Kwon, Saerom*; Ota, Masayuki*; Sato, Satoshi*; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro*
Fusion Science and Technology, 72(3), p.362 - 367, 2017/10
Lead is a candidate material as a neutron multiplier, a tritium breeder and a coolant in nuclear fusion reactor system, and a ray shielding for beam dump or shielding of components in accelerator-driven neutron source such as IFMIF. A benchmark experiment on lead with DT neutrons had been performed at JAEA/FNS seven, where the reaction rates related to neutrons below a few keV had included background neutrons scattered in concrete walls of the experiment room. Thus, we designed and carried out a new benchmark experiment with a lead assembly covered with LiO blocks absorbing background neutrons. We successfully measured reaction rates of the non-threshold reactions with the activation foil method. The experiment was analyzed with MCNP code and the latest nuclear data libraries. All the calculated reaction rates (C) tended to underestimate the experimental ones (E) with the depth of the lead assembly. Although reasons of the underestimation have not been specified yet, we discovered that there are remarkable different tendencies of C/Es each reaction rate among the nuclear data libraries.
Iwai, Yasunori; Kubo, Hitoshi*; Oshima, Yusuke*; Noguchi, Hiroshi*; Edao, Yuki; Taniuchi, Junichi*
Fusion Science and Technology, 68(3), p.596 - 600, 2015/10
We have newly developed the hydrophobic platinum honeycomb catalysts applicable to tritium oxidation reactor since the honeycomb-shape catalyst can decrease the pressure drop. Two types of hydrophobic honeycomb catalyst have been test-manufactured. One is the hydrophobic platinum catalyst on a metal honeycomb. The other is the hydrophobic platinum catalyst on a ceramic honeycomb made of silicon carbide. The fine platinum particles around a few nanometers significantly improve the catalytic activity for the oxidation tritium at a tracer concentration. The hydrogen concentration in the gaseous feed slightly affects the overall reaction rate constant for hydrogen oxidation. Due to the competitive adsorption of hydrogen and water molecules on platinum surface, the overall reaction rate constant has the bottom value. The hydrogen concentration for the bottom value is 100 ppm under the dry feed gas. We have experimentally confirmed the activity of these honeycomb catalysts is as good as that of pellet-shape hydrophobic catalyst. The results support the hydrophobic honeycomb catalysts are applicable to tritium oxidation reactor.
Ando, Masami; Nozawa, Takashi; Hirose, Takanori; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Wakai, Eiichi; Stoller, R. E.*; Myers, J.*
Fusion Science and Technology, 68(3), p.648 - 651, 2015/10
Pressurized tubes of F82H and B-doped F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K up to 6dpa have been measured by a laser profilometer. The irradiation creep strain in F82H irradiated at 573 and 673 K was almost linearly dependent on the effective stress level for stresses below 260 MPa and 170 MPa, respectively. The creep strain of BN-F82H was similar to that of F82H IEA at each effective stress level except 294 MPa at 573 K irradiation. For 673 K irradiation, the creep strain of some BN-F82H tubes was larger than that of F82H tubes. It is suggested that a swelling caused in each BN-F82H because small helium babbles might be produced by a reaction of B(n, ) Li.
Higashijima, Satoru; Kamada, Yutaka; Barabaschi, P.*; Shirai, Hiroshi; JT-60SA Team
Fusion Science and Technology, 68(2), p.259 - 266, 2015/09
Someya, Yoji; Tobita, Kenji; Uto, Hiroyasu; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke
Fusion Science and Technology, 68(2), p.423 - 427, 2015/09
The radioactive waste is generated in every replacement of an in-vessel component. Maintenance scheme is to replace the blanket segment and divertor cassette independently, as the lifetime of them is different. The blanket segment consists of some blanket modules mounted to back-plate. Total weight is estimated to amount to about 6,648 ton (1,575 ton of blanket module, 3,777 ton of back-plate, 372 ton of conducting shell and 924 ton of divertor cassette). In base case, main parameters of DEMO reactor are 8.2 m of major radius and 1.35 GW of fusion output. The lifetimes of blanket segment and divertor cassette are assumed to be 2.2 years and 0.6 year, respectively, 52,487 ton wastes is generated in plant life of 20 years. Therefore, there is a concern that a contamination controlled area for the radioactive waste may increase because much the waste is generated in every replacement. In this paper, management scenario is proposed to reduce the radioactive waste. The back-plates and cassette bodies (628 ton) of divertor was reused. As a result, the displacement per atom (DPA) of the back-plates of SUS316L was 0.2 DPA/year and that of the cassette bodies of F82H was 0.6 DPA/year. Therefore, reusing the back-plates and cassette bodies would be possible, if re-welding points are arranged under neutron shielding. It was found that radioactive waste could be reduced to 20%, when tritium breeding materials are recycled. Finally, a design of DEMO building such as a hot cell and temporary storage etc. is proposed.
Kawamoto, Yasuko*; Nakaya, Hiroyuki*; Matsuura, Hideaki*; Katayama, Kazunari*; Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki
Fusion Science and Technology, 68(2), p.397 - 401, 2015/09
To start up a fusion reactor, it is necessary to provide a sufficient amount of tritium from an external device. Herein, methods for supplying a fusion reactor with tritium are discussed. Use of a high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) as a tritium production device has been proposed. So far, the analyses have been focused only on the operation in which fuel is periodically exchanged (batch) using the block type HTGR. In the pebble bed type HTGR, it is possible to design an operation that has no time loss for refueling. The pebble bed type HTGR (PBMR) and the block type HTGR (GTHTR300) are assumed as the calculation and comparison targets. Simulation is made using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code MVPBURN. It is shown that the continuous operation using the pebble bed type HTGR has almost the same tritium productivity compared with the batch operation using the block type HGTR. The issues for pebble bed type HTGR as a tritium production device are discussed.
Hada, Kazuyoshi*; Nagasaki, Kazunobu*; Masuda, Kai*; Kobayashi, Shinji*; Ide, Shunsuke; Isayama, Akihiko; Kajiwara, Ken
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(4), p.693 - 704, 2015/05
no abstracts in English
Takahashi, Koji; Kajiwara, Ken; Oda, Yasuhisa; Sakamoto, Keishi; Omori, Toshimichi*; Henderson, M.*
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(4), p.718 - 731, 2015/05
Development of an electron cyclotron (EC) equatorial launcher has been undergoing a series of prototype tests and design enhancements intending to improve reliability and functionality of the launcher. The design enhancements include adaptation of the launcher steering angles such that one of three beam rows of the launcher is necessary flipped to perform counter current drive (to conform to a new ITER physics requirement). Also the top and bottom steering rows have been tilted with angle of 5 so that the top and bottom beam row can access from on axis to near mid-radius. Furthermore, the position of the focusing mirror that forms a quasi-optical in-vessel millimeter wave transmission line is modified to increase the nuclear shielding capability. High power experiment of the mm-wave launching system mock-up fabricated in basis of the design confirmed the successful steering capability of 2040. It was measured that some of stray RF propagated in the beam duct and generated some heat on the duct at a certain condition of mm-wave transmission. Prototype tests also include the fabrication of the blanket shield module and the partial port plug mock-up and have shown no serious technological issue on the fabrication and the cooling functionality.
Oyaizu, Makoto; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Hayashi, Takumi
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(3), p.519 - 522, 2015/04
The effects of tritiated water on the corrosion behavior of chromium were electrochemically studied by anodic polarization measurements with changing tritium concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration as parameters in the electrolyte of 0.01N sulfuric acid solution, self-passivation due to dissolved oxygen could be observed in pure water without tritium. As a result, it was found that the self-passivation was inhibited in tritiated electrolyte as shown in the previous studies for SUS304 stainless steel. It is indicated from the result that the passivation inhibitory effect for SUS304 stainless steel could be induced by dissolution of chromium in passivation film on SUS304 stainless steel.
Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Edao, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshinori
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.386 - 389, 2015/03
Demonstration power reactors (DEMOs) require advanced tritium breeders that have high stability at high temperatures. Therefore, the pebble fabrication of LiTiO with excess Li (LiTiO) as an advanced tritium breeder was carried out. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed. DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. The LiTiO pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the LiTiO pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water.
Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi; Kurata, Rie; Oyaizu, Makoto; Edao, Yuki; et al.
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.365 - 370, 2015/03
Edao, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Kurata, Rie; Fukada, Satoshi*; Takeishi, Toshiharu*; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.320 - 323, 2015/03
The present study aims at obtaining fundamental knowledge for tritium transfer behavior and interaction between tritium and paint coated on concrete walls. The amounts of tritium penetration and release in cement paste with epoxy and urethane paint coatings were measured. The tritium penetration amounts were increased with the HTO exposure time. Time to achieve each saturate tritium value was more than 60 days for cement paste coated with epoxy paint and with urethane paint, while cement paste without paint took 2 days to achieve it. Tritium penetration rates were estimated by an analysis of diffusion model. Although their paint coatings were effective for reduction of tritium penetration through the cement paste exposed to HTO for a short period, the amount of tritium trapped in the paints became large for a long time. This work has been performed under the collaboration research between JAEA and Kyushu University.
Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Torikai, Yuji*; Saito, Makiko; Alimov, V. Kh.*; Miya, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Yoshitaka
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.428 - 431, 2015/03
Disassembly of the JT-60U torus was started in 2010 after 18 years deuterium operations. In the disassembly of the JT-60U torus, tritium retention in the vacuum vessel of the JT-60U is one of the most important safety issues for the fusion reactor. It was very important to study the tritium behavior in Inconel 625 from viewpoint of the clearance procedure in the future plan. After the tritium release for about 1 year at 298 K, the residual tritium in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K, and then the residual tritium in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, most of tritium in the specimen was released during 1 year.
Fukada, Satoshi*; Katayama, Kazunari*; Takeishi, Toshiharu*; Edao, Yuki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko
Fusion Science and Technology, 67(2), p.99 - 102, 2015/03
Nakamichi, Masaru; Kim, Jae-Hwan
Fusion Science and Technology, 66, p.157 - 162, 2014/08
Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko
Fusion Science and Technology, 66(1), p.214 - 220, 2014/07
We have developed a honeycomb Pd catalyst applicable for the oxidation of the tritiated hydrocarbons. In this study, honeycomb Pd catalysts of three different densities, 2, 5 and 10 g/L, were prepared to investigate the effect of density on reaction rate. Tritiated methane was selected as a typical hydrocarbon. Overall reaction rate constant for tritiated methane oxidation on honeycomb Pd catalyst were determined with a flow-through system as a function of space velocity from 1000 to 6300 h, methane concentration in carrier from 0.004 to 100 ppm, temperature of catalyst from 322 to 673 K. The density of palladium deposited on the base material had little effect on reaction rate for tritiated methane oxidation. The overall reaction rate constant was proportional to the space velocity. The overall reaction rate constant was independent on the methane concentration when it was less than 10 ppm.
Wakai, Eiichi; Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Ida, Mizuho*; Ito, Yuzuru; Niitsuma, Shigeto; Edao, Yuki; et al.
Fusion Science and Technology, 66(1), p.46 - 56, 2014/07
Kwon, S.*; Sato, Satoshi; Kasada, Ryuta*; Konishi, Satoshi*
Fusion Science and Technology, 64(3), p.599 - 603, 2013/09
Tritium production/breeding behavior in LiPb blanket module was evaluated by neutron transport code MCNP with nuclear cross-section data from FENDL-2.1 libraries. The calculation results were suggested that the sufficient TBR can be obtained in the SiC-LiPb blanket concept. A proper integral experiment on LiPb with DT neutrons in a small test module was evaluated. Also, tritium breeding ratio, tritium production ratio, proper neutron shielding material and nuclear heating in the module were evaluated. With the results of TPR and actual neutron generation devices, we have proposed the plan of the integral experiment and measurable tritium amount.
Fusion Science and Technology, 64(2), p.86 - 95, 2013/08
Five years have passed since the Broader Approach (BA) activities launched in 2007 under the framework of collaboration between Japan and EURATOM. In a DEMO R&D Building in the IFERC site in Rokkasho, tritium facility, beryllium treatment facility, and microscopic measurement facility were installed in 2010. The tritium was delivered in March 2012. A supercomputer for the simulation of fusion plasmas and other application of the BA activities starts operation in January 2012. It demonstrated LINPAC speeds of more than 1.2 PFlops. Accelerator components for IFMIF/EVEDA are being fabricated in European institutes. The injector is now under commissioning in CEA Saclay, and will be delivered in Rokkasho in March 2013. The IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop was constructed in Oarai, Japan, in 2011 and starts operation in May 2012. The JT-60 tokamak is being disassembled and upgraded to an advanced superconducting tokamak JT-60SA. Manufacturing of tokamak components is now in progress.
Pitcher, C. S.*; Barnsley, R.*; Bertalot, L.*; Encheva, A.*; Feder, R.*; Friconneau, J. P.*; Hu, Q.*; Levesy, B.*; Loesser, G. D.*; Lyublin, B.*; et al.
Fusion Science and Technology, 64(2), p.118 - 125, 2013/08
The port-based plasma diagnostic infrastructure on ITER is described, including the port plugs, the interspace support structure and port cell structure. These systems are modular in nature with standardized dimensions. The design of the equatorial and upper port plugs and their modules is discussed, as well as the dominant loading mechanisms. The port infrastructure design has now matured to the point that port plugs are now being populated with multiple diagnostics supplied by a number of ITER partners - two port plug examples are given.