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Journal Articles

JT-60 control system

Yonekawa, Izuru; Kawamata, Yoichi; Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Akasaka, Hiromi; Sueoka, Michiharu; Kurihara, Kenichi; Kimura, Toyoaki; JT-60U Team

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.521 - 529, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:63.15(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The present status of JT-60 control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system and various modifications since JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces at the beginning, which are replaced to versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces later, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of a plasma discharges are executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. At real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60 experiments.

Journal Articles

Energetic particle experiments in JT-60U and their implications for a fusion reactor

Tobita, Kenji; Kusama, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Koji; Nishitani, Takeo; Kimura, Haruyuki; Kramer, G. J.*; Nemoto, Masahiro*; Kondoh, Takashi; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Morioka, Atsuhiko; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.315 - 326, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:49.24(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Energetic particle experiments in JT-60U are summarized, mainly covering ripple loss and Alfven eigenmodes (AE modes). Significant loss was observed for 85 keV NBI ions and fusion-produced tritons increased when toroidal field ripple at the plasma surface, especially in reversed shear plasma. Measurement of hot spots on the first wall due to ripple loss confirmed agreement with code predictions, validating the modeling incorporated in an orbit-following Monte Carlo code. A variety of AE modes were destabilized in ICRF minority heating and negative-ion-based NBI (N-NBI) heating. Most of the observed modes are gap modes identified to be TAE, EAE and NAE. Interesting finding is pulsating modes accompanying frequency sweep, which were destabilized by N-NBI and sometimes induced a beam ion loss of up to 25%. Also presented are energetic particle issues in auxiliary heating with ICRF and N-NBI.

Journal Articles

Wall conditioning and experience of the carbon-based first wall in JT-60U

Masaki, Kei; Yagyu, Junichi; Arai, Takashi; Kaminaga, Atsushi; Kodama, Kozo; Miya, Naoyuki; Ando, Toshiro; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Saido, Masahiro

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.386 - 395, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:8 Percentile:49.24(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The wall conditioning of JT-60U consists of the 300$$^{circ}$$C baking, He-TDC, He-GDC, tokamak discharge cleaning and boronization. Using these methods, total pressure of the vacuum vessel reached finally 10$$^{-6}$$ $$sim$$ 10$$^{-5}$$ Pa. The oxygen impurity was decreased to $$sim$$0.5%. The experience with the carbon-based first wall showed that taper shaping is effective to reduce the local heat concentration to the tile edges. The observed poloidal asymmetric deposition of carbon on the divertor region implies that the carbon impurity produced in the outer divertor contributes to the deposition on the inner divertor. In 1992 and 1993, the B$$_{4}$$C converted CFC tiles were installed in the outer divertor to reduce chemical sputtering of CFC tiles and oxygen impurity. The reduction was successfully demonstrated with the B$$_{4}$$C converted CFC tiles. In order to understand the tritium behavior in JT-60U, tritium in the first wall and the exhaust gas were measured. The estimated tritium inventory in the first wall was $$sim$$50% of the generated tritium.

Journal Articles

Advanced real-time feedback control in JT-60U high performance discharges for application to fusion reactor plasmas

Fukuda, Takeshi; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Takeji, Satoru; Isayama, Akihiko; Kawano, Yasunori; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Nagashima, Akira; Nishitani, Takeo; Konoshima, Shigeru; Tamai, Hiroshi; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.357 - 367, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:52.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Gas and pellet injection systems for JT-60 and JT-60U

Kizu, Kaname; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Miyo, Yasuhiko; Ichige, Hisashi; Sasajima, Tadayuki; Nishiyama, Tomokazu; Masaki, Kei; Honda, Masao; Miya, Naoyuki; Hosogane, Nobuyuki

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.396 - 409, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:4 Percentile:68.69(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Designs and operations of the gas system and pellet injection systems for JT-60 were described. A gas injection valve that is a key component of the gas injection system was developed using a multi layer piezoelectric element. The maximum flow rate of this system is 43.3 Pam3/s. The valve has mechanism for adjustment at atmospheric side meaning that a repair and an adjustment can be conducted without ventilation inside a vacuum vessel. Two systems of pellet injector; one is pneumatic drive and another is centrifugal one were developed. The pneumatic type attained a pellet velocity of 2.3 km/s, which was the world record at the time in 1988. On the other hand, the centrifugal one was developed in 1998. This injector can eject trains of up to 40 cubic (2.1 mm)3 pellets at frequencies of 1~10 Hz and speed of 0.1~1.0 km/s. A guide tube for a magnetic high field side top injection HFS(top)) was also developed in 1999. The pellet injection experiment with the HFS system started in 2000. In addition, another guide tube for HFS(mid) injection was newly developed and installed in March 2001.

Journal Articles

Diagnostics system of JT-60U

Sugie, Tatsuo; Hatae, Takaki; Koide, Yoshihiko; Fujita, Takaaki; Kusama, Yoshinori; Nishitani, Takeo; Isayama, Akihiko; Sato, Masayasu; Shinohara, Koji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.482 - 511, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:96.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

The diagnostic system of JT-60U (JT-60upgrade) is composed of about 50 individual diagnostic devices. Recently, the detailed radial profile measurements of plasma parameters have been improved, so that the internal structure of plasmas has been explored. The understanding of plasma confinement has been enhanced by density and temperature fluctuation measurements using a mm-wave reflectometer and electron cyclotron emission measurements respectively. In addition, the real-time control experiments of electron density, neutron yield, radiated power and electron temperature gradient have been carried out successfully by corresponding diagnostic devices. These measurements and the real time control contribute to improving plasma performance. Diagnostic devices for next generation fusion devices such as a CO2 laser interferometer/polarimeter and a CO2 laser collective Thomson scattering system have been developed.

Journal Articles

Heat and particle control in JT-60U

Takenaga, Hidenobu; Kubo, Hirotaka; Higashijima, Satoru; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Konoshima, Shigeru; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomohide; Itami, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.327 - 356, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:10 Percentile:81.82(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Magnetohydrodynamic stability of improved confinement plasmas in JT-60U

Takeji, Satoru; Isayama, Akihiko; Ozeki, Takahisa; Tokuda, Shinji; Ishii, Yasutomo; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Ishida, Shinichi; Kamada, Yutaka; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Yoshino, Ryuji; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.278 - 297, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:90.91(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Noninductive current drive and steady-state operation in JT-60U

Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Ide, Shunsuke; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kamada, Yutaka; Fujita, Takaaki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Naito, Osamu; Matsuoka, Mamoru*; Kondoh, Takashi; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.255 - 277, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:6 Percentile:96.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

Studies on non-inductive current drive and development of an integrated steady-state high performance operation in JT-60 are reviewed. Experiments on lower hybrid current drive in JT-60 haven shown a large non-inductive current up to 3.5MA, high current drive efficiency of 3.6x1019m-2A/W. Basic studies on LH waves in JT-60 have contributed to understand current drive physics. Significant progress in neutral beam current drive has been made in JT-60 by testing the performance of negative ion based NBI (N-NBI). The CD efficiency of ~1.5x1019m-2A /W, and N-NB driven current of ~1MA have been demonstrated in N-NBCD. Strongly localized driven current by electron cyclotron current drive was identified with a fundamental O-mode scheme. Efficiency of 0.5x1019m-2A/W and EC driven current of 0.2MA were achieved and suppression of neo-classical tearing mode was demonstrated. Based on these developments, two integrated steady-state operation scenarios were developed in JT-60, which are reversed magnetic shear (R/S) plasmas and high bp ELMy H-mode. In these operation regimes, discharges have been sustained near the steady-state current profile under full non-inductive current drive. High performance plasmas with a high nDotETio and at high normalized density were also produced under fully non-inductive condition in high bp ELMy H-mode and R/S mode.

Journal Articles

Data processing and analysis systems for JT-60U

Matsuda, Toshiaki; Totsuka, Toshiyuki; Tsugita, Tomonori; Oshima, Takayuki; Sakata, Shinya; Sato, Minoru; Iwasaki, Keita*

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.512 - 520, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:3 Percentile:74.88(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Fusion plasma performance and confinement studies on JT-60 and JT-60U

Kamada, Yutaka; Fujita, Takaaki; Ishida, Shinichi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Ide, Shunsuke; Takizuka, Tomonori; Shirai, Hiroshi; Koide, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Takeshi; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.185 - 254, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:27 Percentile:51.52(Nuclear Science & Technology)

With the main aim of providing physics basis for ITER and the steady-state tokamak reactors, JT-60/JT-60U has been developing and optimizing the operational concepts, and extending the discharge regimes toward sustainment of high integrated performance in the reactor relevant parameter regime. In addition to achievement of the equivalent break-even condition (QDTeq up to 1.25) and a high fusion triple product = 1.5E21 m-3skeV, JT-60U has demonstrated the integrated performance of high confinement, high beta-N, full non-inductive current drive with a large fraction of bootstrap current in the reversed magnetic shear and in the high-beta-p ELMy H mode plasmas characterized by both internal and edge transport barriers. The key factors in optimizing these plasmas are profile and shape controls. As represented by discovery of various Internal Transport Barriers, JT-60/JT-60U has been emphasizing freedom and restriction of profiles in various confinement modes. JT-60U has demonstrated applicability of these high confinement modes to ITER and also clarified remaining issues.

Journal Articles

Development and operational experiences of the JT-60U tokamak and power supplies

Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Matsukawa, Makoto; Ando, Toshiro; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Horiike, Hiroshi*; Sakurai, Shinji; Masaki, Kei; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kodama, Kozo; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.368 - 385, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:2 Percentile:81.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

This paper reviews developments of the JT-60U tokamak and coil power supplies and their operational experiences obtained to date. The JT-60U is a large tokamak upgraded from the original JT-60 to obtain high plasma current, large plasma volume and highly elongated divertor configurations. In the modification, all components inside the bore of toroidal magnetic field coils, a vacuum vessel, poloidal magnetic field coils (PF-coils), divertor etc., were renewed. Furthermore, boron carbide converted CFC tiles were used as divertor tiles to reduce erosion of carbon-base tiles. Later, a semi-closed divertor with pumps was installed in the replacement of the open divertor. Various technologies and ideas introduced to develop these components their operational experiences provide important data for designing future tokamaks. Also, major troubles that had influence on the JT-60U operations are described. As a maintenance issue for tokamaks using deuterium fueling gas, a method for reducing radiation exposure of in-vessel workers are introduced.

Journal Articles

Operation and develoment on the positive-ion based neutral beam injection system for JT-60 and JT-60U

Kuriyama, Masaaki; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Honda, Atsushi; Ito, Takao; Kawai, Mikito; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Oga, Tokumichi; Ohara, Hiroshi; Umeda, Naotaka; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.424 - 434, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:31.32(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Operation and development on the 500-keV negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system for JT-60U

Kuriyama, Masaaki; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru; Grisham, L. R.*; Honda, Atsushi; Ito, Takao; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Yoshihiro; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.410 - 423, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:48 Percentile:5.58(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Research and development on the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency heating system in JT-60U

Moriyama, Shinichi; Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Kimura, Haruyuki; Anno, Katsuto; Yokokura, Kenji; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Terakado, Masayuki; Hiranai, Shinichi; Saigusa, Mikio*

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.467 - 481, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:5 Percentile:63.15(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

The 110-GHz electron cyclotron range of frequency system on JT-60U; Design and operation

Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kasugai, Atsushi; Moriyama, Shinichi; Kajiwara, Ken*; Seki, Masami; Tsuneoka, Masaki*; Takahashi, Koji; Anno, Katsuto; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka; Hiranai, Shinichi; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.435 - 451, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:23 Percentile:17.65(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Disruption studies in JT-60U

Kawano, Yasunori; Yoshino, Ryuji; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Nakamura, Yukiharu; Tokuda, Shinji; Tamai, Hiroshi

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.298 - 314, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:9 Percentile:45.41(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

Development and operation of the Lower Hybrid Range of Frequency system on JT-60U

Seki, Masami; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Maebara, Sunao; Moriyama, Shinichi; Naito, Osamu; Anno, Katsuto; Hiranai, Shinichi; Shimono, Mitsugu; Shinozaki, Shinichi; Terakado, Masayuki; et al.

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.452 - 466, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:14 Percentile:31.32(Nuclear Science & Technology)

no abstracts in English

Journal Articles

JT-60 Program

Kitsunezaki, Akio; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Kuriyama, Masaaki; JT-60 Team

Fusion Science and Technology (JT-60 Special Issue), 42(2-3), p.179 - 184, 2002/09

 Times Cited Count:7 Percentile:52.97(Nuclear Science & Technology)

JT-60 has been operating for more than 16 years、since its first plasma in 1985, and has produiced a number of research results at the forefront of world tokamak fusion research. As the first paper of this special issue containing papers on all aspects of JT-60, this paper summerizes the history, the major research objectives and general description on the JT-60 machine, and summarize the results.

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