, P.*; Lampasi, A.*; Novello, L.*; Matsukawa, Makoto; Shimada, Katsuhiro; Portesine, M.*; Fasce, F.*; Cinarelli, D.*; Dorronsoro, A.*; Vian, D.*
Proceedings of IEEE 15th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (IEEE-EEEIC 2015), p.156 - 160, 2015/06
Saito, Hiroshi; Taki, Tomihiro
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 4 Pages, 2013/09
Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center has been managing the Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine. The Mine is subject to environmental remediation to ensure the radiation protection from the exposure pathways to humans in future, and to prevent occurrence of mining pollution. The Yotsugi Mill Tailings Pond is considered as the highest prioritized facility. So far, capping is put on the stable upstream part of the Pond to reduce dose rate, radon exhalation and rainwater precipitation. Prior to its construction, it was decided that the capping are to be multi-layered and natural materials are to be used, and the capping specifications were decided. Also, drainage channels and gabion work are constructed around the capping and at the foot of capping slope, respectively. Monitoring, which will continue for years, has started to confirm the effectiveness of the capping and the data will be utilized for the future remediation of the downstream of the Pond.
Izumo, Sari; Usui, Hideo; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 9 Pages, 2013/09
Tagawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Masahisa
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2013/09
Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Amamoto, Ippei; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto*; Takebe, Hiromichi*; Mitamura, Naoki*; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya*
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 6 Pages, 2013/09
no abstracts in English
Amamoto, Ippei; Kobayashi, Hidekazu; Yokozawa, Takuma; Yamashita, Teruo; Nagai, Takayuki; Kitamura, Naoto*; Takebe, Hiromichi*; Mitamura, Naoki*; Tsuzuki, Tatsuya*
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 8 Pages, 2013/09
The great amount of water used for cooling the stricken power reactors at Fukushima Dai-ichi has resulted in accumulation of "remaining water". As the remaining water is subsequently contaminated by FPs, etc., it is necessary to decontaminate it in order to reduce the volume of liquid radioactive waste and to reuse it again for cooling the reactors. Various techniques are being applied to remove FP, etc. and to make stable waste forms. One of the methods using the iron phosphate glass as a medium is being developed to stabilize the strontium-bearing sludge whose main component is BaSO. From the results hitherto, the iron phosphate glass is regarded as a potential medium for the target sludge.
Irisawa, Keita; Nakagawa, Akinori; Onizawa, Takashi*; Kogawara, Takafumi*; Hanada, Keiji; Meguro, Yoshihiro
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management (ICEM 2013) (CD-ROM), 5 Pages, 2013/09